Method to manufacture armoured sheets from (alpha+beta)-titanium alloy and items from it

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to rolling and may be used in manufacturing of armoured sheets from (α+β)-titanium alloy. The method to manufacture armoured sheets from (α+β)-titanium alloy includes preparation of charge, melting of a bar with the following composition, wt %: 3.0-6.0 Al; 2.8-4.5 V; 1.0-2.2 Fe; 0.3-0.7 Mo; 0.2-0.6 Cr; 0.12-0.3 O; 0.010-0.045 C; <0.05 N; <0.05 H;<0.15 Si; <0.8 Ni; balance - titanium. Further the bar is shaped into a slab, which is mechanically processed and rolled for semi-finished rolled products, the semi-finished rolled products are cut into stocks and rolled in stages for sheets, and then thermal treatment is carried out.

EFFECT: sheets are characterised by high strength and ballistic properties.

3 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl

 

A method of manufacturing the armor plates from the (α+β)-titanium alloy and articles thereof.

The invention relates to the field of metal forming, namely to rolling production, and can be used in the manufacture of armor plates from the (α+β) titanium alloy used in aircraft and shipbuilding, production of armored ground vehicles, personal armor, and other objects of civil and special purposes.

The armor plates should have optimum combination of certain properties, namely to possess enhanced strength and plastic characteristics, have viscous structure of the metal, sufficient to provide the required ballistic protection level. Equally important is the stability and reproducibility of these properties (in time).

It should be noted that the armor plates of alloys based on titanium are not only used where required resistance to ballistic impact, but also in cases where important factors are the reduced weight, high corrosion resistance, weldability.

At least in the 1950s, it was discovered that titanium has properties that make it attractive for use as structural armor from defeat ballistic� the indenters (shells, bullets, shrapnel). Conducted relevant studies of titanium alloys for this purpose. One well-known titanium alloy suitable for use as ballistic armor, is an alloy Ti-6Al-4V, which nominally contains titanium, 6 wt. % aluminum, 4 wt. % vanadium and is usually less than 0.20 wt. % of oxygen. Another titanium alloy used as ballistic armor, contains 6.0 wt. % aluminum, 2.0 wt. % iron, a relatively small amount of oxygen to 0.18 wt. %, less than 0.1 wt. % vanadium, and possibly other elements in trace amounts. Next a titanium alloy that has proved itself as suitable for use as ballistic armor, is an alpha-beta (α+β)-titanium alloy described in U.S. patent No. 5980655, issued November 9, 1999 in the name Kosaka (Kosaka). The alloy contains, in percent by weight, from about 2.9 to about 5.0 aluminum, from about 2.0 to about 3.0 vanadium, from about 0.4 to about to 2.0 iron, from 0.2 to about 0.3 oxygen, from about 0.005 to about 0.03 carbon, from about 0.001 to about 0.02 nitrogen, and less than about 0.5 of other elements.

The armor plates made of the above-mentioned titanium alloys, meet US standards for V50established by the military to denote ballistic characteristics. These standards comprise, for example, MIL-DTL-96077F "Detailed specification of welded armor plate of a titanium alloy". V50is the average speed of a projectile of a certain type needed for its penetration into the slab of alloy, having specified dimensions and located in a certain way relative to the point of launch of the projectile, in which the probability of no penetration of the barrier is 50%.

The above-mentioned titanium alloys used for the manufacture of ballistic armour, as in the evaluation in relation to other types of projectiles, these titanium alloys provide better ballistic characteristics than steel or aluminum, with less weight (compared to steel about 25%). The new steel armor alloys (for example, patent RF №2236482, No. 2185460, No. 2400558) significantly neutralized this advantage (no more than 5-10%). Due to the significantly higher cost of titanium mill products compared to steel and aluminum (by value flat products of high strength aluminum alloys is approximately 5 times, and titanium 25 times the cost of steel armor steel), and also due to the reduction of benefits in bullet-resistance of titanium alloys has not received wide application.

Known inexpensive alpha-beta alloy based on titanium with Ho�oshimi ballistic and mechanical properties comprising, wt. %: aluminum 4,2-5,4%, vanadium of 2.5-3.5%, iron 0.5 to 0.7%, oxygen 0,15-0,19% and the rest is titanium and incidental impurities. The armor plates and plates of this alloy were manufactured according to the following scheme: preparation of raw material→melting and casting of the ingot→forging and rolling at a temperature above the transition temperature in the beta phase→forging and rolling at a temperature below the transition temperature in the beta phase→annealing at a temperature below the transition temperature in the beta phase. This alloy can be made from a combination of secondary and/or primary raw materials (international publication number WO 2012/054125 A2) is a prototype.

Ballistic properties of the alloy slightly superior ballistic properties of the alloy Ti-6Al-4V, about 0.6 to 1.0%, the alloy is economical and has high technological properties during rolling.

As practice shows, the armor plates of titanium alloys mentioned above have their unique merits and demerits. In particular, they ignored one of the major drawbacks of titanium alloys, which manifests itself when using them as armor materials, namely, that in titanium alloys under dynamic loading, the active processes of shear along the planes of easy slip and twinning, as determined by crystallographic deformation mechanism of titanium alloys. All this u�igodit to high localization of plastic deformation, and, as a consequence, the introduction of the bullet is only 1/3 of the thickness of titanium mill products (currently known alloys) is "cut tube" that can not realize a high dynamic hardness of titanium armor.

Task to be solved by the present invention is to provide a method of manufacturing the armor plates from the (α+β)-titanium alloy and products for personal protection, mortgages or hinged elements of the booking, cabinets, etc., which are characterized by lower weight, increased strength and ballistic properties as well as low cost.

The technical result of the invention is to provide armor plates from the (α+β)-titanium alloy having excellent strength and ballistic properties through the optimal selection of alloying elements, and regulated multi-component structure in the resulting products, which prevents localization of plastic deformation, improves the dynamic hardness, and decrease the cost of products is achieved through the involvement of scrap waste materials titanium alloys and low-grade titanium sponge with high content of iron and oxygen.

Said technical result is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing a leaf armour� from (α+β)-titanium alloy, including the preparation of the charge, ingot smelting, deformation of the ingot into a slab, machining of the slab, rolling the slab at tackle, cutting rolled into billets, rolling of billets into sheets and heat treatment, smelted ingot containing, wt. %: 3,0-6,0 Al; 2.8 to 4.5 V; 1,0-2,2 Fe; 0.3-0.7 Mo; 0.2 to 0.6 Cr; 0,12-0,3; 0,010-0,045;<0,05 N;<0.05 N;<0,15 Si;<0,8 Ni; the rest is titanium, rolling of billets produced by stages: in the first stage are rolling in the longitudinal direction in the β-region after heating to a temperature by at least 50°C higher than the temperature of polymorphic transformation (TPP), in the second stage are rolling in the longitudinal direction in the (α+β)-region after heating, at least to a temperature of 20°C below TPPon the third stage are cross-rolling in the β-region after heating to a temperature at least 50°C above TPPin the fourth stage are rolling in the longitudinal direction in the (α+β)-region after heating to a temperature at least 20°C below TPPwith deformation up to 50%, and heat treatment comprises hardening by heating to a temperature of 50-130°C below TPP, cooling in water and artificial aging at a temperature 540-710°C aged for 4-8 hours.

Reducing the cost of manufacture of armor plates, and consequently products, achieved a total involvement in the batch to 65% Titus�new waste and cheap titanium sponge, for example sponge grade TG-TV.

Products made of armor plates on the basis of a titanium alloy containing, wt. %: 3,0-6,0 Al; 2.8 to 4.5 V; 1,0-2,2 Fe; 0.3-0.7 Mo; 0.2 to 0.6 Cr; 0,12-0,3; 0,010-0,045;<0,05 N;<0.05 N;<0,15 Si;<0,8 Ni; the rest is titanium, it is preferable to use for personal protection, mortgages or hinged elements of the booking, cabinets, etc., which are increased requirements for strength, ballistic properties and weight, and also has low cost and possibility of application in mass production.

The alloy is within the boundaries of the compositions according to the invention contain as an essential element aluminum. If the aluminum content is less than 3.0%, it will not be provided with sufficient strength. On the other hand, if the aluminum content exceeds 6.0 percent, then there is an undesirable decrease in plasticity.

Vanadium and iron are β-stabilizing elements that increase the strength of the alloy, and within these limits practically do not reduce the ductility. The content of vanadium in the inventive alloy in comparison with the prototype is changed in the direction of increasing concentration in the range of 2.8 to 4.5%, which improves the strength properties of the alloy.

When the content of vanadium greater than 4.5% is undesirable reduction of plasticity.

The content of VC�for also significantly increased to 1.2 to 2.2%, in excess of the content of more than 2.2% is undesirable reduction in the ductility of the alloy.

The introduction of molybdenum in the range of 0.3-0.7% provides complete solubility in α-phase, which allows to obtain the necessary strength characteristics without reducing plastic properties. If the molybdenum content exceeds 0.7%, increasing the proportion of the alloy due to the fact that molybdenum is a heavy metal, and also reduces the plastic properties of the alloy.

In the inventive alloy in a small amount is present β-stabilizing element is chromium, which is also aimed at increasing the strength of the alloy. The chromium content in the range of 0,2%-0,6% allows to increase the strength properties without reducing ductility.

Nitrogen, oxygen and carbon raise the temperature allotropical turning titanium and mostly present in industrial titanium alloys in the form of impurities. The impact of these impurities on the properties of manufactured of titanium alloys is of such significance that should specifically be taken into account in the calculation of the charge to obtain the mechanical properties in the desired range. The presence in the alloy of nitrogen <0.05 per cent, of oxygen from 0.12 to 0.3% carbon 0.01-0.025% has no significant impact on the reduction of thermal stability, creep resistance and toughness.

Forging the ingot into a slab cast destroys structure�round and allows to prepare the microstructure (crushed grain) for the subsequent rolling of the slab in the β-region.

Rolling in the β-region after heating to a temperature above 50°C the temperature of polymorphic transformation (TPP), has the objective to create a structure in which the original grain is elongated along the direction of rolling.

Subsequent rolling in (α+β)-region after heating to a temperature at least 20°C below TPP,ensures the destruction of polypeptide grain boundaries, increases the density of dislocations, i.e. is strain hardening, as a result, when these modes, the metal reported a sufficient amount of stored energy, the so-called "semihot work hardening", which is the driving force for recrystallization of β-phase upon subsequent heating to a temperature of β-region.

Further rolling is produced in the β-region when heated to a temperature at least 50°C above TPPis held in the transverse direction. At this stage in the process of dynamic recrystallization regions and heterogeneity largely form the necessary structure of the armor plates and slabs, grinding grain, and transverse rolling helps to reduce the anisotropy of mechanical properties.

During the final rolling in (α+β)-region at temperatures below TPPby at least 20°C, with a deformation degree of 60% there is a weak deformation plate� microstructure, which when followed thermoproteales processing provides a good combination of toughness and strength.

Hardening heat treatment to obtain regulated by the strength and plastic properties is performed in the following mode: the hardening is performed by heating to a temperature of 40-120°C below TPPwith cooling in water and artificial aging is carried out at a temperature 540-710°C with a dwell time of 4-8 hours.

After heat treatment, the final formation of multicomponent optimal globular-lamellar structure of the material that improves the mechanical properties of the alloy and prevent the localization of plastic deformation in the process of defeat ballistic indenters products.

Modes and processing parameters were established during the experiments, based on achievement of the best indicators of the process.

An example of a specific implementation.

Were fabricated from titanium alloys having the compositions shown in table 1 below. To the mixture were involved up to 40% of titanium waste in the form of chips and bulk waste titanium alloys (grades Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al, VST 5553) and up to 60% titanium sponge grade TG-TV.

In accordance with the requirements of the claimed method were fabricated armor plate thickness of 9 mm. Mechanical�ski properties of the samples are shown in table 2.

Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 (tables 4 and 5) shows the structure of samples and photographs of the results of ballistic tests. For a quantitative comparison of the properties of the armor plates manufactured by the claimed method and the prototype was evaluated in accordance with the US standard MIL-DTL-96077F at V50established by the military to denote ballistic characteristics. Data taken from the prototype description of the invention (international publication number WO 2012/054125 A2).

Ballistic testing of a claimed samples was conducted according to the requirements for class 5 protection in accordance with the requirements of the 50744-95 "Broneodezhda. Classification and General technical requirements". GOST requires personal class 5 body armour not penetrated the ammunition according to table 3.

The armor plates made of the above-mentioned titanium alloys satisfy the requirements of the 50744-95 and US standards for V50established by the military to denote ballistic characteristics.

Energy of the collision of the bullet with armor were calculated according to the formula:

where e is the kinetic energy of the bullet, j;

m is the mass of the bullet, kg;

V - muzzle velocity, m/s.

As can be seen from tables 4 and 5, samples of sheet armor t�lineu 9 mm, made according to the claimed technology from an alloy containing, wt. %: 3,0-6,0 Al; 2.8 to 4.5 V; 1,0-2,2 Fe; 0.3-0.7 Mo; 0.2 to 0.6 Cr; 0,12-0,3; 0,010-0,045;<0,05 N;<0.05 N;<0,15 Si;<0,8 Ni; the rest is titanium, fully meet the requirements of GOST R-95.

In accordance with the prototype to correctly compare the samples No. 1 and No. 3, because they were tested cartridges, with similar properties in hardness, the core cartridge AR M2 has a hardness of 60 HRC, core AKM - 56 HRC. In comparison with the prototype, the decrease of the weight of body armor when using the claimed alloy of at least 17.4% (9.0 mm vs. 10.9 mm), however, note that when testing AKM spent energy on collision was higher ARM 12%.

The effect of increasing the ballistic properties of the samples according to the claimed invention, due to the optimal doping of the alloy and the selection of modes of thermomechanical processing, which allowed to create in products regulated multicomponent structure (globular plate, which prevents the localization of plastic deformation, improves the dynamic hardness and provides excellent strength and ballistic properties.

You need to understand that the products of the present invention can be implemented in various embodiments. See the description of the incarnation in all respects should be addressed�ü only as illustrative, and not restrictive, and the boundaries of the present invention are shown by the claims.

1. A method of manufacturing the armor plates from the (α+β)-titanium alloy, including the preparation of the charge, ingot smelting, deformation of the ingot into a slab, machining of the slab, rolling the slab at tackle, cutting rolled into billets, rolling of billets into sheets and heat treatment, characterized in that the smelted ingot containing, wt. %: 3,0-6,0 Al; 2.8 to 4.5 V; 1,0-2,2 Fe; 0,3-0,7 Mo; 0.2 to 0.6 Cr; 0,12-0,3; 0,010-0,045; <0,05 N; <0.05 N; <0,15 Si; <0,8 Ni; the rest is titanium, rolling of billets produced by stages, and in the first stage are rolling in the longitudinal direction in the β-region after heating to a temperature at least 50°C higher than the temperature of polymorphic transformation (TPP), in the second stage are rolling in the longitudinal direction in the (α +β)-region after heating, at least to a temperature of 20°C below TPPon the third stage are cross-rolling in the β-region after heating to a temperature at least 50°C above TPPat the fourth stage are rolling in the longitudinal direction in the (α+β)-region after heating to a temperature at least 20°C below TPPwith deformation up to 50%, and heat treatment comprises hardening by heating to a temperature of 50-130°C below TPP, ohlazhdenie�m in water and artificial aging at a temperature 540-710°C aged for 4-8 hours.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the preparation of the charge uses a total of up to 65% of titanium waste and titanium sponge.

3. The product of the armor plates from the (α+β)-titanium alloy, characterized in that it is made of armor plates obtained by the method according to any one of claims. 1-2.



 

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