Method and device for measurement of initial shift of liquid in small diameter pipeline
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of measurement of voltage of initial shift (plasticity) of liquids in pipelines, for example milk in hoses of milking machines. The offered method of measurement of voltage of shift of milk column consists in that using one pressuriser the water column pressure h1 = 20 - 25 mm is pre-set in a glass vessel connected by piping with a differential water manometer and a capillary, and the capillary piping is locked by a clip, and using the second pressuriser the portion of milk is sucked into the capillary to the column length l0 = by 1 - 2 cm, then the pipeline is locked by a clip, the water column h2 = 25 - 30 mm is established, the clip is unlocked. Meanwhile, using a stop watch the time of shift of milk column t1 under the action of h1 pressure is measured, and then the time of shift of the milk column t2 under the action of the pressure h2 is measured. The voltage of initial shift τ0 is determined by the formula τ0=9.8(D/4l0)(t1 _t2)(t1/h1-t2/h2), where D - diameter of the capillary, mm. The device for measurement of voltage of shift of milk column contains the pressuriser connected with piping with the differential water manometer and glass vessel to which the horizontally located capillary and the second pressuriser is connected, and the piping from the vessel to the capillary and to the second supercharger is designed with a possibility of locking by a clip.
EFFECT: group of inventions is aimed at decrease of labour costs and improvement of accuracy of determination of voltage of initial shift of controlled liquid.
2 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the field of technology and devices for measuring the voltage of the initial shift (plasticity) of liquids in the pipeline, for example milk in the milking machine hoses.
The purpose of the method and apparatus: control education, air and milk tubes in dairy milking machines hoses and development of measures for their prevention.
The known method of measuring the pressure in the pipeline during transportation of the fluid using the differential pressure sensor, one input of which is connected directly to the pipeline, and the second input is connected via a controllable valve to the pipeline in the same section, remember the pressure is on when the controller valve and measure the pressure change in relation to the stored value of the pressure in the pipeline.
A device for measuring the pressure in the pipeline during transportation of liquid containing one sensor input, which is controlling who is directly connected to the pipeline in a controlled cross-section, and the second input is connected to the same pipeline cross-section through a controllable valve for memorizing the pressure in the pipeline prior to its measurement (prototype EN 2426080 C1, 30/04/2010, G01L 13/02).
Summary of the invention
The invention is directed to a solution to the issue of control and regulation p�of ocesa to exclude the possibility of formation of air-mammary tubes in dairy hoses prevented the flow of milk when milking cows.
As a prototype of the inventive method for measuring the change of pressure in the pipeline during transportation of liquids and device for its implementation, namely the use of a differential sensor.
The disadvantage of the prototype is the impossibility of measuring the time of motion of the liquid and determining the voltage of the initial shift. In addition, the limit of measurement of the pressure change is complex and high labor costs.
The objective of the present method and device is the reduction of labor costs in the measurement, and the simplification and achieving high process accuracy in the measurement of the initial voltage shift of milk in the ducts in the process of milking to exclude the factor of inhibition during its motion.
The technical result of the method and device is the removal of the counter while milking due to the need for increased maintenance work for removing the viscous air and milk tubes.
This technical result is achieved in that in the method base is the movement of the column of milk in the horizontal capillary under the action of the generated constant pressure and time measurement of the motion, and the proposed device consists of a glass tank� with holes in the tube for connection of piping from the supercharger and capillary to create a certain pressure in the vessel, differential water gauge and capillary.
The described device is illustrated by drawings (Fig.1).
The device includes a compressor 2, connected by a piping system with differential pressure gauge 3 and the glass container 1 with tube 7 with two holes for the piping.
With the same capacity is associated horizontal capillary 5 and a blower 6 for installation of the column of liquid in the capillary 5. The pipeline from the tank 1 to the die 5 and the compressor 6 is covered by the clamp 4. In the specified set included stopwatch 8.
The device operates as follows.
By the blower 2 in the glass container 1 is pressurized h1=20...25 mm; h2=20...30 mm water column, measured differential pressure gauge 3. Clip 4 overlaps the tubing to the capillary 5.
By the blower 6 entered by the suction portion of the milk in the capillary 5 and install it in a horizontal position. Introduced volume of milk in the capillary must be a column of fluid of length l0=1...2 cm
Sliding clamp 4. As a result, under the action of pressure h1in the tank 1, the column of milk in the capillary is moved, the duration of the movement t1fixate stopwatch 8. Then measure the time t2shift milk bar under the action of another pressure h2, food�length of its movement is fixed.
The initial shear stress in Pascals is estimated according to the formula
where D is the diameter of the capillary, mm.
This shear stress is equal to tenths of Pascal, but its value makes a significant contribution to the determination of the amount of vacuum pressure in the milk pipeline milking machines.
1. A method of measuring the shear stress of the column of milk, characterized in that it is pre-installed with a single supercharger pressure h1= 20 ... 25 mm water column in the glass container, connected by pipelines with differential pressure gauge and a capillary, and the capillary tubing is covered by the clamp, and using a second supercharger is absorbed into the capillary portion of milk to the length of the column l0= 1 ... 2 cm, after which the pipeline is covered by the clamp, set (h2= 25 ... 30 mm water column, the clamp is moved apart, measure the time-shift milk bar t1under the pressure of the h1fixed stopwatch, and time-shift milk bar t2under the pressure of the h2recorded by stopwatch, and the initial voltage shift of t0is determined by the formula t0=9.8(D/4l0)(t1-t2)(t1/h1-t2/h2), where D is the diameter Kapil�Yar, mm.
2. Device for measuring the shear stress of the column of milk, characterized in that it comprises a blower associated with the piping system with differential pressure gauge and a glass container attached to a horizontal capillary and the second supercharger, and the piping from the tank to the capillary and the second unit is made with the possibility of overlap of the clamp.
FIELD: rescue equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reducers of breathing apparatus. The reducer has a housing and three chamber made in it separated by the walls: high-pressure chamber (HPC) and the reduced pressure chamber (RPC), separated by the first wall, the control chamber (CC) separated with the second wall from the RPC; the seat with a hole in the first wall; the partition with a movable plunger and a valve located in the RPC, separating the CC to piston and annular cavities; first channel connecting the RPC with piston cavity of the CC; the second channel connecting the annular cavity of the CC with the environment, the third channel with a throttle, which connects the RPC with the annular cavity of the CC, a check valve connected to the second channel. The method of regulating the gas flow in the reducer comprises supplying gas to the HPC, displacement of the plunger with the valve and forming a gap between the seat and the valve; entering the gas flow from the HPC and the RPC, accordingly, to the gas consumer; entering the gas flow from the RPC to the CC through the first channel; moving the partition with the plunger and the valve under the action of the gas pressure difference on them, changing the gap between the seat and the sealing element of the valve; flowing of gas from the HPC through the third channel with a throttle in the annular cavity of the CC, moving the partition with the plunger and the valve, and changing the gap between the valve and the seat, regulation of supply and pressure of the gas entering the RPC and the consumer.
EFFECT: providing regulation of a gas flow in the reducer with the given value of the reduced pressure of gas at small amplitude of the pressure oscillations.
8 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of horticulture, namely to control means to assess the physical and mechanical properties of berries. The device consists of a portable housing with control buttons located in it, alphanumeric LCD display, force measuring sensor connected to the electrical measuring device provided with a peak detector and compensator of packaging, as well as a grip for berries mechanically connected to the force measuring sensor through the rod force distributor and made in the form of a hinged fixed and spring-loaded movable gripping cup-shaped jaws, and a control device of gripping berries fixed to the housing, and kinematically connected to the shank of the movable gripping cup-shaped jaw for providing opening and closing the gripping jaws. In addition, the device comprises a movable spring-loaded pressure rod arranged so that its pressure surface is located between the gripping cup-shaped jaws and in its motion without berries there is no mechanical contact with the elements of gripping berries, and in the presence of fruit between the gripping jaws, it presses it with its pressure surface to its the inner surface of the gripping jaws, a mechanical actuator of the pressure rod mounted on the portable housing, and the device of determining the coefficient of relative strength of berries.
EFFECT: device provides improved performance in carrying out control operations by combining the operations.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: in the formula
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs in the determination of pressure of safety valve opening start without the valves' demounting from a pipeline by means of measuring the forces required to open the valves at two different pressures in their inner cavity and by the following calculation of pressure of safety valve opening start.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flow regulators, particularly, to flow regulators with bowl-shape seat. Regulator consists of valve body to define fluid flow and valve seat, drive case engaged with valve body, control member arranged in drive case and adapted to displacement relative to valve body and valve seat for regulation of fluid flow at displacement between open position and closed position whereat said control member engages with valve seat, and spring articulated with control member to displace the latter to open position. Said control member has the surface directed to valve seat and furnished with recess. Recess can be reamed, or concave, or conical or have any other suitable surface.
EFFECT: higher reliability, perfected adjustment.
19 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: reference sample comprises a metal base with a central zone of reference complex stressed condition through the base thickness. At the edges of the base at one or different sides there is one or several zones of pad welds from another metal, coefficient of linear expansion and yield point of which is lower than the coefficient of linear expansion and yield point of the base metal. The base is first exposed to high-temperature tempering, afterwards control marks or a grid of measurement bases are applied onto surfaces of the central zone of the base at two sides, for two test measurements after high-temperature tempering of the base before applying pad welds and in the end of thermal treatment of the base already with pad welds. The form of the base, locations of pad welds and the mode of thermal treatment are defined in advance as a result of computer simulation modelling by the method of finite elements with account of grades of the base metal and pad welds metals and the required reference complex stressed condition of the central zone of the base through its thickness.
EFFECT: increased validity of results of measurements of mechanical stresses in cross sections of various thick-walled metal structures.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of determining tangential stress in steel pipelines involves making a sample in form of a hollow cylinder from the same material as the structure; step by step loading of the sample; measuring coercitive force indicators at each loading step, with a defined orientation of magnetic flux generated in the coersimeter relative the sample; obtaining a relationship between the coercitive force indicators and values of stress in the sample; measuring the coercitive force indicators of the metal of the structure; determining stress values using the obtained relationship; tangential stress in the sample is generated by applying torque to the sample; the coercitive force is measured along the axis of the sample or the pipeline twice, while directing magnetic flux in opposite directions. The coercitive force indicator used when determining tangential stress is the magnitude of the difference between measured values of the coercitive force.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining tangential stress in surface steel pipelines.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining residual hardening stresses involves hardening of samples and determination of residual hardening stresses; at that, a pack is formed of plates of similar size, which are numbered and marked in advance; then, the above pack is subject to hardening; after that, plate bending deformations are measured in two planes, as per which residual hardening stresses are calculated.
EFFECT: improving accuracy of determination of residual hardening stresses.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to determination of the stress-strain state of metal structures of high-risk facilities in the oil, gas and chemical industry, transportation systems and oil and gas processing using brittle strain-sensitive coatings, which enables to obtain a clear picture of the highest stress concentration and obtain data for evaluating strength of potentially hazardous structures. The brittle coating for deformation and stress analysis is made from a mixture containing water and sugar, with the following ratio of components, wt %: water 65-75, sugar 25-35.
EFFECT: reduced harmful effect on the environment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building. Load limiter comprises force transducer and electronic device to generate warning signal of interlocking the load lifting mechanism actuator in machine reloading. Force transducer converts the force acting threat into pressure and, further, into electric signal and comprises base and loose piston separated by layer of elastomer. Transducer is composed of, particularly, false cradle of automatic hydro lifter or is adapted for fitting under traveler winch drum support body and may be shaped to a ring or parallelepiped with holes for attached at the machine. Said transducer can incorporate several pressure transducers to define mean load and load application point with generation of data or control signals. Clearance between sidewall of loose piston and base inner sidewall is selected to prevent extrusion of elastomer while its length is selected to protect against lateral loads. Electronic device is built around microcontroller and incorporates output device and wire or wireless interface.
EFFECT: impact and vibration resistance, expanded applications, higher safety.
8 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a sensor base, the maximum thickness of which is much less than two other measurements, a sensing element of elongated shape, which encloses the base with spiral coils so that a short section of each of spiral coils passes throughout the thickness of the base. Short sections of spiral coils are intended for orientation in the plane almost perpendicular to direction of interference effect, and long sections of spiral coils are intended for orientation in the plane almost perpendicular to direction of measured effect.
EFFECT: improving interference resistance of the sensor at performance of measurements.
18 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; crane-manipulator plants.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to load-lifting machines with boom equipment and it can be used for evaluation of strength of structural members of grab-type mounted devices used with cranes and selection of material, geometric, mass-inertia and power parameters of said devices. According to proposed method, analytic dependences are used relaying geometric, mass-inertia and kinematic parameters of structural members of crane-manipulator plant and load with value of determined forces and moments.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of determination of dynamic loads acting onto structural members of crane-manipulator plant handling long-cut loads.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: testing engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises using bolts-meters as a structure to be tested and recording deformations or displacements of the bolt head or displacement of the movable member mounted inside the bolt during loading. Before and after the run, the stress-strain condition of the bolt-meter is calculated with regard to the deformation of butt parts for different values of axial loading applied to the bolt in the study range.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy.
2 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises measuring the radius of curvature of rod article producing by plastic deformation and determining the amplitude of variation of axial residual stress in the peripheral direction of the rod article, which characterizes the asymmetry of the residual stress according to the formula proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurements.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: bench comprises the frame and carriage that is mounted for permitting reciprocation in horizontal guides. The carriage is kinematically connected with the drive and is provided with changeable roller bearing for permitting cooperation with freely suspended section of conveyor belt. One end of the conveyor belt is spring-loaded. The H-shaped lever is pivotally connected with the frame for permitting cooperation with the top surface of the section of the conveyor belt. The H-shaped lever is provide with a damper mounted in the zone of the pivot. The changeable weights are mounted on the axle.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: flow meter comprises device for measuring mean velocity of fluid flow that has blade, device for measuring the level of the fluid flow, lever with float, axles, sensors for measuring the angle of rotation of the blade and measuring the angle of float movement, and electronic unit for processing data. The blade and the lever with float are secured to the axles of their sliding bearings. The blade is mounted in the plane of the central longitudinal axis of the flow. The units for fastening the sliding bearing of the blade and lever with float are made for permitting rotation in the horizontal plane. The diameter of the float and the parameters of the blade depend on the width of the passage, mass of the float, mass of the lever, density of the fluid, mean flow velocity, depth of detachment of the float in calm water, and distance from the axle of the fastening of the blade to the bottom of the passage, and are determined from the formulae proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of nondestructive control.
SUBSTANCE: on the surface of the detail they measure with the aid of the nondestructive mode a physical parameter according to whose meanings one can judge about the values of tensions in the corresponding zone of measurements. In quality of a physical parameter it is possible to choose the work of the output measured with the aid of the nondestructive method of contact difference of potentials, according to the minimal value of which one can discover the zone with maximal tensions on the surface of the detail.
EFFECT: possibility quickly and accurately discover dangerous zones on the surface of details.
SUBSTANCE: process of torque measurement is based on periodic impact of measured torque μ on resonance oscillating system with threshold of sensitivity μn and frequency equal to the system resonance frequency ω. So when μ<μn, the oscillating system is brought into excited state by external force much higher than μn, then it is brought into forced-oscillation regime by the measured torque μ with a lag between it and damping system oscillations consequently taking form of Δβ=nπ, where n=0, 1, 2, .... The sought torque value is defined by the amplitude difference of these phases, Δϕn, according to the formula: where k is stiffness coefficient of oscillating system, and α is its damping rate.
EFFECT: higher measuring sensitivity.
FIELD: physics; measurement.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to force-measuring technology. The load measuring device, working on three mutually perpendicular axes, and moments about these axes, comprises four elastic elements, fixed to a base at corners of a square, made in form of separate bars with a cannular cross-section, on which tensoresistors are put, a rigid force transmission plate and a base, joined by elastic elements. All tensoresistors are put on elastic elements along their formations. For each measured load, two tensoresistors are put on each elastic element. Tensoresistors are put on diametrically opposite sides of the elastic element. The centres of the tensoresistors for measuring loads, lying in the plane of the force transmission plate on all four elastic elements lie in the same plane, parallel to the plane of the force transmission plates. The centres of tensoresistors for measuring loads, perpendicular to the plane of the force transmission plate, as well, lie in the same plane, parallel to the plane of the force transmission plate.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and wider range of load measurements.
FIELD: physics, measurements.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to methods for detection of residual stresses in axisymmetric tubular products after plastic deformation. Available experimental method is used to identify tangential residual stress in surface layer of tubular product, value of which is used to detect distribution of residual stresses in the whole section of tubular product by the following formulas:
where σr, σθ, σz are accordingly radial, tangential and axial residual stresses; is value of tangential residual stress in surface layer of tubular product; R1 and R2 are accordingly external and internal radiuses of pipe; is nondimensional parametre, which characterises relative thickness of pipe wall; r is radial coordinate; µ is Poisson ratio of pipe material.
EFFECT: improved accuracy and expansion of method potential by determination of all components of residual stress tensor in the whole section of axisymmetric tubular products.
SUBSTANCE: dynamometre has a torque sensor, a weighting device and a unit for connecting the sensor to the weighting device. The weighting device is in form of two support bearings, each with two rings. The support bearings are in line, the ring of one of them is in contact with the ring of the other and these rings are joined together, and the unit for connecting the sensor with the weighting device is on the joined bearing rings. The torque sensor can be made in form of a flexible rod, which grasps the joined bearing rings and is attached by one end to the said rings, and a dynamometre, connected to the second end of the rod. The dynamometre measures load on different types of mine working supports.
EFFECT: possibility of monitoring manifestation of rock pressure on places with combined support with high accuracy.
2 cl, 2 dwg