Power supply and control method for spacecraft correction system

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to space engineering and may be used for spacecraft correction by means of electric propulsion plasma engines (EPPE). EPPE are selected for switching on, required time of EPPE operation is selected, used and unused electrodes of the engines are selected and connected to the power supply sources by means of contactors, the power supply sources are switched on and off for EPPE start-up and operation within the required period, high-ohmic resistive network if formed for discharge of electric charge from EPPE electrodes to the spacecraft frame, two modes are formed for commutation of the engine electric circuits, the main and reserve power supply sources with capacitive filters are connected to electrodes of non-operating EPPE, electric circuits of the selected EPPE remain connected to the used power supply sources, electric circuits of the other EPPE are switched off from the used power supply sources and still left connected to the unused power supply sources, the used power supply sources are switched on and off in compliance with the defined algorithm.

EFFECT: invention allows increasing reliability of spacecraft correction system.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to electrical engineering, namely to systems of correction (SC) SPACECRAFT (SC) using the electro-plasma thrusters (ERPD).

Famous modern system orbit correction made on the basis ARPD. The engines periodically enabled by Ground command, and created their vector thrust with high specific impulse of the SPACECRAFT moves in the specified direction. Thus supported its calculated orbit.

At start-up and operation of the selected motor according to a predetermined algorithm on the elements in the anode (A), the magnetic coil (MC), a cathode (K1) and the ignition electrodes (P1) and Nacala (NC), a cathode (K2) and the ignition electrodes (P2) and Nacala (NC) serves the supply voltage of a corresponding shape and size (patent RU №2366123). The annular discharge chamber metered serves the working fluid - gas xenon. At low pressure, enjoyed a high voltage between the anode A and the cathode K1 (K2) of several hundred volts after ignition electrode P1 (P2) in the chamber is ignited discharge and xenon is ionized, creating a plasma. The magnetic coil generates a magnetic field by controlling the movement of the xenon ions, which are accelerated by the electric field along the chamber and gain energy. The stream creates a jet thrust of the engine. Together with ions of ARPD emitted equal p� charge the flow of electrons, emitted by the cathode. Expiration rate and, accordingly, the specific impulse of the engine, determined by the voltage of the anode-cathode.

Closest to the claimed technical solution is a method of power and control IC (Ermoshkin Y. M. Fundamentals of theory and calculation of electric rocket engines and propulsion systems. Krasnoyarsk, 2003; Stationary plasma engines: Training. a manual for students of engineering. FAK. universities / N. In.Belan, V. P. Kim, A. I. Oransky, V. B. Tikhonov; Khai. Kharkov, 1989), namely that for the selected engine, the main cathode K1 or K2 backup, primary ignition electrode P1 or P2 backup connected through relay contacts relevant power sources (main or backup). Then in the desired sequence switch on and off the power sources of the filament of the cathode, the power source of the anode to the cathode, the power sources of ignition, providing start-up and operation of the engine within the required time, after which turn off the power supply. After which shut off with a relay-power supplies motor control, translating the UK in its original state.

To ensure stable operation of the plasma discharge and electromagnetic compatibility requires a complete galvanic isolation of power circuits and control from other circuits KA and building�sa.

In the initial state of the IC of the electric circuit of all motors are disconnected from power sources, the sources are off.

During operation of the IC electrical circuit selected motor connected to the selected (primary or backup) power sources, electric currents of all other motors are disconnected from the power source, the selected power supplies are enabled and disabled in accordance with a certain algorithm. However, embedded in the power supplies capacitive filters provide the power to the elements of the constant voltage motors of the required quality, i.e. with the required level of pulsations, as well as reducing electromagnetic interference from power sources.

Block diagram of IC prototype in the initial state shown in Fig.1.

The correction system includes n electric propulsion plasma engine - 1.1...1.n 2.1 main and backup 2.2 power supplies the anode voltage, 3.1 main and backup 3.2 source filament of the cathode 4.1 main and backup 4.2 the source of the ignition device, and the sources 2.1 and 2.2 through the relay contacts 5.1, 6.1, 7.1, 8.1 is connected to the anode A and the cathode K1and K2(via the circuit of the magnet coil IC) engine 1.1 and respectively through the contacts of relay 5.n, 6.n, 7.n, 8.n to the anodes and cathodes of each of the remaining engines 1.n.

The relay contacts 9.1, 10.1, 11.1, 12.1, pregnatn�trated to connect the sources of the filament of the cathode 3.1 and 3.2 to the elements of the cathode heating NK 1and NK2engine 1.1, and, accordingly, the relay contacts 9.n, 10.n, 11.n, 12.n to the elements of cathode heating of the engine 1.n.

Device ignition UP and UP connected to the ignition electrodes of the P1and N2engines...1 1.1.n through decoupling diodes 13.1...13.n, 14.1...14.n and the relay contacts...9 9.1.n.

The relay contacts 15...20 are intended for the inclusion of relevant power sources.

Block diagram of IC for switching on and operating the engine (as an example, the selected engine 1 and the cathode K1) are shown in Fig.2.

The known method is implemented as follows: select the motor and the cathode of the engine to enable, for example engine 1.1 and cathode K1; choose power sources used in this connection, for example 2.1 (IPA), 3.1 (NC) and 4.1 (UP); connect sources of power to the selected motor and the cathode of the relay contacts 5.1, 6.1, 9.1, 10.1; after that include power relay contacts 15, 17, 19.

After the engine is shut down the power supplies (open the contacts 15, 17, 19) and disconnect them from the engine (open the relay contacts 5.1, 6.1, 9.1, 10.1).

The known method allows to fulfill the requirements galvanic isolation and ensure reliable operation of the IC during a long active lifetime through the use of algorithms for forming desired patterns UK d�I turn the motor, implemented using the switching off of the power sources, i.e., using a currentless switching mode: motor power supply voltage required quality with a low level of radiated electromagnetic interference; and due to the use of reserve elements of IC-engines, power sources, electrodes of the cathode, ignition, glow.

However, in a known method of power and control IC, there is a risk of damage to electrical circuits, electrical and electronic circuits in power supplies as a result of exposure factors electrifying in space flight conditions.

Namely, during geomagnetic disturbances, the current density of electrons with energies of several thousand electron volts in the space around the KA can be 10-9A·cm-2. As a consequence of irradiation of the ceramic insulator ARPD can accumulate a charge of electrons, especially at low temperatures. The engine design does not allow for effective flow of accumulated ceramics charge of electrons. This charge can cause high voltage breakdowns - electrostatic discharges between the ceramic insulator and the electrodes of the engine. When this high voltage dynamic signal can penetrate the electrical insulation of existing galvanic isolation and damage the drivers control�Oia windings of switches, and also to penetrate into the electronic circuit of power supplies and put them out of action.

Experiments also established the possibility of a static potential in the electric circuits of the IC associated with the direct leakage of electrons from the magnetospheric plasma to the conductive elements of the IC, galvanically isolated from the body of the SPACECRAFT. The growth potential in the future may also lead to high voltage breakdown and damage of the LC elements.

The aim of the proposed method is to increase the reliability of the IC KA.

This object is achieved in that in the method of power and control correction system of the spacecraft choose one of ARPD to be included, determine the required operating time of the selected ACD, choose the used and unused when this inclusion electrodes of engines, power sources, to the selected electrodes of the selected motor is connected via contactor used power supply, then switch on and off these power sources, providing start-up and operation ARPD within the required time, after which switch off all power sources, form the high-resistance resistive circuit of flow of electric charge from the electrodes ARPD on the body of the SPACECRAFT, and also form the two mode switching electrical circuits motor - "re�them storage", when the electrodes are broken ARPD connect primary and backup power sources with built-in in these sources are capacitive filters, and "protection mode", when during operation of the IC electrical circuit selected ARPD leave used connected to (primary or backup) power sources, the electrical circuits of all other engines used disconnected from power sources and leave it connected to an unused power sources, and then used the power supplies are enabled and disabled in accordance with a certain algorithm.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.3 shows a block diagram of the IC in "storage mode", Fig.4 is a diagram of the IC to turn on and the engine is running in "safe mode" (as an example, the selected engine 1 and the cathode K1).

The proposed method is implemented as follows:

- in "storage mode" (Fig.3) close all the contacts connecting the power sources 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 4.2 with engines...1 1.1.n, 15...20 contacts open, engines off;

- in "protection mode" (Fig.4) the correction system is transferred from the "storage mode" as follows: select the motor and the cathode of the engine, select the power sources, such as engine 1.1, the cathode K1sources 2.1, 3.1, 4.1; disconnect from selected�wow engine 1.1 unused power sources 2.2, opening the relay contacts 7.1, 8.1; cut off from all engines 1.n, except for selected commonly used power sources 2.1, widening the contacts 5.n, 6.n. Thus, the selected engine 1.1 through contacts 5.1 and 6.1 of the connected capacitive filters used power source 2.1, and to the rest of the engine 1.n through contacts 7.n and 8.n connected capacitive filters unused power source 2.2.

The essence of the new method lies in the fact that form the high-resistance resistive circuit of flow of electric charge from the electrodes ARPD, and use built-in power sources capacitive filters for protecting electrical circuits of the system of correction from the high-voltage dynamic interference - breakdowns caused by factors electrifying.

By connecting to the electrodes of non-performing engines main and backup power sources to them are connected inline in these sources capacitive filters. Thus protected the UK from dynamic electrostatic effects at the discharge of the accumulated ceramics motor the electric charge. Capacitive filters shunt circuit IC, closing the circuit of high-voltage breakdowns on the body of the SPACECRAFT.

High-ohmic resistive circuit provides a flow of electric charge from the electrodes ARPD on the body of the SPACECRAFT, thereby reducing stationscience on electrical circuits SC and protecting them from high-voltage breakdowns.

Experimental verification for firing tests ARPD confirmed stable operation ARPD the resistance of resistive circuit more than 100 K.

In the initial state of the IC of the electric circuit of all motors connected to all power sources, the sources are off, capacitive filters all sources of power shunt circuit of high-voltage breakdowns. The UK is in "storage mode".

During operation of the IC electrical circuit selected motor left connected to the power source, electric currents of all other motors are disconnected from the selected power sources and leave it connected to an unused power sources ("protection mode").

Then the selected power supplies are enabled and disabled in accordance with a certain algorithm.

After the operation of the IC engine from the "security mode" again converted into a "storage mode".

In the final state SK the sources are off, the electric circuit of all motors connected again to all sources of supply, and the capacitive filters all sources of power shunt circuit of high-voltage breakdowns.

To implement this technical solution allows to solve the problem by improving the reliability of the correction system of the spacecraft.

A method of power and control system correction(SC) space vehicle (SV), made on the basis of the electro-plasma thrusters (ECD) and primary and backup power sources, namely that choosing one of ARPD to be included, determine the required operating time of the selected ACD, choose the used and unused when this inclusion electrodes of engines, power sources, to the selected electrodes of the selected motor is connected via contactor used power supply, then switch on and off these power sources, providing start-up and operation ARPD within the required time, after which switch off all power sources, wherein forming a high resistance resistor network flow of electric charge from the electrodes ARPD on the housing and forms two mode switching electrical circuits motor - "storage mode", when the electrodes are broken ARPD connect primary and backup power sources with built-in in these sources are capacitive filters, and "protection mode", when during operation of the IC electrical circuit selected ARPD leave used connected to (primary or backup) power sources, the electrical circuits of all other engines used disconnected from power sources and leave it connected to an unused power sources, after che�used on the power supplies are enabled and disabled in accordance with a certain algorithm.



 

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EFFECT: relaxed weight-size constrictions of SCS, enhanced performances.

8 dwg

FIELD: space engineering; designing spacecraft motion control systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is performed by information of orientation unit to Sun by introducing the orbit parameters into on-board computer followed by calculating the Sun position in observation field of orientation unit for each point of orbit for orientation of axes in orbital coordinate system; search angular velocity is set for spacecraft to ensure capture of Sun by observation field of orientation unit, after which angular velocity is decreased to zero ensuring position of Sun in observation field of orientation unit. Then spacecraft is turned in such way that Sun should move to required initial point; turning the spacecraft to preset points is continued for each orbital point.

EFFECT: reduced mass; simplified construction of spacecraft due to reduced number of instruments and units; extended field of application.

3 dwg

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