Conductometer

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: conductometer comprises an alternating voltage generator (1), the outlet of which is connected to a reference inlet of a converter (2) code-voltage and to a transformer differential conductometric converter (3). The transformer converter (3) comprises the first (4), second (5) and third (6) transformers, the first communication element (8), covering cores of the first (4) and third (6) transformers, and the second communication element (11), covering cores of the second (5) and third (6) transformers. It also comprises the first wire communication winding (9), between the first (4) and third (6) transformers, the outlets of which are connected to the first terminal block (14), and the second wire communication winding (12), between the second (5) and third (6) transformers, leads of which are connected to the second terminal block (15). The first lead of the first winding (7) of the first transformer (4) is connected to the outlet of the alternating voltage generator (1), the reference inlet of a synchronous detector (17) and the reference inlet of the converter (2) code-voltage, the outlet of which is directly connected to the first lead of the first winding (10) of the second transformer (5). The control inlet of the converter (2) code-voltage is connected to the outlet of a control unit (18). The first lead of the first winding (13) of the third transformer (6) is connected to the inlet of a selective amplifier (16), the outlet of which is connected with the control inlet of the synchronous detector (17), the outlet of which is connected in series with a control unit (18), a microcontroller (19) and a digital indication device (20). The second leads of the first windings of all three transformers are connected to the common bus of the device.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurement and expansion of functional capabilities, possibility of precision measurement of active conductivities and resistances.

1 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to a technique of measuring the relative electrical conductivity and salinity of the fluids (e.g., sea water) and can be used in Metrology as reference devices, and for measurement of active conductances and resistances.

Known salimeter [1], which contains a generator of alternating voltage, whose output is connected through an analog switch with transformer conductometric transducer. The Converter comprises first, second and third transformers, the first connection element, inside which there is a cavity to fill researched or reference liquid, covering the first and third transformers, and the second connection element, to fill the investigated liquid, covering the second and third transformers. The device comprises a code Converter-the voltage and current, which is connected with the first output winding of the second transformer. The first terminal of the third transformer is connected to the amplifier, which is connected in series with a synchronous detector and a display unit. The output of the generator AC voltage is connected to the reference input of synchronous detector with a reference input of the code Converter-the voltage and current and with the first output winding of the first transformer of the conductometric transducer. O�dy one of the windings of each transformer connected to a common bus. A second terminal of the third transformer is connected to the output resistor, a second terminal coupled to the second output of the analog switch.

Similar to the essential features of the claimed invention are such features of the considered analogue: a variable voltage generator, which is connected to one of inputs of the conductometric transducer on the basis of three transformers and two connection elements, wherein one of the windings of each transformer are connected to a common bus, the transmitter code-voltage and current connected to the generator and to one of the inputs of the conductometric transducer, an amplifier connected to the output of the conductometric transducer and to the input of the synchronous detector that is connected to the code Converter-the voltage and current and is associated with the display device.

This analogue to a certain extent, improves the accuracy of measurement, however, its disadvantage is the introduction of additional error of the analog switch and the error of temperature measurement using liquid-loop connection with the exemplary water. Salimeter is not possible to assess the linearity of conversion characteristics in the entire range of relative electrical conductivity (EIA) and salinity.

Closest to the invention on the totality of su�significant features is the meter [2], selected as a prototype. It contains a variable voltage generator connected to one of the inputs of the transformer of the conductometric transducer. The Converter comprises first, second and third transformers, the first connection element, covering the cores of the first and third transformers, and the second connection element, covering the cores of the second and third transformers. The device has connected to one terminal of the winding of the third transformer amplifier, connected in series with the synchronous detector, a control unit and a digital readout. Composition of the device includes a code Converter is a voltage reference input of which is connected to an output of the generator, the control input of which is connected to the output of the control unit and the input device of the digital display and the output to the input of a large-scale amplifier, the output of which is connected to one winding of the second transformer. The generator output is connected to one winding of the first transformer. Another output of the generator is connected to the reference input of the synchronous detector. Conclusions one of the windings of each transformer of the conductometric transducer connected to a common bus of the device.

Similar essential features of the prototype and the claimed technical�technical solutions are: a variable voltage generator, the output of which is connected to a reference input of the Converter code-voltage and transformer differential conductometric transducer, which comprises a first, second and third transformers, the first connection element, covering the cores of the first and third transformers, and the second element connection, covering the cores of the second and third transformers, wherein the first terminal of the first winding of the first transformer is connected to the output of the alternator voltage, a reference input of the synchronous detector and the reference input of the Converter code-voltage, the output of which is connected to the first output of the first winding of the second transformer, and a control input coupled to an output of the control unit, the first terminal of the first winding of the third transformer is connected to the input of the selective amplifier, the output of which is connected to the control input of the synchronous detector, the output of which is connected to the input of the control unit, the output of which is connected with the digital readout unit, wherein the second terminals of the first windings of all three transformers connected to a common bus.

The total uncertaintymeasuring the relative electrical conductivity of the prototype is determined by the sum of the errors of the Converter code-tensionwt�Tarnovo amplifier and the geometric constant of the liquid turns exemplary connection of water Δaboutand the measured sample Δp:

The calibration of this meter is performed at two points in distilled water and exemplary, standard (IAPSO STANDARD SEEWATER) water, produced only abroad. (Check the linearity of the transformation characteristic of the conductivity meter can be produced in certain points with a host of different waters relative electric conductivity and salinity, which are made abroad by separate order. The results of detection of nonlinearity, for improved measurement accuracy, especially for precision measurements, make the appropriate corrections for non-linearity). This method is expensive (one bottle of standard water costs US$ 150) and does not allow to fully determine the linearity characteristics over the full measuring range.

The disadvantage of the prototype is that it does not provide the required accuracy in the entire range of relative electrical conductivity and requires considerable operating costs.

The basis of the invention tasked with developing the conductivity meter, which due to changes in the functional build of node electronic unit, as well as introducing additional elements, �provides the achievement of the technical result - increasing the measurement accuracy and expand the functionality of the meter. Additional technical result is the possibility of precise measurement of active conductances and resistances.

The problem is solved in that the conductivity meter, which contains a variable voltage generator, the output of which is connected to a reference input of the Converter code-voltage and transformer differential conductometric transducer, which comprises a first, second and third transformers, the first connection element, covering the cores of the first and third transformers, and the second element connection, covering the cores of the second and third transformers, wherein the first terminal of the first winding of the first transformer is connected to the output of the alternator voltage, a reference input of the synchronous detector and the reference input of the Converter code-voltage, the output of which is connected to the first output of the first winding of the second transformer, and a control input coupled to an output of the control unit, the first output of the first winding of the third transformer is connected to the input of the selective amplifier, the output of which is connected to the control input of the synchronous detector, the output of which is connected to the input of the control unit, the output of which is connected with device�PTO digital display, while the second terminals of the first windings of all three transformers connected to a common bus, what is new is that Converter transformer comprises a first conductive winding connection, between the first and third transformers, the conclusions of which is connected to the first terminal, and a second conductive winding connection, between the second and third transformers, the conclusions of which is connected to the second terminal, the output of the code Converter-the voltage connected to the first output of the first winding of the second transformer directly to the control input of the code Converter-voltage together with the output of the control unit is connected to the input of the microcontroller, the output of which is connected to the input of the digital readouts.

Exception of large-scale amplifier and the introduction of the microcontroller, allowing you to perform scaling in digital form, eliminates the error scale of the amplifier.

In addition, the introduction of an additional two windings wired connection, one · of which is between the first and third transformers, and the other between the second and third transformers, gives the opportunity to determine and control the nonlinearity of the conversion of the conductivity over the entire range of measurement, which improves the measurement accuracy and, additionally, to measure with high precision active Provo�of Imota and resistances.

The invention is illustrated with reference to the drawings, which depict: Fig. 1 - functional diagram of the device; Fig. 2 - diagram of the transformer of the conductometric transducer.

The meter contains a generator 1 AC voltage, the output of which is connected to a reference input of the Converter code 2-schematic of voltage and to the first input of transformer differential conductometric transducer 3, to the second input of which is connected to the Converter 2, the code-voltage.

Transformer conductometric transducer 3 includes the first 4, second 5 and third 6 transformers. The first transformer 4 (Τ 1) has a first coil 7, to the first output of which is connected to the output of the generator 1, the second coil 8 and the third winding 9. The second transformer 5 (T 2) has a first winding 10, to the first output of which is connected to the Converter output code 2-voltage, a second winding 11 and the third winding 12. The third transformer 6 (T 3) has a first (output) winding 13, a first output which is the output of the Converter 3, and the second, third, fourth and fifth windings, which are respectively the second and third (8 and 9) windings of the first transformer 4 and the second and third (11 and 12) of the second windings of the transformer 5. That is, winding connection, 8 and 9 cover the first 4 and the third 6 Tran�the curing, and the windings 11 and 12 cover the second 5 and third 6 transformers. The second terminals of the first winding of each transformer 4-6 connected to a common bus of the device.

The windings 8 and 11 constitute a liquid turns connection made of glass (quartz) cell, which is schematically represented in Fig. 2. Moreover, the cell 11 is filled with reference liquid (sea water), and the cell 8 is the measured sample. Both cells 8, 11 with transformers 4-6 are placed in a container filled with silicone oil for the purpose of equalizing the temperatures of the two cells.

Winding connection 9 their findings are connected to the terminal block 14 (TC. 1), and the winding connection 12 to the terminal block 15 (TC. 2). To terminals 14, 15 connected resistors, with resistances in order to check the linearity of the characteristics of the conversion of the conductivity meter and the use of conductivity meter in measurement mode resistances or conductances.

The first terminal of the first winding 13 of the third transformer 6 is connected to the input of a selective amplifier 16, which is connected in series with the control input of the synchronous detector 17, the control unit 18, the microcontroller 19 and the digital readout unit 20.

The output of the control unit 18 and the input of the microcontroller 19 is connected to the first (Manager) of the inverter input code voltage 2, the second (reference) input coupled � the output of the generator 1, with the first output of the first winding 7 of the first transformer 4 and the reference input of synchronous detector 17. Provides the necessary grounding components of the device.

The operation of the meter when measuring the relative electrical conductivity is as follows.

Transformer differential conductometric transducer 3 in this case represents a balancing transformer bridge AC, in which one arm of the bridge is formed by the first transformer 4 and the liquid conductivity of the coil connection 8, and the second shoulder of the second transformer 5 and the liquid conductivity of the coil connection 11. The third transformer 6 is a comparator currents. In simplified form, without taking into account the complexity of the bridge elements, the equation of converting such conductometric transducer transformer will have the following form.

Thus, in stage 8 connection under the action of tensiongenerator 1, a current flowsequal (taking into account that the number of winding turns of the coil connection 8 is equal to one):

where:- the number of turns of the first winding 7 of the first transformer 4;

RB. Pthe liquid resistance of the coil connection 8 of the measured sample.

In round 11 under the action�m of the voltage output of the SDH 2 proceeds compensating current 12, equal

where- transfer coefficient Converter code voltage 2;

- the number of turns of the first winding 10 of the second transformer 5;

the liquid resistance of the coil connection 11 exemplary water.

On the output winding 13 of the third transformer 6, which represents a comparator of the current produced by the difference of the currents 1! and 12, on which the coil 13 is converted into a voltage, which is then amplified in the electoral amplifier 16 to the value that ensures the normal operation of synchronous detector 17 and control unit 18. In the synchronous detector 17 by the selection of the active component of the signal and conversion to a voltage ofwhich indicates, by changing the polarity of the output signal during the measurement process, the state of the balancing transformer of the bridge.

The control unit 18 is designed to develop algorithm of balancing transformer of the bridge and forming the output signal from synchronous detector 17 digital equivalent (code) of the measured parameter.

During the measurement process the code successively changes for a given, the control unit 16, the trim algorithm, for example, bitwise trim that comes �and SDH 2, at the output of which is formed the compensation voltage. Successive adjustment voltage compensation generated at the output of the SDH, achieve equality of currents (I1and I2thereby balancing transformer bridge:

Substitute (2), (3) to (4) and obtain the following equation conversion transformer bridge:

In turn, resistanceandliquid of turns of the connection associated with a specific electrical conductivity (UEP) liquid coils, respectively, 8 and 11 by the following expressions:

where Cn- UEP of the measured sample at temperature tp;

- the conversion factor (the geometric shape factor) liquid loop connection (cell) measured breakdown;

where Cabout- UEP exemplary water at temperature tabout;

- the conversion factor (the geometric shape factor) liquid loop connection (cell) exemplary water.

To ensure equality of temperatures, in order to exclude temperature error of the measured sample and model watertransformer conductometric�th Converter 3 is placed (Fig. 2) into the container 21 is filled with oil, ensuring thorough mixing of the oil.

The coefficient of transmission of the SDH, as you know, changes in the process of measuring 0 to 1 and is equal to

whererespectively the current and the maximum value of the decimal code of the SDH. For example, for a 17-bit binary code APF131071.

Substituting the expression (8) in (7), we obtain the value of the CES measured sample is directly proportional to the code of such analog-to-digital Converter operating on AC voltage:

Next, the codegoes to the microcontroller 19, which is converted to the physical quantity. To ensure the calculation of this first physical quantity is carried out the operation of determining the calibration coefficientTo do this in both cells 8, 11 pour exemplary water, i.e.,and the value of the EIA is taken equalto the resulting measurement of the output codeIn this case, the microcontroller 19 is automatically applied to the determination of calibration coefficientwhich in the future is calculated �the value of an EIA are:

where- microprocessor coefficient taking into account the various geometrical coefficients form a liquid of turns of the connection.

By a certain coefficientand is defined by a physical quantity of an EIA are:

The above is true in an ideal linear characteristic of the measuring path - linearity SDH 2, transformer differential conductometric transducer 3. In reality, especially for high-precision measurements, the measuring path has a differential nonlinearity, and across the scale of measurement.

To determine the nonlinear characteristics of the transformation are introduced winding connection 9 and 12. In this case, the fluid connection turns 8 and 11 of the drained liquid, thus these turns are broken links. Then to a coil connection 12 through the terminal block 15 is connected exemplary precision resistance (for example, C5-61, C2-29 specially selected) value, close to the liquid resistance of the coil connection 11 (reference liquid), and to a coil 9 through a connection terminal 14 is connected a precision resistance box or (if the accuracy of insufficient resistance) sequentially connects a number of precision resistances�situation. In this mode, the operation of the conductivity meter similar to that described above, and characteristic conversion for electrical resistance, in accordance with expressions (5) and (10) will have the following form:

whereexemplary resistance;- the measured resistance.

Following the measurement of resistance or precision resistors, determine the difference between the meter readings and the actual resistance value:

These deviations and characterize the deviation from linearity of the transformation characteristic of the conductivity meter. Thus, by knowing the variances, you can enter corrections in the readings of the meter when measuring the environmental impact assessment of seawater or to approximate the characteristic of the conversion of the CES of the conductivity meter, the expression (11), by a polynomial of appropriate degree.

The applicant conducted tests that showed that this method of correction of the measurement results allows to increase the accuracy of the measurement three times.

For electrical conductivity characteristic of the conversion would be:

The sources of information used:

1. Copyright certificate of the USSR No. 1599744 published 15.10.1990, Bulletin No. 38.

2. AB�Orsk certificate of the USSR No. 1337821, published 15.09.1987, Bulletin # 34 - prototype.

Conductivity meter, containing the generator (1) AC voltage, the output of which is connected to a reference input of the Converter (2) code-voltage and transformer differential conductometric transducer (3) which contains the first (4) second (5) and third (6) transformers, the first connection element (8), covering the cores of the first (4) and third (6) transformers, and the second connection element (11), covering the cores of the second (5) and third (6) transformers the first output of the first winding (7) of the first transformer (4) is connected to the output of the generator (1) AC voltage reference input of the synchronous detector (17) and the reference input of the Converter (2) code-voltage, the output of which is connected to the first output of the first winding (10) of the second transformer (5), and the control input coupled to an output of the control unit (18), the first terminal of the first winding (13) of the third transformer (6) is connected to the input of the selective amplifier (16), whose output is connected to the control input of the synchronous detector (17), the output of which is connected to the input of the control unit (18), wherein the second terminals of the first windings of all three transformers connected to a common bus, and a digital readout unit (20), characterized in that the Converter transformer (3) contents�t first conductive winding connection (9), between the first (4) and third (6) transformers, the conclusions of which is connected to the first terminal (14) and a second conductive winding connection (12) between the second (5) and third (6) transformers, the conclusions of which is connected to the second terminal (15), an output transducer (2) code-voltage directly connected to the first output of the first winding (10) of the second transformer (5), the output of the control unit (18) is connected to the input of the microcontroller (19), the output of which is connected to the input of the digital display device (20).



 

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1 dwg

FIELD: textiles, paper.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of engineering for light industry and can be used to create systems to detect metal particles in textile materials, in nonwoven substrate in production of synthetic leather, felt, etc. The method of detecting metal particles in the movable fibrous material consists in placing the movable fibrous material into the workspace of induced coil of the oscillating circuit in which using a generator the high-frequency oscillations are generated. Then, amplification and detection of high-frequency voltage at the output of the generator is carried out. And at the output of the amplifier-detector the impulse of the required duration is formed for safe operation of the actuator. From the conditions of the required sensitivity the amplitude of high-frequency voltage is set at the output of the generator, the voltage is converted at the output of the amplifier-detector and it is compared with the driving voltage. The obtained voltage difference is integrated and the voltage at the output of the integrator is used for stabilisation of the amplitude of high-frequency voltage at the output of the generator. And the process of integration is interrupted at the time of formation of the impulse for the time interval, the value of which is defined as a functional dependence on the linear velocity of the fibrous material, and the process of integration is renewed at the end of the pulse and the time interval of interruption of the integration process, and at the time of bringing the circuit into operation state the actuation of the actuator is blocked for the time interval, obviously longer than the duration of damped transitory processes in most inertial node of the circuit.

EFFECT: increase in reliability of detection of metal particles in the movable fibrous material and providing automatic compensation of external disturbing effects.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of determining chlorobenzene in natural and waste water using gas chromatography and equilibrium vapour analysis includes determining chlorobenzene on a chromatographic capitally column in a carrier gas current which is nitrogen; generating and detecting the investigated ions formed in a flame with a flame-ionisation detector. The method also includes preparing a basic solution using a more viscous ethylene glycol solvent, hence the basic solution is well preserved for 2 months at temperature in the range of -2°C to -10°C; preparing calibration solutions for chlorobenzene concentration in the range of 0.0003-0.02 mg/dm3; sample preparation, calibrating the chromatograph by perforating the vapour phase of the prepared concentrations; plotting a calibration curve; sample preparation for the analysed water samples; perforating the vapour phase into the evaporator of the chromatograph. The obtained data are processed using ChemStation software which comes in a set with the MAESTRO 7820A chromatographic kit, and qualitative identification and quantitative content of the determined substance is obtained.

EFFECT: improved consistency and accuracy of analysis, shorter duration of the method and easier analysis in environmental monitoring conditions.

6 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: system consists of two peristaltic pumps, a loop-containing injector, a flow amperometric cell with includes a biosensor, a potentiostat. As the biosensor, the electroanalytic system contains a lactate biosensor. The injector loop includes an accumulative column.

EFFECT: increase of selectivity and sensitivity of determination, reduction of the limit of lactate detection.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: scope of application: for carbon monoxide detection in air. Invention consists in the following: manufacturing method includes obtaining nanocrystalline wide gap semiconducting oxides MeO (SnO2, ZnO, In2O3), obtaining sols of quantum dots of narrow gap semiconductors CdX (X=Se, Te, S) and oxides impregnation with sols of quantum dots followed by drying for formation of heterocontacts MO/CdX.

EFFECT: providing possibility of decrease of semiconductive sensor materials temperature to the room temperature upon detection of carbon monoxide in air and providing high sensitivity and low energy consumption of sensor.

2 cl

FIELD: instrumentation technology.

SUBSTANCE: change of control of gas mixtures with different preset concentrations of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor is carried out in dynamic mode at constant and equal, equal to the predetermined, consumptions from different sources of control gas mixtures with different preset concentrations of the controlled component. Change of gas mixtures with different preset concentrations of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor and achievement of stabilisation of the output signal of the sensor, corresponding to the level of concentration of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor is provided at equal parameters of the control gas mixtures and for minimum time which is easily calculated and taken into account in determining the operation speed of the gas analytical sensor. This ensures accuracy of determining of the operation speed of the gas analytical sensor. Use of the dynamic mode of feeding the first gas mixture, as well as change of the first gas mixture to the second gas mixture during the testing of the gas analytical sensor enables to stabilise faster the predetermined concentration of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor and thus to ensure the constancy of pressure and composition of gas mixtures on the sensor element of the sensor, which increases the accuracy of evaluation of its operation speed. With this mode of feeding the gas mixtures the performance data of the gas reducers on the sources of feeding the control gas mixtures remain dynamic and do not affect the process of feeding the stable gas mixture at program switches of the valves.

EFFECT: increase in reliability of determining the operation speed of the gas analytical sensor by feeding to the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor of control gas mixtures stable in composition and pressure in dynamic mode.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: thermal and nuclear power stations; meter calibration in extremely pure water of condensate type and power unit feedwater.

SUBSTANCE: for pH-meter calibration ammonia whose concentration varies by 1.5 - 2 times is dosed in working medium. Electric conductivity and temperature of working-medium H-cationized sample are measured. Measurement results are processed in computer with aid of set of equations characterizing ionic equilibrium in source sample and H-cationized samples. Calculated pH value is compared with measurement results.

EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability of meter calibration in extremely pure waters.

1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

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