Method of fire prevention in pressurised inhabited facilities, primarily submarines, and device for its implementation

FIELD: fire safety.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises forming inside a facility of a hypoxic gas-air medium with the set initial low content of oxygen under normal pressure of hot water supply; the oxygen content is set depending on the type of the pressurised space. Monitoring is carried out by sensors of pre-alarm pre-fire state of the gas-air medium, and the pressure and oxygen content are adjusted if needed, in the specified period of time, by reducing the oxygen content and increasing the content of nitrogen or inert gas to the values of the concentration and pressure specified for this space, sufficient to detect and eliminate the causes of the pre-alarm state. After a series of measures the initial set value of oxygen content is reset at the normal pressure of hot water supply for each closed space of the pressurised facility. The device for implementing the method comprises a system control unit, a sensor assembly of controlling parameters of the gas-air medium and the assembly of cylinders with inert gas or a mixture of inert gases, it additionally comprises a sensor assembly of pre-alarm control, connected by information-control and pneumatic bonds, a regeneration unit of the gas-air medium, an assembly of cylinders with oxygen, an assembly of oxygen distributors, an assembly of high pressure air cylinders, an assembly of the gas-air medium purification with the filter of purification from mechanical impurities and the filter of purification from harmful chemicals and carbon oxide, an assembly of separation of air, an assembly of high pressure compressor, and a compartment control unit in each controlled space of the pressurised facility.

EFFECT: reduction of the risk of combustion and fire on submarines and other pressurised inhabited facilities by introducing pre-alarm monitoring and creation in them of the hypoxic gas-air media, with simultaneous creating the conditions for normal functioning of the submarine crew under conditions of an extended voyage.

18 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of fire safety of submarines and other sealed inhabited objects, including protected command posts, production, laboratory and storage facilities, etc.

Improving the fire safety of submarines (hereinafter PL) and other sealed inhabited objects is an actual scientific and technical task, which can reduce the risk of loss of life and equipment.

In recent years, widely investigated the capability of LP gas-air environments, providing a reduction of the probability of ignition and fire by reducing the content of oxygen, i.e. the creation of a hypoxic gas environments (hereinafter HGVS).

Known methods and devices for improving the fire safety of premises and storage flammable objects by creating them in gas environments with low oxygen content to values of 8% by volume (hereinafter referred to vol.%) by dilution with an inert gas. Currently they have been used for fire safety Museum storage, storage facilities libraries, warehouses especially fire-prone technical environments and tools, granaries, etc. (see, for example, the article "Gas fire" on the link in the Internet http://os-info.ru/pojarotuschenie/gazovoe-pozharotushenie.html and standard 12.1.010-76. Explosion�security. General requirements; Ensuring fire safety of silos and bunkers at the enterprises for storage and processing of grain, http://www.ktm-star.com/katalog/pogamaya-bezopasnost.html).

Described in these sources of the device are either nitrogen gas cylinders, control environment and control the supply, or nitrogen generators, as in the article "Installation of a nitrogen fire suppression" (see the link in the Internet http://www.grasys.ru/products/gas/fire/), which extract it from the surrounding air and then served in the room need his number to maintain a certain composition of the medium.

Clearly, however, such a means of improving fire safety applicable only to sealed areas and storage facilities, which, at the same time, have the technical ability to communicate volumes with atmospheric air, for example, for the enrichment HGVS oxygen or nitrogen from an external atmosphere or, conversely, they bleed into the atmosphere. In addition, during storage of inflammable objects in the protected areas do not assume the presence of people for whom the above content of oxygen can be fatal, i.e., such methods are not intended, e.g., for use in aircraft cabins, space objects, on submarines.

The known method of creating the conditions for human life in germoe�yekta RF patent №2138421, IPC B63C 11/00, B63C 11/36, publ. 27.09.1999 G. According to the method, to improve the fire safety of the PL proposed to use an oxygen-nitrogen environment with oxygen content of 14±1 vol.% and maintenance of high pressure air environment so that the partial pressure of oxygen in the environment matched normoxic and ranged from 20 to 21 kPa, which is necessary to prevent the hypoxic status of the crew members. The pressure of the air environment of the PL in this case will correspond to 150 kPa, i.e. almost 1.5 times higher than normal atmospheric pressure.

The disadvantage of this method is the need to increase the pressure in a pressurized room PL above the level acceptable for the majority of the ship's equipment, which is from 1.3 to 1.6 normal for the basic equipment. For example, for the turbine maximum pressure normal is 1.4, and system for regeneration of air is 1.3. The disadvantage of this method is also considered the need for decompression of the crew after a period of Autonomous navigation, which for modern DPS is from 60 to 90 days.

Also known hypoxic suppression system fire and prevent fire in Norway patent No. NO 20024955 (A), IPC A62C 2/00; A62C 3/00; A62C 99/00; A62D 1/00; A62D 1/02; B01D 53/02, publ. 05.12.2002 G., according to which it is proposed to use d�I all inhabited objects and PL system of prevention and liquidation of fires at standard atmospheric pressure, which served the fire-extinguishing composition of the mixture of nitrogen and oxygen with oxygen content ranging from 12 to 17 vol.% with the possible addition of carbon dioxide.

The main drawback in the implementation of this method for a sealed LP is that when applying a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen, with the oxygen percentage from 12% vol in the LP will be lowering the concentration of oxygen to prevent combustion with simultaneous pressure increase above permissible for vehicular equipment. So, to achieve in air the oxygen concentration of 14 vol.%, in which no self-sustaining combustion of most of the major shipping materials, which are potential sources of ignition and spread of fire on the square, will have to increase the pressure in a pressurized room in 2,3 times to 232 kPa. At this pressure, virtually all shipboard equipment will fail, and the crew after work in these conditions for Autonomous navigation would require a long period of decompression. In addition, the proposed method does not set the valid time limit of the stay of the crew in the created conditions without damage to health.

Also known a method of improving fire safety through the implementation of PL control predvajalnik States air environment, technical equipment and �EQT - sources of fire hazard. Such control is called pre-emergency, and the means for its implementation are sensors, instruments, pre-testing (see, for example, Abakumov, V. P., Petrov V. A., Conceptual framework PARK on ships. Materials 33 and interuniversity conference "Methods and apparatus early detection preparacao state...", SPb, higher naval engineering school, 1997).

Pre-emergency control (PAC) is to prevent the uncontrolled transfer of sources to explosion and other hazards in pre-emergency condition.

To conduct pre-emergency (prepararnos) control to carry out identification of pre-crash condition of the sources of fire risk on the change of parameters of physical fields of the equipment and parameters of the internal environment of the ship and preparing draft decisions on prevention of the accident.

theoretical basis of PAK are regularities of formation and manifestation of parameters of physical fields of equipment PL and parameters of the internal environment of the ship with pre-crash (predvajalnik) States sources of danger.

Pre-crash (predogamy) control is implemented at the stage of accumulation of prerequisites for ignition and fire, which occur only in the rather rare occurrence of the triggering event. Sensors and systems PR�avariinogo control monitor the emergence in the air reference (characteristic) of substances and the characteristic change of the parameters of technical means and equipment PL the gas-air environment and physical fields, which indicate the pre-crash condition of the equipment.

As references can be used products of thermal destruction of ship structural non-metallic materials, finely dispersed aerosols, radiation, thermal fields, etc. (see, for example, Abakumov, V. P., Petrov V. A., To the question of the benchmarks pre-emergency conditions hazards, Materials of scientific-practical conference "Actual problems of habitability and medical support personnel of the Navy", 1 TSNII MO RF, St. Petersburg. 2004).

It should be emphasized that we are talking about the organization of control at the stages of a healthy state sources of danger, i.e., until the failure of the controlled equipment, in the conditions when the specified level of its functioning on the main purpose is provided.

Since the stage of accumulation of prerequisites for fire and fire can occur for quite a long time, then pre (predogamy) monitoring is an effective means of timely detection and elimination of malfunctions and deviations in the rules of operation, and thus preventing the accumulation of conditions that can, in a certain combination with the trigger event to cause a fire.

In those cases, when to avoid fire or fire�but for one reason or another did not succeed, staff will have a certain time to take the necessary measures to prevent or mitigate their effects.

The closest in technical essence to the claimed invention is a Multistage method inertion (i.e. fire suppression with the use of inert gases) to prevent and extinguish fires in enclosed spaces according to the patent of Russian Federation №2405605, IPC A62C 3/00, A62C 99/00, publ. 10.12.2010 G., in which the concentration of oxygen inside the closed space is first reduced to a certain basic level of inertion, and then continuously maintained at the basic level of inertion. According to the invention provides that, in the event of a fire indoors, the concentration of oxygen is further reduced from the basic level of inertion to a first low level and continuously maintain in this first lowered level for a first predetermined period of time, and then, if after that first pre-specified period of time the fire has not been eliminated, the oxygen concentration is further reduced from the first lowered level to the full level of inertion.

For realization of this method can be used the equipment described, for example, in patenter No. 2212262, IPC A62C 2/00, publ. 20.09.2003, adopted as a prototype device that includes a sensor measuring the oxygen content in a controlled environment sensor fire detection to identify the characteristics of fire in the atmosphere of the controlled space, a system for generating inert gas such as nitrogen, inert gas or mixture of inert gases is controlled in a closed space, system control, safety, relief and control valves, valve block.

The method of prevention of a fire inside a sealed inhabited objects, mostly submarines, as well as the appropriate device for its application include regulation inert gas level of inertion only after the discovery of fire or the outbreak of fire on the characteristic fire option, which makes it impossible to prevent the occurrence of fire. In addition, this method does not take into account the joint effect of time and level of inertion for a physiological condition from a room of people, not considering the permissible time limit of the stay of the crew in the created conditions, and also serves to maintain the desired level of inertion the addition of air from the external environment, which is impossible for the conditions of the submarine, etc. objects. In addition,this method does not account for the change in pressure with decreasing or increasing the concentration of oxygen and the impact of this factor on the state of the human body and is placed in the equipment. In this method also does not address the possibility of adjusting the parameters of the environment in adjacent areas of the object, which is especially important for tight inhabited objects, consisting of more than one premises.

The claimed invention solves the following tasks:

- to prevent fire or fire on Board a SUBMARINE, especially in the submerged position;

to ensure long-term work crew for 60-90 days GTS without a meaningful reduction of health and health damage;

- to ensure continuous operation of the crew in conditions of HGVS in the absence of measures necessary subsequent decompression;

- to ensure the preservation of the basic modes of operation PL and maintaining equipment operability PL.

The technical result from implementation of the claimed invention is to improve the fire safety of submarines and other sealed inhabited objects by creating them and hypoxic regulation of parameters of the air-gas environments, providing a reduction of the probability of ignition and fire due to the reduction of the percentage volume content of oxygen and regulation of other parameters HGVS signal pre prepararnos control, as well as creating conditions for the normal life of the crew of the SUBMARINE and conservation of works�capacity of the equipment in long-term Autonomous navigation.

To achieve this technical result in the way to prevent fires inside sealed inhabited objects, mostly submarines, including lowering the concentration of oxygen inside of each closed space is sealed object to a set level and maintaining it at this level, according to the invention, inside each closed space is sealed object form a hypoxic gas environment with an established initial low content of oxygen at normal pressure hot water, and the oxygen content is set depending on the type of sealed areas, due to the time and intensity of work of crew members in it at the same time exercise control and state identification of sources of fire hazard by measuring in continuous mode, or a predetermined time interval, at least one characteristic parameter pre prepararnos the state of the controlled air environment, hardware or equipment, in case of receiving the signal about the achievement or exceedance of at least one characteristic parameter pre prepararnos state-controlled gas environment, the technical means or equipment�tion, regulate the oxygen content and pressure of hypoxic gas environment in a sealed room by lowering the oxygen content and increase the content of nitrogen or an inert gas until the concentration values and the pressure prescribed for the space and preventing or reducing the likelihood of ignition of technical means and equipment for a specified period of time during which the finding inside the sealed premises safe for crew and equipment, and after the event to finding the cause and source of occurrence of the pre-crash signal prepararnos condition and its elimination has reduced the initial set value of oxygen at normal pressure DHW for each closed space is sealed object.

At this time stay sealed spaces of PL share on sporadically visited, are visiting, which is permanently manned up to 4 hours, with a constant watch to 10-14 hours and permanent residence.

In addition, sealed the premises of the facility as the initial values of the oxygen at normal atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 20°C set the following:

for occasionally visited tight spaces - not less than 12 vol.%;

- to periodically visit the premises �e less than 14% vol.;

- permanently manned up to 4 hours - not less than 16 vol.%;

- permanently manned a duration of 10-14 hours - not less than 18 vol.%;

- premises for permanent residence - not less than 19%.

In addition, the regulation of hypoxic gas environment in a sealed premises is carried out for a predetermined period of time, sufficient to identify and address the causes of near-miss prepararnos condition of the equipment.

After the hypoxic regulation of the air-gas environment in a sealed areas of the object by decreasing oxygen content and increasing the content of nitrogen or inert gas set the following values of the oxygen concentration at a specified time:

for occasionally visited sealed rooms - up to 10 vol.%;

- periodically visit the premises and the premises is permanently manned up to 4 hours - up to 12 vol.%;

- in rooms with constant watch of a duration of 10-14 hours in the premises of the permanent stay of up to 14 vol.%.

In addition, in the process of regulation of hypoxic gas environment in a sealed object by decreasing oxygen content and increasing the content of nitrogen or inert gas pressure increase DHW valid on a given time from normal atmospheric to Zn�values of pressure, not exceeding the limits of operation of the equipment, placed in a sealed object.

In addition, in the process of regulation of hypoxic gas environment in a sealed areas of the object by decreasing oxygen content and increasing the content of nitrogen or inert gas pressure DHW set to a valid preset time from atmospheric up to pressures that do not require further decompression of the crew members.

In addition, in the process of regulation of hypoxic gas environment in a sealed premises, preserve the initial oxygen partial pressure established for the premises to regulation by increasing the total pressure of hypoxic gas environment in the premises to a valid preset time, from atmospheric up to pressures determined by the limit of operation of the equipment placed in each sealed object, and does not require further decompression of the crew members.

In addition, the restoration of the initial set values of oxygen content and pressure of hypoxic gas environment produced by adjusting the volumetric percentage of oxygen content and partial pressure.

In addition, the restoration of the initial� values of oxygen content and pressure of hypoxic gas environment produced after a fixed predetermined time, sufficient to identify and address the causes of near-miss prepararnos condition of technical facilities and equipment, after verification of the absence of a signal of a pre-emergency prepararnos the state of the monitored gas environment, the technical means or equipment.

In addition, the restoration of the initial set values of oxygen content and pressure of hypoxic gas environment produced by separation of DHW on oxygen and nitrogen or an inert gas, compressing nitrogen or inert gas in the corresponding node of the cylinder with nitrogen or inert gas, compression DHW node in the cylinders of high pressure air, adding oxygen from the oxygen tanks, removal of DHW carbon monoxide and enriching it with oxygen with the help of node regeneration air and its purification using filters purification from mechanical impurities, harmful chemicals and carbon monoxide site cleanup.

This recovery of the initial set values of oxygen content and pressure of hypoxic gas environment are made without the use of external atmospheric air, in particular, without surfacing the submarine to the surface position and venting into the atmosphere.

To achieve the stated technical result of the device to prevent fires inside�and sealed inhabited objects, mostly submarines, including the control system, the sensor node control parameters of gas-air environment and a host of cylinders with inert gas or mixture of inert gases according to the invention further comprises a United information and control and mechanical connections node of the pre-crash sensors control node regeneration gas environment, host of the oxygen tanks, the node distributors of oxygen, the node of cylinders of high pressure air, knot cleaning gas medium with filter cleaning from mechanical impurities and the purification filter from harmful chemicals and carbon monoxide, the node separation of air into nitrogen or inert gas and other components the host of the high pressure compressor and a control unit in each compartment controlled environment sealed object and outputs sensor nodes control and pre-crash sensors control settings DHW electrically connected to the inputs of the control unit system, the outputs of which are connected the control signals to the inputs of the node regeneration gas environment, host of the oxygen tanks, site of cylinders of high pressure air and controls the shut off, and the outputs of the latter are connected to the inputs of the purification unit air-gas environment, site air separation, site compressor high pressure, sootvetstvenno�, site cleanup of ullage connected mechanical links to the site air separation and site compressor high pressure pneumatic outputs which, in turn, is connected to the node of the cylinder with nitrogen or inert gas, the node of cylinders of high pressure air and the host of oxygen cylinders, the entrance node of the regeneration gas environment is connected pneumatically with the interior volume of the controlled space of the sealed object, and its output is connected to the node of oxygen cylinders and host distributors of oxygen.

In addition, site air separation, the node pre-crash sensors control node sensors for monitoring parameters of hypoxic gas environment, the node distributors of oxygen, the purification unit with filter cleaning from mechanical impurities, the purification filter from harmful chemicals and carbon monoxide, the host of the high pressure compressor are each controlled environment sealed object.

In addition, the node regeneration gas environment can be each controlled environment sealed object, and one for all sealed object.

In addition, the node of the cylinder with nitrogen or an inert gas and a host of cylinders of high pressure air is made uniform for the entire hermetic object, and the control device is made uniform in�its a sealed object and provided with peripheral devices in each controlled room.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, in which Fig.1 is a diagram of a regulation of one of the parameters HGVS in the compartments of the SUBMARINE, in particular, the oxygen concentration; Fig.2 - diagram of the regulation of one of the parameters HGVS in the compartments of the SUBMARINE, in particular, pressure HGVS; Fig.3 - summary chart control parameters HGVS indoors in the process of implementing the method of preventing fire in PL; Fig.4 is a structural diagram of a device for implementing the method.

The method is as follows.

In each of the sealed spaces of the submarine on the surface to create an air-gas environment with reduced oxygen (hypoxic environment) by dilution with nitrogen or inert gas. The content of oxygen in different sealed LP support at different levels depending on the scheduled time of occurrence and the intensity of work of crew members in this room.

As during Autonomous navigation in a normal environment on a SUBMARINE crew has certain watches, all work is done on schedule, and the time spent in one or another pressurized room PL is strictly regulated. Moreover, in some tight spaces LP this time may be from several minutes to tens of minutes, in others it has no more than 4 hours, in the third e�IPA can dwell permanently. Residence time sealed the premises of the PL can be divided into occasionally visited, are visiting, which is permanently manned up to 4 hours, with a constant watch to 10-14 hours and permanent residence.

As a result, the authors of the research showed that by reducing the content of oxygen in GGUS areas to 17% of allowable execution heavy and hard work of the 1st degree (determined in accordance with the Guidance of R 2.2.2006-05) continuously for 30 minutes, and the heavy and hard work of the 2nd degree - continuously for 15 minutes while maintaining a sufficient level of reliability activities. By reducing the oxygen content in the environment of up to 16% of the time performing similar types of work are 20 and 10 minutes respectively.

The initial value of oxygen content in different sealed LP depending on the scheduled time of occurrence and the intensity of work of the crew in this area is distributed as follows:

- occasionally visited a sealed room PL - not less than 12 vol.%;

- sealed periodically visit the premises of the PL - not less than 14% vol.;

- permanently manned up to 4 hours - not less than 1 6 vol.%;

- permanently manned up to 10-14 hours - not less than 18 vol.%;

- permanent residence - not less than 19%.

Simultaneously�about all sealed with a knot of pre-crash sensors control (PAC), include a variety of sensors of various parameters and devices pre-control, control characteristic, or fiducials, pre-crash parameters predvajalnik States air environment, technology and equipment to identify pre-failure state sources of fire hazard.

As reference parameters can be used: the concentration of fine aerosols, the radiative heat anomaly fields, concentrations of the products of thermal degradation of structural and electrical non-metallic materials, the concentration of explosive or flammable substances, the hydrogen concentration of the combination of combustible gases and vapors, etc.

After diving SUBMARINE in the case of normal condition and operation of ship equipment and equipment settings HGVS in sealed PL do not change during the entire Autonomous navigation.

The oxygen content, the composition and pressure HGVS is maintained at a predetermined level by means of block 1 management node 2 pre-crash sensors prepararnos control node 3 sensors for monitoring parameters HGVS, node 4 regeneration gas environment, node 5 oxygen cylinders, node 6 distributors of oxygen, node 7 air purification, site 8 air compressor high pressure and node 9 of the air cylinders� high pressure (WSC).

In case of detection of a transition of any hardware or equipment PL in pre prepararnos condition, perform the regulation HGVS sealed in the space LP, which discovered pre prepararnos state and, at the same time, regulation in related areas.

Regulation in a sealed room in which the detected pre prepararnos state HGVS, vehicle or equipment, is produced by lowering the percentage of oxygen in GGUS to a specified level concentrationsthat do not support ignition and combustion of the ship of media and materials, namely, up to 10 vol.% in occasionally visited sealed LP, up to 12 vol.% to periodically visit the premises and the premises is permanently manned up to 4 hours and up to 14 vol.% in premises with watch up to 10-14 hours and permanent residence (phase I in Fig.3).

In order to provide the possibility to switch of the crew and damage control party from one room to another, and when the transition would have increased the risk of fire in the room in which the detected pre prepararnos state regulation in adjacent sealed spaces is performed, for example, by equalizing pressure and oxygen concentration in adjacent sealed areas, at least during the transition� people.

Regulation in phase I, performed with preservation of the partial pressure of oxygen by reducing the percentage of oxygen, which affects the process of ignition and combustion, to a specified level, dramatically reducing the chance of fire (graphicsandFig.3, stages II-III).

Regulation to a specified level produced by the addition of nitrogen or inert gas from the node 10 of the cylinder with nitrogen or inert gas and the simultaneous removal of LP gas-air environment of oxygen through node 7 purification of air containing the filter 11 cleaning from mechanical impurities, the filter 12 cleaning from harmful chemicals and carbon monoxide and the node 13 of the separation of air into nitrogen or inert gas and oxygen.

Oxygen after the separation of the air supplied under pressure (komprimiert) to the node 5 of the oxygen tanks.

In the process of regulatory control blocks 1 and 14 (Central and intercept, respectively) with node 3 sensors monitor parameters HGVS and ensure no excess pressure Pi Σabove permissible for the crew and equipment of the values of the excess air compressed by the node 8 of the compressor to the node 9 cylinders of high pressure air.

In the process of controlling the fire risk indicator Fiin the room i will decrease due to the decrease�Oia percentage of oxygen (phase I in Fig.3) and reaches the level of fire safety. However will reduce the rate of habitability in air-gas environment Qidue to the growth pressure HGVS and reducing the percentage of oxygen that will reduce allowable time crew in the room. To achieve the required level of fire safety or allow people to get in the tight space you may need and pressure decrease with the decrease of the absolute oxygen content (stage II in Fig.3). This is ensured by the compression HGVS through node 7 air purification and node 8 of the compressor to the node 9 cylinders of high pressure air. Excess pressure in the areas of permanent residence and in areas with a constant watch shoot to normal gradually according to a given algorithm (graph of PFig.3). It may cause further deterioration of the conditions of habitability by reducing the partial pressure of oxygen.

Event to finding the cause and source of occurrence of the pre-crash signal prepararnos condition and the elimination of its causes (phase II and III in Fig.3), hold the reset HGVS to the original values (step IV in Fig.3). The indicator of habitability will improve, i.e. increase, and will reach initial set level due to the return parameters GGUSand P to primary. However, the rate of fire FiPL will also increase to initial values by increasing the volumetric percentage of oxygen.

Restore settings HGVS in a sealed room until the initial values are produced through node 7 air purification, the node 13 of the separation of nitrogen or inert gas and oxygen, the node 8 of the high pressure compressor, for compressing the node 5 of the oxygen tanks, the node 10 cylinders of nitrogen or inert gas and node 9 cylinders of high pressure air (WSC), and using node 4 air regeneration, node 5 bottles of oxygen and node 6 distributors of oxygen.

In the case of repeated receipt of a signal of exceedance of any of the characteristic parameter pre prepararnos the state of the controlled air environment, technical means or equipment regulation of the oxygen content and pressure of hypoxic gas environment in a sealed room is repeated as described above.

If all the same the fire inside of any of the controlled indoor facility can not be avoided and will be installed the fact of occurrence of a fire, you have to carry out activities to further the oxygen concentration decreases to the value corresponding to the level guaranteed�tion of the termination of combustion, for example, using the same equipment used to implement the inventive method.

As shown in the drawing (Fig.4), the device for implementing the method of the prevention of fires inside submarines and other sealed inhabited objects contains the following nodes connected information and control and mechanical connections:

- block 1 device management,

node 2 sensors pre-crash control;

node 3 sensors for monitoring parameters of hypoxic gas environment;

node 4 regeneration of ullage PL;

node 5 oxygen cylinders;

node 6 distributors of oxygen;

node 7 with filter cleaning 11 cleaning from mechanical impurities, the filter 12 cleaning from harmful chemicals and carbon monoxide;

node 8 of the high pressure compressor;

node 9 cylinders of high pressure air;

node 10 cylinders with nitrogen or inert gas;

node 13 of the separation of air into nitrogen or inert gas and other components;

- unit 14 of the control compartment.

The mechanical connection between the nodes of the device are performed, e.g., via conduits, or hoses, as well as include safety, relief and control valves (not shown).

The device operates as follows.

In the case of transition to�any technical means or equipment in prepararnos pre-emergency condition node 2 sensors pre-emergency control sends a signal prepararnos condition in sealed LP unit 1 control unit with software forms for the commander of the ship draft decision in text and graphic form on the regulation of hypoxic gas-air environment and the actions of the crew to identify and eliminate the causes of pre-accident state.

After confirming a SUBMARINE commander the same node 2 sends a control signal to node 10 cylinders with nitrogen or inert gas, the node 13 air separation, node 4 regeneration gas environment, the node 6 distributors of oxygen, cleaning Assembly 7 and node 8 of the high pressure compressor, which operates on a predetermined unit 1 control algorithm, for a given optimal time, the hypoxic regulation of the parameters of the air-gas environment to a predetermined value, and node 2 sensors pre-emergency control and node 3 sensors for monitoring parameters of hypoxic gas environment monitor the results of management and transmit to the unit 1 control.

In this case the regulation is carried out so that the node 10 of the cylinder with nitrogen or inert gas adds nitrogen or inert gas in hypoxic gas medium premises, the node 13 of the separation of air removes excess oxygen from the gaseous medium of a compartment, the node 4 regeneration of ullage remove excess carbon dioxide and generates oxygen, which, together with oxygen from the�La 5 cylinders containing oxygen is added to the required regulation algorithm amounts in hypoxic gas-air environment of the room through the node 6 distributors of oxygen. Simultaneously produce relieve excessive pressure by the node 8 of the high pressure compressor through node 7 with filter cleaning 11 cleaning from mechanical impurities, the filter 12 cleaning from harmful chemicals and carbon monoxide and the supply of selected gas mixtures in the node 9 cylinders of high pressure air, and on the achievement of specified values, the device supports the specified parameters in the specified time.

After the elimination of pre prepararnos condition of the equipment in sealed LP device performs the hypoxic regulation of the parameters of ullage compartment to restore the original set values. For this purpose, the node 13 air separation of excess nitrogen or inert gas is extracted from air-gas environment of the compartment, and then compressed (compressed) and is supplied to the node 10 of the cylinder with nitrogen or inert gas via the node 8 of the compressor high pressure. Node 13 air separation can be performed, for example, membrane type, or by using molecular sieves, or built on any other principle.

Node 4 regeneration gas environment designed to extract from HGVS excess of carbon dioxide and generation of oxygen, which is added together with oxygen from the node 5 oxygen cylinders in the required Sal�rhythm regulation amounts in hypoxic air-gas environment of the compartment via the node 6 distributors of oxygen.

While such elements of the device for implementing the method, the node 13 air separation to produce nitrogen and other components, node 2 sensors pre-crash control, node 3 sensors for monitoring parameters of hypoxic gas environment, the node 6 distributors of oxygen, node 7 with filter cleaning 11 cleaning from mechanical impurities and the filter 12 cleaning from harmful chemicals and carbon monoxide, the node 8 of the high pressure compressor, usually located in each pressurized room .

At the same time, node 4 regeneration gas environment may be located in each pressurized room PL and to be equal to all spaces LP, and the node 10 of the cylinder with nitrogen or inert gas and the node 9 of the cylinders of the high pressure air is one for the whole LP.

The Central unit 1 control device for implementing the method of increasing the fire safety of submarines and other sealed inhabited objects made on the basis of conventional or specialized industrial computer is designed to control and synchronize the entire process of regulating and maintaining the parameters of hypoxic gas environments in all tight spaces LP and has a peripheral device in the form of a shut-off control units 14 for each controlled pressurized room .

I�ate 2 sensors pre-emergency control may include, for example, sensors of trace carbon dioxide, highly dispersed aerosols, products of thermal destruction of the ship non-metallic material, the sensor is integral explosion - fire air-gas environment, the wide-range pressure sensor, infrared sensor field, etc. (not shown, because the composition and the range of sensors are determined by specific requirements and conditions of installation of devices to prevent fires).

Node 3 sensors for monitoring parameters of hypoxic gas environment may also include a different set of corresponding sensors, in particular gas analyzers for the major components of DHW (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, etc.) and harmful chemicals, sensors of pressure, humidity and temperature, and others.

Node 5 oxygen cylinders, node 9 cylinders of high pressure air, the node 10 of the cylinder with nitrogen or inert gas, in addition to direct gas cylinders also include safety, relief and control valves. Appropriate valves and gazoprovodsk (pneumatic) elements (e.g., high-strength hoses or pipes) are provided, in addition to these, the node 6 distributors of oxygen, cleaning Assembly 7, a node 8 of the high pressure compressor, the node 13 air separation.

Thus�time the use of the claimed method allows to improve fire safety of submarines and other similar sealed inhabited objects by creating them in hypoxic gas environments that reduce the likelihood of ignition and spread of fire, and at the same time gives you the opportunity to ensure the work of the crew during the long hike without a meaningful reduction of health and harm and without the necessity of carrying out of actions for subsequent decompression and ensures the preservation of the basic modes of operation PL and uptime.

1. A method for the prevention of fires inside sealed inhabited objects, mostly submarines, including lowering the concentration of oxygen inside of each closed space is sealed object to a set level and maintaining it at this level, characterized in that inside each closed space is sealed object form a hypoxic environment with an established initial low content of oxygen at normal pressure hot water, and the oxygen content is set depending on the type of sealed areas, due to the time and intensity of work of crew members in it at the same time control and identification of IP�resident students of fire danger in each pressurized room by measuring in continuous mode, or a predetermined time interval, at least one characteristic parameter pre-alarm prepararnos state controlled environment, technology and equipment, in case of receiving the signal about the achievement or exceedance of at least one characteristic parameter pre prepararnos the state of the controlled air environment, technology and equipment to regulate the oxygen content and pressure of hypoxic gas environment in a sealed room in which the detected pre prepararnos condition, by decreasing oxygen content and increasing the content of nitrogen or an inert gas until the concentration values and the pressure prescribed for the space and preventing or reducing the likelihood of ignition of technical means and equipment for a specified period of time, for whom finding inside the sealed premises safe for crew and equipment, and after the event to finding the cause and source of occurrence of the pre-crash signal prepararnos condition and its elimination has reduced the initial set value of oxygen at normal pressure DHW for each closed space is sealed object.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the residence time sealed the premises of PL share on sporadically visited, peri�visited vision and NDS, permanently manned up to 4 hours, with a constant watch to 10-14 hours and permanent residence.

3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that for tight spaces object as the initial values of the oxygen at normal atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 20°C set the following:
for occasionally visited tight spaces - not less than 12 vol.%;
- to periodically visit the premises at least 14 vol.%;
- permanently manned up to 4 hours - not less than 16 vol.%;
- permanently manned a duration of 10-14 hours - not less than 18 vol.%;
- premises for permanent residence - not less than 19%.

4. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the regulation of hypoxic gas environment in a sealed premises is carried out for a predetermined period of time, sufficient to identify and address the causes of near-miss prepararnos condition of the equipment.

5. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that after the hypoxic regulation of the air-gas environment in a sealed areas of the object by decreasing oxygen content and increasing the content of nitrogen or inert gas set the following values of the oxygen concentration at a specified time:
for occasionally visited sealed rooms - up to 10 vol.%;
- periodically visit the premises � areas with a constant watch for up to 4 hours - to 12 vol.%;
- in rooms with constant watch of a duration of 10-14 hours in the premises of the permanent stay of up to 14 vol.%.

6. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the process of regulation of hypoxic gas environment in a sealed object by decreasing oxygen content and increasing the content of nitrogen or inert gas pressure increase DHW valid on a given time from atmospheric up to pressures not exceeding the limits of operation of the equipment, placed in a sealed object.

7. A method according to claim 5, characterized in that in the process of regulation of hypoxic gas environment in a sealed areas of the object by decreasing oxygen content and increasing the content of nitrogen or inert gas pressure DHW set to a valid preset time from atmospheric up to pressures that do not require further decompression of the crew members.

8. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that in the process of regulation of hypoxic gas environment in a sealed premises, preserve the initial oxygen partial pressure established for the premises to regulation by increasing the total pressure of hypoxic gas environment in the premises to a valid preset time,� to normal atmospheric pressure, defined by the limit of operation of the equipment placed in each sealed space of the object.

9. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the recovery of the initial values of the oxygen content and pressure of hypoxic gas environment produced by the pressure regulating hypoxic gas environment, the volumetric percentage of oxygen content and partial pressure.

10. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the recovery of the initial set values of oxygen content and pressure of hypoxic gas environment produced after a fixed predetermined time, sufficient to identify and address the causes of near-miss prepararnos condition of technical facilities and equipment, after verification of the absence of a signal of a pre-emergency prepararnos the state of the monitored gas environment, technology and equipment.

11. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the recovery of the initial set values of oxygen content and pressure of hypoxic gas environment produced by separation of DHW on oxygen and nitrogen or an inert gas, compressing nitrogen or inert gas in the corresponding node of the cylinder with nitrogen or inert gas, compression DHW node in the cylinders of high pressure air, oxygen addition of knots� oxygen cylinders, removal of DHW carbon monoxide and enriching it with oxygen with the help of node regeneration air and its purification using filters purification from mechanical impurities, harmful chemicals and carbon monoxide site cleanup.

12. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the recovery of the initial set values of oxygen content and pressure of hypoxic gas environment are made without the use of external atmospheric air.

13. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that to enable the transition of the crew and crash the party sealed from one room to another without deterioration of pre prepararnos state regulation in adjacent sealed spaces is accomplished by the adjustment of pressure and oxygen concentration, at least during the transition.

14. The device to prevent fires inside sealed inhabited objects, mostly submarines, including the control system, the sensor node control parameters of gas-air environment and a host of cylinders with inert gas or mixture of inert gases, characterized in that it further comprises a United information and control and mechanical connections node of the pre-crash sensors control node regeneration gas environment, host of the oxygen tanks, the node razdatki�s oxygen node of cylinders of high pressure air, knot cleaning gas medium with filter cleaning from mechanical impurities and the purification filter from harmful chemicals and carbon monoxide, site air separation, the host of the high pressure compressor and a control unit in each compartment controlled environment sealed object and outputs sensor nodes control and pre-crash sensors control settings DHW electrically connected to the inputs of the control unit system, the outputs of which are connected the control signals to the inputs of the node regeneration gas environment, host of the oxygen tanks, site of cylinders of high pressure air and controls the shut-off, and the outputs of the latter are connected to the inputs of the purification unit air-gas environment, site air separation, site, high pressure compressor, respectively, the purification unit air-gas environment of the connected mechanical links to the site air separation and site compressor high pressure pneumatic outputs which, in turn, is connected to the node of the cylinder with nitrogen or inert gas, the node of cylinders of high pressure air and the host of oxygen cylinders, the entrance node of the regeneration gas environment is connected pneumatically with the interior volume of the controlled space of the sealed object, and its output is connected to the node ballona� with oxygen and distributors node of oxygen.

15. The device according to claim 14, characterized in that the node separation of air into nitrogen or inert gas and other components, the node pre-crash sensors control node sensors for monitoring parameters of hypoxic gas environment, the node distributors of oxygen, the purification unit with filter cleaning from mechanical impurities, the purification filter from harmful chemicals and carbon monoxide, the host of the high pressure compressor are each controlled environment sealed object.

16. The device according to claim 14, characterized in that the node regeneration gas environment can be each controlled environment sealed object, and one for all sealed object.

17. The device according to claim 14, characterized in that the node of the cylinder with nitrogen or an inert gas and a host of cylinders of high pressure air is made uniform for all sealed object.

18. The device according to claim 14, characterized in that the control device is common to all sealed object and provided with peripheral devices in each controlled room.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: fire safety.

SUBSTANCE: fire suppression system of premises with increased gas medium pressure, containing a firm sealed tank for storage and feeding of fresh water under pressure on the pipeline into the premises on the centrifugal sprayers, a high pressure air cylinder connected by the pipelines through the air reducer to the tank, the device of limiting the rate of pressure increase, the device of maintaining the differential pressure during decompression, and the control panel with alarm sensors. The air reducer over the membrane cavity is connected by the pipeline to the volume of the protected premises and creates a predetermined differential pressure between the sprayers and the premises, the centrifugal sprayers on the swirlers have spring-loaded movable cylinders, the regulating sections of tangential windows of swirlers, maintaining the required opening angle of the jet of atomised water, the device of maintaining the differential pressure during decompression by the pipelines is connected to the tank and the volume of the protected premises.

EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of the fire suppression system by increasing the intensity of supply of atomised water with an increase of pressure of gas medium during a fire.

2 dwg

FIELD: fire safety.

SUBSTANCE: in the unit of gaseous fire suppression for places of storing containers with flammable and combustible liquids in temporary settlement of population affected by emergencies, comprising a control unit and series-connected insulated tank for liquid carbon dioxide with the pipeline of supplying carbon dioxide and lock and release device located outside the tank, the switching gears and the distribution pipeline with sprayers. The lock and release device is located above the level of liquid carbon dioxide in the tank, and the intake of carbon dioxide is carried out through the pipeline in the tank from the bottom part of the latter, each nozzle housing is formed with a channel for supplying liquid and comprises a housing in which the screw is pressed, and a fitting for supplying liquid, and the housing consists of two coaxial interconnected cylindrical sleeves: the sleeve of larger diameter and the sleeve of smaller diameter, and the inside the sleeve of smaller diameter, coaxially to it, a screw is mounted, rigidly connected to its inner surface, such as pressed in it, and the outer surface of the screw is a helical groove and inside the screw a hole with a screw thread is made, and in the sleeve of larger diameter coaxially to it, the fitting is located, fixedly mounted in it, such as by the threaded connection through the sealing gasket, and in the fitting a cylindrical opening is coaxially formed passing into axially located diffuser which is connected to a cylindrical chamber formed by the inner surface of the sleeve of smaller diameter and the end surface of the screw, and the end surface of the sleeve of smaller diameter is fixed to two obliquely located rods, on each of which active sprayers are secured, for example made in the form of blades resting in the lower part on stops fixed to the rods perpendicular to their axes. The rods are tilted in the direction away from the axis of the injector, i.e. along the conical surface which apex is directed towards the sleeve of the larger diameter.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of fire-extinguishing.

2 dwg

FIELD: fire-fighting means.

SUBSTANCE: method relates to the field of forestry and can be used to determine the location of forest fire. The method of establishing the location of forest fire comprises identification of the most fire-hazard plots of peat lands and location of vertical wells on the area of plots. The perforated pipes are placed in the wells. The pipes are filled with smoke generating pyrotechnic composition, the granulometric material is poured into the wellheads. The coordinates of the wells are recorded on the forest fire map. The patrol routes are divided, patrol observation of smoke is carried out. The boundaries of the fire are determined by the smoke location over the wells. The coordinates of the smoke location are recorded on the forest fire map. The granulometric material is mixed with encapsulated herbicide glyphosate powder in an amount of 5-15% by weight of the granulometric material, and then the mixture is poured to the wellheads.

EFFECT: proposed method in comparison with the analogue provides enhancement of accuracy of determining location of the forest fire by processing the filling of wellhead with glyphosate eliminating vegetation and retaining high intensity of smoke generation during continuous operation of wells.

FIELD: fire-fighting equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fire-fighting system. The fire suppression system in a confined space comprises a fire alarm device, the devices of the supply actuation of refrigerant and the neutral gas from the relevant sources and the regulator of the refrigerant supply. Moreover, in the regulator of the refrigerant supply the slide-valve and the sleeve covering it is made with through channels, and when the device of the supply actuation of refrigerant is closed the slide-valve and the sleeve are spring-loaded to the opening of the annular channel in the sleeve. At that the system is made with the ability of short-term total consumption supply of refrigerant through the annular channel in the sleeve immediately after actuation of the device of refrigerant supply and the limited flow of refrigerant, after closing the device of supply actuation of neutral gas from the membrane nitrogen generator.

EFFECT: increased reliability and reduced weight of the device is provided due to creation of the regulator, which provides short-term total consumption supply of the refrigerant.

5 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: tobacco industry.

SUBSTANCE: usage: invention relates to a cigarette extinguishment method and to a self- extinguishing cigarette for the method implementation. The specificity of the self- extinguishing cigarette (containing a tobacco core consisting of fragments with low and high tobacco stuffing density, a paper cartridge enveloping the core and a filter) is as follows: fragments with high stuffing density are placed along the tobacco core length from the open end to the filter in the form of a conic frustum, oriented with conicity towards the filter, while fragments with low stuffing density are placed along the periphery of the conic frustum between the latter and the paper cartridge.

EFFECT: self- extinguishing cigarette development.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: fire-prevention facilities.

SUBSTANCE: method for location determining of forest fire comprises identifying the most fire-hazardous sites of peatland, accommodation at area of the sites of vertical wells, installation in wells of perforated pipes, filling the pipes with smoke-generating pyrotechnic composition, pouring the wellheads with granulometric material, recording of coordinates of the wells on the forest fire map, breakdown of patrol routes, patrol observation of smoke, determining of boundary of fire according to location of smoke over the wells, recording its coordinates on the forest fire map. At that the granulometric material is mixed with the cuprous sulphate, and then the wellheads are poured with the mixture.

EFFECT: improving the accuracy of location determining of forest fire.

FIELD: fire-prevention facilities.

SUBSTANCE: method of location determining of forest fire comprises identifying the most fire-hazardous sites of peatland, accommodation at area of the sites of vertical wells, installation in wells of perforated pipes, filling the pipes with smoke-generating pyrotechnic composition, pouring the wellheads with granulometric material, recording of coordinates of the wells on the forest fire map, breakdown of patrol routes, patrol observation of smoke, determining of boundary of fire according to location of smoke over the wells, recording its coordinates on the forest fire map. At that the granulometric material is processed with the preparation of N-dichloro-para-carboxy-benzene sulphonamide, and then the wellheads are poured with it.

EFFECT: increased intensity of smoke generation during prolonged operation of the wells.

FIELD: fire safety.

SUBSTANCE: method of location of forest fire comprises identifying the most fire-hazard peatlands, placement at the area of sites of vertical wells, installation of perforated pipes in the wells, filling the pipes with smoke-producing pyrotechnic composition, filling the mouths of wells with granulometric material, fixation of coordinates of the wells on the forest fire map, breakdown of patrol routes, patrol observation of smoke, determining of boundary of fire according to smoke location over the wells, fixing its coordinates on the forest fire map. At that the granulometric material is processed with algaecide triazone, and then it is filled to the mouths of wells.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of location of the forest fire due to processing of filling the mouths of wells with triazone, suppressing life activity of diatomic algae.

FIELD: fire safety.

SUBSTANCE: in the fire extinguishing agent, which is filled in fire extinguishers-sprinklers, the substances are added which, when their dispergating with pulsed explosive exhausts of compressed air in combination with air form limited portions of volumes of explosive mixture that is exploded by influence of red-hot elements of the burning object, which promotes to more intensive beating the crests of flame of the burning object: significantly larger surfaces of the burning object are cooled, because of the greater dispersion of the fire extinguishing agent on the surface of the latter.

EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of fire extinguishing.

FIELD: rescue equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fire-fighting facilities and can be used to extinguish the objects located away from water reservoirs. The method of fire-fighting from the fire helicopter is as follows. When receiving the information about a fire the fire helicopter is delivered to the site of the fire. The found burning object is oriented relative to the cardinal points, placed in non-hazardous areas around the burning object, the fire helicopter hovers sequentially over each point corresponding to this cardinal point, and the coil with halyard rope of fire-resistant material sprung wound on it is dropped to each firefighter-spotter, the other end of which is attached to the vessel with the fire-extinguishing agent, after dropping of all four coils the fire helicopter hovers over the burning object, the vessel with the fire-extinguishing agent is lowered from the fire helicopter so that it is placed in a selected region of the burning object, when inclination by the wind of the position of the vessel with the fire-extinguishing agent, the commands are given from the fire helicopter by the mobile communication to the firefighter-spotters to pull or loosen their halyard ropes in order to adjust the horizontal position of the vessel.

EFFECT: enhanced efficacy of fire-fighting in windy conditions is provided.

1 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention proposes a small-sized instrument for quick assessment of flame-proof properties of flame-proof timber treatment, which consists of a housing made in the form of an open box-type profile, a specimen installation and positioning mechanism, a gas burner activation mechanism and a gas burner installation mechanism. An inclination angle of the specimen installation and positioning mechanism is unchanged relative to a vertical axis of the housing, and additionally, it includes a fixation device of an application point of flame to the specimen with a cut-out in the upper part of the device. All components of the instrument are installed in the cavity of the housing.

EFFECT: providing reliable test results.

4 dwg

FIELD: personal use articles.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to main, auxiliary or additional protection system means to be implemented through compensation arrangements consisting in equipping civil and defence increased hazard facilities, under design and already existing (technical control facilities (TCFs), hazardous production facilities (HPFs), critically important facilities (CIFs), strategically important facilities (SIFs)), with ready heat protective fireproof sets to reduce their vulnerability to out-of-limit thermal loads that initiate technogenic and natural-and-technogenic accidents and catastrophes. The heat protective fireproof set intended for protection of civil and defence increased hazard facilities, while ready and complete, consists of an external fireproof coating and an internal heat protective layer. The fireproof coating represents a homogenised composition based on organic solvents and consists of polymers, inorganic pigments, antipyrenes and modifying additives. The internal heat protective layer is composed of serially positioned sublayers. The first sublayer is made of fireproof textiles of fibres such as siliceous fibreglass to ensure elasticity. The second sublayer is made of homogenised material based on incombustible rock fibres such as kaolinic fibre with addition of an inorganic binding agent. The third sublayer is made of the same material as the first one. The fourth sublayer is made in the form of a heat protective coating representing a homogenised composition based on synthetic rubber, polymers and inorganic pigments whereto microscopic ceramic balls in a suspended condition are added.

EFFECT: invention promotes better preservation of integrity of the facility protected.

2 dwg

Thermal protection // 2535498

FIELD: fire-fighting equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flame retardant fire-fighting means and can be used in transportation of tanks with flammable and radiation hazardous gases and liquids with excess internal pressure, liquefied gases at cryogenic temperatures. The proposed thermal protection consists of a cylindrical cup, a heat-resistant and heat-insulating layer and protective and decorative facing, which are the heat-shielding structure sewn from basalt double-sided foil-coated and weather-resistant material consisting of the upper and lower parts. The upper part after placing the protected object in the cup is mounted on the object, the spring-loaded tightening mechanisms of the upper part are attached to the load-lifting lugs of the cylindrical cup, creating tightness and closing of the thermal protection. The implementation of this technical solution enables to create a dismountable construction of thermal protection for transportation of tanks with radiation hazardous, flammable and harmful substances, creating a temporary factor preventing the destruction of the transportable tank in case of emergency.

EFFECT: construction has high reliability, durability and the possibility of deactivation, while providing reduction of labour intensity of loading and unloading operations and reduction of downtime of the vehicle.

11 dwg

FIELD: fire safety equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of fire-extinguishing and can be used to extinguish fires at various sites both in indoor and outdoor spaces. The method of fire extinguishing consists in main large-drop fire-extinguishing liquid and atomised fire-extinguishing liquid alternately applied to the combustion source, forming the aerosol cloud on the surface of the combustion source, and the subsequent pressing of the aerosol cloud to the surface of the combustion source. Pressing of the aerosol cloud is carried out by additional supplying a portion of the large-drop fire-extinguishing liquid. The additional large-drop fire-extinguishing liquid is supplied onto the combustion source in an amount equal to 10-50% of the amount of the main large-drop liquid.

EFFECT: method enables to increase the efficiency of fire-extinguishing with sprayed fire-extinguishing liquid, especially fire with powerful upward heat fluxes, to provide the ability of extinguishing fires in premises with low and high altitudes.

6 cl

FIELD: fire safety.

SUBSTANCE: fire-extinguishing method with use of gas-liquid mixture is carried out by the container in which the extinguishing agent is stored and which is connected to the trigger cylinder with the working gas, the container in which the extinguishing agent is stored is secured by the brackets to the building structure of the facility and it is equipped with the device of release of the gas phase, combined with a measuring probe for the extinguishing agent, and the device forming gas-liquid mixture of vortex type, which is made in the form of a conical mixing chamber with a tangential gas inlet in the upper part, then is connected by the high pressure flexible hose of the working gas such as nitrogen or CO2 to the container from the starting cylinder. At that the gas supply is carried out by the vortex element, and the feeding of gas-liquid mixture to the central pipeline is carried out from the lower part of the chamber connected to the fire extinguishing agent discharging unit, combined with the safety valve. At that, the vertical pipe of the chamber through the tee is connected to the device of filling of the extinguishing agent and the pressure alarm, and the formed gas-liquid mixture on the central pipeline is directed to the nodal point of the distribution network, and then, through the distribution network to all sprinklers, with each sprinkler or block of sprinklers is provided with a device of orientation in one or two planes.

EFFECT: increasing operation speed of fire-extinguishing system and efficiency of spraying of gas-liquid mixture.

2 dwg

FIELD: fire safety.

SUBSTANCE: method of extinguishing burning fountains on gas, crude oil and gas-oil wells comprises feeding to the seat of fire of gas-dispersed composition. And the said composition is prepared by mixing the gas phlegmatiser and liquid and/or dispersed flame retardant in the vessel under pressure of 1-12 MPa at a ratio of gas phlegmatiser and the flame retardant in a ratio of from 1:3 to 1:1, followed by feeding the obtained gas-dispersed mixture of the above vessel through the main pipeline to the slit-like convergent sprayer. And the sprayer is mounted at the calculated distance from the wellhead, providing breakdown of a burning torch. The device comprises a sealed container with the chemical inhibitor, a balloon gas source connected with the cavity of the said container with the tubular aerator providing injection of the extinguishing agent through the start-locking device and the main pipeline. The pipeline is connected through the membrane, mechanical or electrical valve with a nozzle sprayer. And the nozzle is made in the form of a slit-like confuser with an angle of convergence of the generants in the vertical plane defined by a given mathematical expression.

EFFECT: improving the efficiency of fire-extinguishing and safety of use of the device, reducing the labour intensity of maintenance.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the area of fire- and explosion-proof arrangements for vehicles equipped with power supply trolley systems and intended for movement of vehicles filled by combustible and oxidizing components of rocket fuels, etc. The current collector is a potential source of fire development as far as electric discharges are generated permanently between trolleys during its usage. Fire- and explosion-proof protection of current collector for the trolley system is arranged by the following engineering measures. Current-carrying trolleys are placed in grooves of non-flammable or fire-retardant material in conditions of potential emergency emission into the environment of vapours of combustible or oxidizing substances. To the conditionally closed space of the protective enclosure for a current-collecting carriage a line is entered to feed inert gas to the closed space of the protective enclosure. The device includes a unit delaying power supply to current-carrying trolleys for the period till inert gas is fed to the protective enclosure of the current-collecting carriage before the vehicle start-up.

EFFECT: provision of the protective enclosure for a current-collecting device for the whole period of current-carrying trolleys staying under voltage.

5 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to measurement equipment and can be used for testing of fire-resistant efficiency of protective compounds and coatings for timber. The proposed method involves preparation of a specimen, flame action on the specimen, temperature measurement of exhaust gaseous combustion products, measurement of weight of the specimen and determination of weight loss, as per which fire-resistant efficiency is determined. Specimen weight measurement is performed continuously during flame action on the specimen and after the action is completed, and a moment exceeding the limit weight loss established by classification or moment of stabilisation of specimen weight after completion of its burning is taken as a test completion moment. This method is implemented by a device containing a chamber for arrangement of a specimen, a gas burner, an exhaust system with a thermoelectric converter, an instrument for measurement and recording of temperature of exhaust gaseous combustion products. The device is also equipped with a unit for automatic measurement and recording in time of specimen weight during fire tests, which includes a lever mechanism made so that a specimen holder can be installed and connected to a weight measurement instrument connected to the processing and recording unit.

EFFECT: obtaining more accurate data for investigation of a fire protection mechanism.

5 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg

FIELD: fire-fighting equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method of combined sand jet-water extinguishing forest fires from the air due to the use of local materials and purposeful fire extinguishing only at points of contact of with burning crowns with non-burning crowns of neighbouring trees is a mobile in time of starting the whole process of fire extinguishing due to the ubiquitous proximity of consumables. According to the proposed method, the formation of sand jets occurs automatically due to the lifting height and weight of the thrown sand. The water thrown then to the remaining sources of fire with less heat liberation is used without loss by evaporation in the air directly to cool crowns, including those fallen to the ground, which ensures high efficiency of extinguishing forest fires. The extinguished area of spread of fire in the form of a band with no means of transmission of fire is a barrier for spreading fire from the ongoing passive afterburning of the isolated part of the forest.

EFFECT: improved method.

4 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fire protection of inhabited pressure compartments of spacecrafts. Additional container with gas working medium is placed adjacent to sample combustion chamber made in the form of cylinder. The combustion chamber at its both ends is connected with additional container by openings for working gas medium passage when closed loop of its motion is created. The combustion chamber and additional container are equipped with plate-type heat exchangers one of which is located in combustion chamber between the axis of centrifuge rotation and sample of material being tested, and the other one - in additional container between the axis of centrifuge rotation and working gas medium outlet from combustion chamber. Opening at the side of working gas medium inlet into combustion chamber is closed by grid made of incombustible material with low hydraulic resistance. Openings between combustion chamber and additional container at each end of combustion chamber are made with port areas not less than combustion chamber cross-sectional area in the region of tested material sample location.

EFFECT: determination of material combustion limits from gravity acceleration depending on oxygen concentration in spacecraft pressure compartment atmosphere.

8 dwg, 1 tbl

Fire-proof curtains // 2243796

FIELD: equipment for protection against fire, particularly to protect auditorium against fire appeared on stage with the use of flexible barrier made as curtain.

SUBSTANCE: fire-proof curtain is formed of web including several layers of heat-resistant material and additional kentledge arranged in lower curtain part. Kentledge is wound round rotary drum connected with electrical and standby manual drives. Drives include electric and manual elevator-descender systems. Curtain has sealing frame including stationary vertical members, horizontal member, movable members and rotary swinging pressing member. Curtain is provided with curtain dropping speed stabilization system including several weights located on different heights and connected one to another by flexible tie wound on multiple-pass pulley installed on drum shaft and damper. Device is operated in the following way. As fire occurs on stage fixing force is manually or automatically released from drum and curtain begins to move downwards under the action of kentledge. Pulley is rotated and weights are consecutively lifted to prevent curtain acceleration due to increasing curtain weight. When kentledge reaches floor weights reach dampers and stop. Swinging pressing member presses curtain to horizontal member and movable members press curtain to provide stage portal air-tightness, to localize fire on stage and to protect auditorium against hazardous combustion products.

EFFECT: increased efficiency.

3 dwg

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