Method of accident rescue operations and device for its implementation

FIELD: rescue operations.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises displacing the liquid up by the body immersed in it under the influence of its gravity and returned to the initial upper position by gravity of liquid displaced by it, acting on the lever that raises the drowned body upwards, and also displacement of liquid between the well tanks in the siphon tubes. According to the invention the liquid is pushed from the housing both under the action of gravity of the immersed body and the gravity of the storage container mounted on it with the displaced liquid stored in it, the displaced liquid is first used for additional loading of the body immersed in the liquid, and after reaching the limit depth of immersion of the drowned body the load of the displaced water is removed from it and the long lever is loaded with it, that lifts the drowned body at a distance from the bearing point of the lever, corresponding to compliance to the energy conservation principle on the lever, which is expressed in equation of moments of forces acting on the lever of the opposite direction relating to the bearing point of the lever.

EFFECT: device consisting of a housing, an immersed body, and the means for its reciprocating motion enables to remove water from flooded sites due to gravity of the immersed body and the lifted water and thus provides resource saving.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of conducting rescue operations in the shortage of industrial energy sources or in energy savings from industrial sources, for example, to pump water from building pits, flooded areas during the floods, and floods, from the holds of ships if there is leakage or water supply to the fire.

The known method of dewatering pumps with electric motor by suction of water from the flooded area and its supply via pressure pipeline for release (SU 2020277, publ. 1991). The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of forced movement of water through the use of industrial energy sources. This makes it difficult to use in an emergency or in the absence of industrial sources of energy in remote and newly developed irrigation areas.

Closest to the invention to the technical essence is a method for moving fluid through replacement of its sinking under the action of gravity of the body (EN 24321059, publ. 24.02.2010). In this case, sinking in water heavy body displaces the law of Archimedes water up to the volume of the immersed part of the body and transfers its potential energy to the water displaced upwards. However, this method of lifting water requires additional costs for the return �drowning in the upper position.

Closest to the invention to the technical essence is a method of displacing fluid up the body, sinking into it due to its gravity and returns to the original upper position by the force of gravity of the fluid displaced by it acting on the lever, lifting the drowned body (EN 2447326, publ. 10.04.2012). Moreover, the loading lever is raised by the water produced by pre-positioning raised in cumulative water collection tank to the desired volume, and then move it using the siphon in the intermediate tank, suspended on the end of the lifting lever. This method has the following disadvantages. Valveless channels for movement of water displaced have limited transverse dimensions due to the need to reduce the amount of returning water down when lifting a water displacer, which reduces the volumetric capacity of displacement. In addition, water contained in the lifting pipe, enters the holding tank and does not participate in the return of a drowned body in the original upper position.

Object of the invention is to improve the reliability of water drainage in the context of rescue operations by increasing productivity, drainage, elimination of losses from water channels pushed up water when operations returned�I of the propellant in the original upper position and making the desired volume of pre-stored fluid when you push it up from the condition of observance of the law of conservation of energy on the lever.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of liquid displacement body, sinking into it under the action of its gravity and returns to the original upper position by the force of gravity of the fluid displaced by it acting on the lever, raising a drowned body, according to the invention the extruded liquid is first used for the loading of the submersible body, and then load it as a long lever at a distance from the fulcrum of the lever, corresponding to the condition of compliance with the law of conservation of energy on the lever, which is expressed in the equality of the moments acting on the lever forces the opposite direction about the fulcrum of the lever.

An example of a method

The drainage from flooded places as follows. On waterlogged lands through the housing with a suction valve (not shown) secrete some of the fluid. Then in the case, for example, in the form of a pipe immersed in the body of water lift. This body of water has an axial channel or water-lifting pipe with a discharge valve for dispensing a fluid and mounted on the diaphragm is fixed in the housing. When the immersion body water lift fluid is displaced upward from the housing by the axial channel of the submerged body and flows into a holding tank mounted on the upper end vodopada�Noah pipe. Warehoused in a storage tank liquid creates additional load on the lower body and increases the volume of displaced fluid from the housing. Liquid to displace until its volume and weight in the storage tank reaches a magnitude sufficient to create the magnitude of moment about the fulcrum of the lever (rocker) when exposed at the end of a long lever arm greater than the moment about the same pivot point created by the submerged weight of the body suspended on the short arm.. the Equality of these points reflects the observance of the law of conservation of energy on the lever (G. S. Landsberg. Elementary physics, 14th ed., vol. 1, p. 181, first paragraph, Moscow, Fizmatlit, 2012)

FS=FS,

where Ft is the submerged weight of the body;

St - length of the short lever arm (length of the short arm of the lever taken from design considerations to provide a reciprocating motion of submerged body);

F - the weight of liquid displaced submerged body in a holding tank for one cycle;

S - length or the length of the long arm of the lever.

Given the Archimedes ' principle, which States that when immersed body in a fluid is displaced liquid in the volume of the immersed part of the body, can write the law of conservation of energy in a new form

YWS=YWS,

where Ut is the volumetric weight bolt�recovery of the body;

W - the volume immersed in the liquid body and the fluid displaced by it;

I - volumetric weight of the displaced fluid.

After transformations have YS=YS or S=SY/Too S/St=Ut/It. That is, when the equilibrium of the above points, the length of the long arm of the lever should be as many times greater than the length of the short arm of the lever, how many times the volumetric weight of the body more volumetric weight of the displaced fluid. Thus we find the length of the lever (rocker arm) and the ratio of his shoulders.

As the weight of liquid in the storage tank increases the load on the lower body and this provides an increase in the volume of water displaced upward fluid from the body, which later will flow through the siphon tube into the container at the end of a long lever, it will ensure the rise of the immersion of the body in the upper extreme position without increasing the length of the long arm of the lever is obtained by the condition of equilibrium of moments on the lever. Consider a specific example.

Case diameter is 0.2 m. the Height of rise of water 2 m.

Weight of the immersed body Ft=pRR,

where p is the number 3,14; R is the radius of the shell (R=0.1 m);

p is the hydrostatic pressure under the end of the immersed body. In this case p=PSL, where I is the volumetric weight of the liquid (I=1000 kg/m3), and H - height of liquid.

Hence the weight of the immersed body Ft=1000×2×3,14×0,1×0,1=62,8 kg.

Clague�bubbled obtained weight of 62.8 kg is the weight of the immersed body, its water-lifting pipe, a storage tank on it and stored in it is expelled from the body fluid.

When the length of the short arm of S=0.25 m and a depth of immersion in the liquid body sinking h=0.25 m is displaced in one cycle the fluid in the volume W=RRh=3,14×0,1×0,1×0,25=7,85 L.

Compliance with the energy conservation law in this case will be described by the equation

Thus, the drainage will be carried out in automatic mode due to the force of gravity (gravity) immersion of the body and pushed out of the volume of the liquid immersion up to until will be observed, the ratio of the force on the lever (rocker).

Device for rescue operations

A device for rescue operations. It is a centrifugal pump with motor, consuming energy from industrial sources (8U 2020277, 1991). The disadvantage of this device is the dependence on industrial energy sources, making it impossible to use in emergency situations and during natural disasters.

More closest to the technical essence and the achieved effect is a device (RU 2431059, publ. 24.02.2010) consisting of a body immersed body and lever lowering-lifting mechanism. The disadvantage of this device lies in the fact, th� it is designed for the use of muscular effort that which limits its field of application and performance.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved effect is a device (RU 2447326, publ. 10.04.2012). In this case, sinking in the water under the action of the force of gravity heavy body displaces up water from the body, which siphon tube flows into the vessel, mounted on the end of a long lever arm, the short arm of which is suspended the body, displacing the water. The ratio of the arm length of the lever taken from the condition of observance of the law of conservation of energy on the lever. The charge has the following disadvantages. The cross sectional area of the channel through which the displaced water rises, adopted the minimum size from the condition of minimization of losses of displaced water when returning a drowned body in the original upper position. For this reason, prolonged cycle time and decreases the performance of water lift. In addition, the release of water from water-lifting pipe when returning a drowned body in the original upper position requires additional time for its fulfillment with the next cycle, which further reduces performance. This reduces the reliability and performance of water lift.

Object of the invention is to improve the reliability and performance of water lift by increasing the area of the cross�wow section of water channels, elimination of losses of displaced water and determine the ratio arms of the lever from the condition of observance of the law of conservation of energy on the lever.

The technical result is achieved in that the device comprising a housing embedding housing body, means for reciprocating motion in the form neravnovesnogo lever (rocker arm), on the short arm of which is suspended a submersible body, and on the long arm of the intermediate container of water that form the effort of lifting the immersion of the body in the original upper position, and a siphon pipe connecting storage tanks, according to the invention a submersible body is placed on the diaphragm is fixed in the housing, has a water-lifting pipe, the entrance to which is in the lower part of the discharge valve installed, at the outlet in the upper part there is the capacity for accumulation of water displaced from the body of liquid and suspended on the short arm of the rocker arm, preferably forming its minimum torque force of gravity relative to the pivot point of the lever (rocker arm) when the accepted amount of liquid displacement per cycle, and the length of the long arm of the rocker, at the end of which the container is installed, forming the force on the long arm of the rocker arm to lift a submersible body, made on the condition of observance of the law of conservation of energy, expressed in the equality omentoplasty forces in the opposite direction about the fulcrum of the lever (rocker arm).

Device for rescue operations depicted in the attached drawing.

The device includes a housing 1 with a suction valve (not shown) immersed body 2, a water-lifting pipe 3 to the injection valve 10 and a diaphragm 4, the tank 5 for water-lifting pipe 3, the intermediate container 6 at the end of the long arm of the lever 7 and the siphon pipe 8 and 9 between catchment tanks.

The device operates as follows. The housing 1 is mounted on the flooded territory. The body contains an immersed body 2 diaphragm 4 with a water-lifting pipe 3 having at the lower end of the discharge valve 10, while the upper end of the lift pipe from the tank 5.

The lever 7 is mounted on the upper end of the housing 1. Short end of the lever 7 is suspended submerged body 2, and to the long end of the lever - intermediate collection tank 6. Tanks 5 and 6 are equipped with siphon tubes 8 and 9 for its discharge. The initial position of the lever 7 is horizontal, and the body 2 is partially submerged in water or allowed to touch the water. The lever 7 can be recorded and raised with short shoulder, for example, 30 degrees. This allows you to increase the stroke of a submersible body vertically and thus increase the volume of displaced fluid per cycle. Then the lever 7 is released from fixation and is available in�the possibility of the body 2 to move downwards under the action of its gravity. While submerged body 2 is formed at the surface of the liquid excess pressure, which fluid is displaced up the water pipe 3 and out to the collecting tank 5. Volume 5 corresponds to the amount of fluid that my weight is able to form a point on the long arm of exceeding the time on the short arm of the lever, and the lever for her short shoulder raise drowned body in the original upper position.

When filling a vessel 5 includes a siphon 8, and water is poured into the intermediate container 6. The inclusion of the siphon is provided automatically by the location of its highest point above the bottom of the tank. As you fill the tank 6 the load is removed from the immersion of the body 2 in connection with emptying the tank 5. Therefore, the submerged body 2 first stops in its motion down and then the lever is lifted in the upper initial position. When you stop the body 2 of the injection valve 10 is closed and the liquid inside is water-lifting pipe 3 is maintained and the next cycle begins do not fill with water-lifting pipe, and once with effusion of fluid in the tank 5. This reduces the cycle time and the stroke length of submerged body 2 vertically. All this improves the performance of water lift and reliability.

Return t�La 2 in the original upper position means the completion of the work cycle. After emptying the tank 6 through the siphon 9 submerged body 2 begins the next working cycle. By this time the housing 1 through the suction valve is already filled with a new portion of liquid.

Thus, the drainage through the use of alternative renewable energy source of gravity. Can be a device designed for personal use with limited output for use in a separate small objects. In industrial conditions, the performance can be increased up to several cubic meters per cycle. Currently emergency dewatering can be carried out in such a way, limited the depth to 10 m.

1. Method of rescue operations in conditions of energy deficit from industrial sources or their complete absence, including the displacement of fluid up the body, sinking into it under the action of its gravity and returns to the original upper position by the force of gravity of the fluid displaced by it acting on the lever, up drowned body, and the movement of fluid between catchment tanks on the siphon pipe, characterized in that the liquid is forced out of the housing under the action of gravity immersion of the body and gravity mounted on it will accumulate� - filled containers with stored in it is displaced by the liquid, the expelled fluid is first used for additional loading submersible in the fluid of the body, and after reaching the maximum depth of the sinking of the body burden of displaced water with him remove and load it as a long lever that lifts the drowned body at a distance from the fulcrum of the lever, corresponding to the compliance with the conditions of the law of conservation of energy on the lever, which is expressed in the equality of the moments acting on the lever forces the opposite direction about the fulcrum of the lever.

2. The device for implementing the method according to claim 1, comprising a housing embedding housing body, means for reciprocating motion in the form neravnovesnogo lever (rocker arm), on the short arm of which is suspended a submersible body, and on the long arm intermediate the container with water, forming a force for lifting submerged body in the upper position and the siphon pipe connecting storage tanks, characterized in that the immersion body is placed on the diaphragm is fixed in the housing, has a water-lifting pipe, at the upper end of which is placed a receptacle for the accumulation of water displaced from the body of liquid, and suspended on the short arm of the rocker arm, forming a desirable minimum torque about the fulcrum when the accepted amount of liquid displacement per cycle,and the length of the long arm of the rocker, at the end of which the container is installed, forming the force on the long arm of the rocker arm to lift a submersible body, made on the condition of observance of the law of conservation of energy, expressed in the equality of the moments of the forces in the opposite direction about the fulcrum of the rocker arm (lever).



 

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4 cl

FIELD: rescue equipment, in particular, apparatus for urgent descending of people in extreme situations.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has carrier casing with member for connecting to individual to be descended, power-type descending speed regulator comprising power block embraced with cable, rotary lever and sliding friction member. Carrier casing is made in the form of semi-circle adapted for arrangement in vertical plane and is equipped with slots for passage of cable through cavities thereof, and handle. Power block embraced with cable is rigidly fixed on rotary lever positioned for angular displacement relative to axis, arrangement along generatrix of cylindrical surface of carrier casing, and is equipped with self-braking screw-type descending mechanism. Descending mechanism has power screw with flywheel positioned at one end and semi-spherical member arranged at other end of power screw for contacting with semi-spherical receptacle at end of rotary lever, and threaded opening made in carrier casing wall and extending perpendicular to descending direction.

EFFECT: simplified construction and increased safety of descending of individual.

2 cl, 3 dwg

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