Adjustment shield

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: adjustment shield simulates forward radio signals and radio signals specularly reflected from the earth, propagating from a missile and a target to a final homing area. The adjustment shield is located in the far zone of a radio direction-finding antenna and comprises laser and infrared emitters. To simulate signals from a missile transponder and signals reflected from a target, the shield is provided with a radio pulse generator with a frequency synthesiser.

EFFECT: high accuracy of adjustment.

3 dwg

 

There is a combined method of aiming missiles at the target in which to improve the noise immunity of the angular coordinate of the missile are determined by radio-, optical-electronic and thermal imaging finders. The target tracking radar and thermal imaging finders

In the case of interference during maintenance of missiles at the target, or failure of one of the finders, the transition to a more noise-immunity finder or replace it with another one. In the transition from one finder to another corner coordinates of the missile and target must not be changed. To this end the electrical and the optical axis direction finders are placed parallel to each other.

Aiming missiles at the target using finder carried by radio signals from a transponder located on the rocket, and reflected from the target irradiated by the direction finder. In this case, the antenna direction finder radio signals come from missiles and targets, consisting of three components:

- direct the signals passed by the shortest distance from the missile and the target,

- mirrored signals from the surface of the earth,

- scattered components resulting from reflections from the earth's surface irregularities.

Reflected radio signals when�ADAT to a distortion of the angular coordinates of the missile and the target, and in some cases, and for the detection of false targets when scanning in elevation. This is manifested most strongly when pointing missiles at low-flying target, i.e. a target with a small angle.

Consequently, because of reflected radio signals parallel electrical and optical axis direction does not provide the equality of the corresponding angular coordinates of the missile and target when setting the radio and optical finders.

To estimate the error in the finding of the missile and the target, make the reflected signals, analytical methods, taking into account the dynamics of movement of the missile and target is almost impossible. To solve this problem by using physical simulation of direct and reflected from earth's radio signals coming from the missile and the target. It should be borne in mind that to hit a target missile is very important with high accuracy to determine the coordinates of the missile and target in the terminal phase guidance.

As a model, you can take the rig adjusting (patent No. 2406066 from 03.08.2009), which measures the errors of direction finding transponder device and the re-emission signals regarding thermal imaging of delegator, as follows: next to the antenna direction finder 1 at some distance from the mechanical axis of the antenna set and rigidly connected with the antenna optoelectronic and televisionaytelmat 2, 3 with the coordinates of-a and A on the X-axis and the coordinate In Y-axis (see Fig.1). The electrical and the optical axis of the radio - and opto-electronic direction finders are placed parallel to the optical axis of the imager. The X-axis and Y respectively directed horizontally and vertically, and the origin of coordinates coincides with the center of the aperture of the antenna direction finder. Tower 4, remote at a distance L from the antenna 1, install shield 5 with 3-axis actuator 10. The shield 5 has a transponder 6, a similar socket on the rocket, the moving target simulator 7, laser and infrared emitters 8, 9, removed from the phase center of the antenna of the transponder 6-A, b and A, b on there X, Y equal to

offsets optoelectronic and thermal imaging finders 2, 3 from the axis of the antenna 1, and the moving target simulator 7 on the Y-axis at a distance of V.

With the rotary antenna 1 of the radio direction finder and a 3-axis actuator 10 that is equipped with a shield 5, the optical axis of the optoelectronic and thermal imaging finders 2, 3 combined with laser and infrared emitters 8, 9. Then the finders detect the angular coordinates of the transponder, the moving target simulator and infrared emitter and by subtracting from the angular coordinates of the transponder and the moving target simulator corresponding coordinates of the infrared radiation�Atelier, determine the amount of error of direction finding radar direction finder relative to thermal direction finder. The amount of error of direction finding target channel finder is determined by subtracting from the angular coordinates of the target value arctg (B/L).

It should be noted that the angular coordinates of the transponder 6 is determined by its own radiation produced after the arrival of pulse start and the moving target simulator 7 reflected on his radio direction finder. At the same time, these signals get to the tower and shield and reflected from them.

Thus, in the antenna direction finder 1 come:

- direct the signals passed by the shortest distance from the transponder 6 and the moving target simulator 7,

- mirrored signals from the surface of the earth,

- reflected from the tower and shield,

- scattered signals resulting from reflections from the earth's surface irregularities.

The presence of the reflected from the tower and the shield of the radio direction finder is a major shortcoming in the simulation of direct and reflected from earth's radio signals from the missile and the target. In addition, to simulate the direct and specularly reflected from earth's radio signals coming from the missile and target at a predetermined end portion of the guidance, is required to determine the height of the tower and its distance d� finder.

The object of the invention is to create alignment of the shield, eliminating any reflected signals from the tower and the shield when determining the angular coordinates of the transponder and the moving target simulator.

The solution of this problem is achieved by the adjustment of the shield, simulating the direct and specularly reflected from earth's radio signals coming from the missile and target in the terminal phase of guidance, which is in the far zone of the antenna direction finder and containing laser and infrared emitters, what is new is that to simulate signals from the transponder of the rocket and the signals reflected from the target, it is provided with a generator of radio pulses with a frequency synthesizer, wherein the horizontal distance from the shield to the finder is determined by the formula

L=D·(h+k)/H, where

D is the horizontal distance from the finder to the target, H is the target height, h, and k is the height of the phase centers of the antennas respectively of the generator of radio pulses with the frequency synthesizer and the ADF.

This is accomplished as follows: next to the antenna direction finder 1 at some distance from the centre of the aperture of the antenna set and rigidly connected with the antenna optoelectronic and thermal finders 2, 3 with the coordinates of-a and A on the X-axis and the coordinate In Y-axis (see Fig.2). Thus electric and �pricheska axis radio - and opto-electronic direction finders are placed parallel to the optical axis of the imager. The X-axis and Y respectively directed horizontally and vertically, and the origin of coordinates coincides with the center of the aperture of the antenna direction finder. Tower 4, remote distance L calculated by the above formula, from the antenna 1, install shield 5 with 3-axis actuator 10. The shield 5 has a generator of radio pulses with a frequency synthesizer with an antenna 11, simulating the signals from the rocket and reflected signals from the target, laser and infrared emitters 8, 9, removed from the phase center of the antenna 11, respectively, at the distances a, b and A, In the X, Y, is equal to the displacement of optoelectronic and thermal imaging finders 2, 3.

With the rotary antenna 1 of the radio direction finder and a 3-axis actuator 10 that is equipped with a shield 5, the optical axis of the optoelectronic and thermal radar 2, 3 combined with laser and infrared emitters 8, 9.

Generator of radio pulses with a frequency synthesizer via the antenna 11 on their own radio signals from the transponder simulates the radio signals from the transponder and reflected from the target. Therefore, from the shield to the antenna direction finder come:

- direct the signals passed by the shortest distance from the generator of radio pulses with a frequency synthesizer,

- mirrored signals from the surface of the earth,

- scattered signal�, the resulting reflections from the earth's surface irregularities.

Then the finders detect the angular coordinates of the antenna 11 to the target and missile channels and the infrared emitter 9.

Subtracting from the angular coordinates of the antenna 11 corresponding to the coordinates of the infrared emitter 9, determine the value of the error of direction finding radar direction finder on target and missile channels with respect to thermal imaging, insertion reflected from earth's radio signals.

Fig.3 shows the course of the direct and specularly reflected from earth's radio signals arriving at the antenna direction finder 1 from the launch vehicle 12 and a target 13, which is the final section of the guidance and alignment of the shield installed on the tower 4. The height h of the phase center of the antenna 11 should be such that the angle β was not more linear section of the direction-finding characteristics of the ADF in elevation.

Adjusting the shield, simulating the direct and specularly reflected from earth's radio signals coming from the missile and target in the terminal phase of guidance, which is in the far zone of the antenna direction finder and containing laser and infrared emitters, characterized in that to simulate signals from the transponder of the rocket and the signals reflected from the target, it is provided with a generator of radio pulses with a frequency synthesizer, when �that the horizontal distance from the shield to the finder is determined by the formula:
L=D·(h+k)/H
where D is the horizontal distance from the finder to the target;
h, k - the height of the phase centers of the antennas respectively of the generator of radio pulses with a frequency synthesizer and radio direction finder;
H - the height of the target.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus for recognition of technical state of object comprises an antenna, a radar station, a filter channel unit, an autocorrelation function acquisition unit, a memory unit, a subtractor, a technical state evaluating device, a delay line, a multiplier, an analogue-to-digital converter, n switches and a "record" button. The listed components are connected to each other in a certain manner.

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1 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spacecraft on-board radar equipment designed for calibrating radar stations based on the radar cross-section. Spacecraft comprises a housing in the form of a rectangular prism (1) with a cross-section (2) in the form of a concave-convex polygon. Two faces (4, 5) of the prism of the same size with radio-reflecting surfaces face inside the housing of the spacecraft. The housing of the spacecraft is provided with two folding flat radio-reflecting plates (6, 7), which are pivotally connected to the faces (8, 9). The plates (6, 7) are provided with opening mechanisms and units for mounting to the prism (1) to form a dihedral comer reflector in the working position. The angle between the faces of the reflector is in the range of (90-Δ)° to (90+Δ)°, where Δ is defined by the condition: 0<Δ<18λ/a, where λ is the wavelength of the radar station being calibrated, a is the size of the face of the reflector. The spacecraft has on-board GLONASS and/or GPS consumer navigation equipment, a microprocessor, a microcontroller and a unit for interfacing the orientation and stabilisation system with the microcontroller.

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9 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

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13 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

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8 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: physics, navigation.

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6 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: physics; control.

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1 dwg

FIELD: physics, navigation.

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1 dwg

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5 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

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7 dwg

FIELD: physics, communication.

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2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

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1 dwg

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EFFECT: possibility of frequency and spatial selection of signal sources.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics, control.

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2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to radio equipment and can be used at design and operation of radio direction finding complexes or radio communication systems of portable, mobile (onboard) and stationary location. On every element of an antenna array, an interval is recorded on time interval [0,T], formation of discrete spectrum of field intensity is performed using a Fourier transformation procedure; with that, for each of the obtained spectrum components there found is a vector of complex amplitudes/auxiliary sources as an approximate solution of a matrix-vector equation using a quasisolution procedure. Number of auxiliary sources is determined as number of the most significant proper numbers of an autocorrelation matrix of signals received by the antenna array, i.e. maximum and differing from the rest ones as to the value at least by one order. Then, values of a spectral component field are determined at an arbitrary point of antenna array plane (a virtual signal receiving channel is formed) as a scalar product of the determined vector of complex amplitudes of auxiliary sources and the corresponding vector of the virtual signal receiving channel.

EFFECT: improving stable functioning of assessment methods of electromagnetic or acoustic filed intensity.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus for detecting people under debris and searching for explosives and narcotics comprises, worn on a tracker dog 1, a collar 2, a mobile primary converter 3 and a secondary converter 12. The primary converter 3 comprises tactile sensors 4.1 and 4.2, a switch 5, an amplifier 6, a modulator 7, a radio transmitter 8, a power supply 9, a light 10 a sound 11 beacon, a driving generator 18, a phase-shift modulator 19, a flip-flop 17, a unipolar rectifier diode 20, an integrator 21, a threshold unit 22, a switch 23, a power amplifier 24 and a transmitting antenna 25. The secondary converter 12 comprises a dipole antenna 26, a frame antenna 27, high frequency amplifiers 28 and 29, amplitude detectors 30 and 31, a divider unit 32, a threshold unit 33, a switch 15, demodulators 14 and 44, multipliers 34, 35, 38 and 39, narrow-band filter 36 and 40, low-pass filters 37 and 41, phase inverters 42 and 43, a subtractor unit 45 and a recorder 16.

EFFECT: high noise-immunity and reliability of receiving and demodulating phase-shift modulated composite signals by suppressing narrow-band interference.

7 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: method includes receiving a signal at two spaced-apart receiving centres, digitising voltage from the output of the antenna, detecting a signal at each receiving centre, estimating the difference in time of reception, which includes estimating the delay of the reflected signal relative to the forward signal at each receiving centre, estimating the difference in time of reception of reflected signals, calculating the difference in time of reception of forward signals as a sum of the delay between the forward and reflected signals at the first receiving centre and the delay between the reflected signals at the first and second receiving centres, minus the delay between the forward and reflected signals at the second receiving centre.

EFFECT: high accuracy of estimating the difference in time of reception of signals of a radio-frequency radiation source at two spaced-apart receiving centres.

4 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: circular antenna system located on the surface of the earth is further provided with a linear dipole system lying along the vertical to the surface of the earth. The formed antenna system (three-dimensional antenna system), a multichannel receiver, a multichannel analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) and time Fourier transform are used to generate a space-time array of complex data En,m, which displays field strength values at n points of three-dimensional space (n is the of the dipole) and at the m-th moment in time, with intervals of 1-2 s (index m defines the number of the time sample of data at n dipoles m=1-M+1). The number of time samples of data is one greater than the number of beams M. The method further includes corresponding mathematical processing, filtering single-beam fields from a plurality of fields of the ionospheric signal, forming a beam pattern for each selected field, scanning the beam pattern in the range of estimate maxima and elevation angles and estimating azimuths, elevation angles and amplitudes from the maximum of the beam pattern from M beams of the ionospheric signal.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities of direction-finding, shorter time for calculating angular parameters of a multi-beam ionospheric signal.

6 dwg

FIELD: instrument making.

SUBSTANCE: radio beacon simultaneously from two points spatially distanced in the plane of measurements with available coordinates radiates orthogonally linearly polarised electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves are received on a mobile object in a linear polarisation basis making the angle of 45° with the plane of measurements. According to the signals received at the outlet of the linear polarisation divider a summary and a difference signals are generated, and phase difference is measured between them, afterwards an angular coordinate of a mobile object is calculated.

EFFECT: proposed goniometrical system provides for better efficiency and accuracy of measurements with availability of strict restrictions for dimensions of a receiving antenna of a mobile object, where mass and dimensions of an antenna are of utmost importance.

2 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus for detecting signals and determining the direction of their source has a discrete antenna array (DAA) made in a certain manner, having N non-directional passive and M active-passive electroacoustic transducers, corresponding I information transmission channels, a beam pattern control unit, a unit for calculating relative coordinates of DAA elements, a threshold device, a decision threshold computer, an indicator, a unit for controlling active-passive DAA elements, as well as beam pattern former with signal time delay. The beam pattern former further includes memory and a unit for determining the detector average response value, with a subtractor being able subtract the detector average response value from the memory output signal.

EFFECT: reducing the number of operations when generating detector response by half, simple design of the detector, fewer requirements for processing means while maintaining efficiency of the detector to solve tasks, high speed of the detection channel and accuracy of finding the direction of objects.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: method involves successively measuring time intervals between reception of a plurality of probing signals, calculating the difference between intervals of neighbouring pairs of measurements, determining distance travelled by a moving sonar between neighbouring radiations as a product of the difference between intervals and the speed of sound, determining the average interval between two consecutive probing signals, the average interval between three probing signals, the average interval between four probing signals and the average time between the average intervals, then determining radial speed of the moving sonar, and in order to determine radiation distance of the last probing signal, the difference between the time of receiving the last signal and the time of receiving the previous signal is determined; the difference is then used to calculate the time interval between probing signals and the last difference is multiplied by the speed of sound.

EFFECT: measurement of the speed of a mobile carrier and distance thereto.

1 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a reader of an object identification system. The reader comprises a receiving-transmitting antenna, a circulator, first and second directional couplers, a power amplifier, a high-frequency signal generator and a mixer. The receiving channel of the reader also includes a compensation device. The compensation device includes a vector modulator, a microcontroller, a high-frequency signal adder, a third coupler and a rectifier.

EFFECT: high sensitivity of the receiving channel of the receiving-transmitting circuit of the reader owing to the use of a compensation device, which compensates for parasitic reflected radiation in the receiving channel of the reader.

2 dwg

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