Heterostructure of multijunction solar element
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor instruments sensitive to light. A heterostructure includes a substrate made from AlN, on which an arrangement is made for three two-layered components with p-n-junctions between layers, which are adjacent to each other and made from In1-xGaxN. Two-layered components are adjacent to each other with tunnel junctions. Width of a prohibited zone of components increases in the direction towards a surface intended for solar energy irradiation. Between the substrate and the two-layered component adjacent to the substrate there provided are relaxation layers made from solid solutions of metals of the third group. Relaxation layers allow reducing mismatch of a crystalline grid of the substrate and the two-layered components. Width of the prohibited zone of the two-layered components meets the following ratio: Eg1:Eg2:Eg3=1:2.23:3.08, where 0.65≤Eg1≤0.85.
EFFECT: due to such ratio of parameters of two-layered components, solar energy is absorbed in the whole range of a solar radiation spectrum, which allows improving conversion efficiency of solar energy to electrical energy.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl
The invention relates to semiconductor devices, light-sensitive, designed to convert light into electrical energy, in particular to mnogoprohodnym solar elements.
Known heterostructure multi-pass solar cell comprising a substrate, which contains at least two conjugate with each other bilayer components made from solid solutions of metals of the third group, (in particular from the In1-xGaxN) with p-n junctions between layers. Two-layer components are paired with each other by tunnel junctions or ohmic contacts. The width of the forbidden zone dual-layer component increases in the direction towards the surface that is intended for irradiation of solar energy (US Patent No. 7217882. "Broad spectrum solar cell", filled: May 27, 2003, published May 15, 2007, IPC: H01L 31/00).
The known device provides a consistent conversion of solar radiation. Part of the radiation with photon energies equal to or exceeding the width of the forbidden zone, is absorbed and generates electron-hole pair. Radiation with a photon energy less than the bandgap width passes freely through the upper layers of the component and is converted into electrical energy in the components that are located further away from the source of solar energy. The variation of the band gap reaches�I by varying the composition of the epitaxial layer In 1-xGaxN.
The composition of the layers of the known heterostructure selected based on the need to ensure the conversion of the entire spectrum of solar radiation. The composition of each layer is selected so as to provide the necessary width of the forbidden zone. However, when choosing the composition of the layers is known heterostructures are not taken into account that variation of their composition changes the value of the constant of the crystal lattice. Misalignment of permanent gratings epitaxial layers and the substrate and epitaxial layer, forming a p-n junction between them leads to the appearance in the layers of the defects, and, consequently, reduce the efficiency of the solar cell.
Also known heterostructure mnogovershinnoe solar cell on the basis of solid solutions of metals of the third group, comprising a substrate made of AlN, which contains three conjugate with each other is made of In1-xGaxN a two-layer component with p-n junctions between layers, coupled together by means of tunnel junctions. The width of the forbidden zone of the component increases in the direction towards the surface that is intended for irradiation of solar energy (Patent RU №2376679. "Semiconductor mnogoprokhodnyj solar cell", Appl. 16.09.2008, publ. 20.12.2009, IPC: H01L 31/042) - prototype.
Used�e of the substrate, made of AlN, in combination with two-layer components with p-n junctions between layers made of InGaN, allows for comparison with the known technical solution (US Patent No. 7217882) to reduce the density of dislocations and, as a consequence, the number of defects in the layers due to the good combination of the values of the coefficients of thermal conductivity of the AlN substrate and layers two-layer components. Nevertheless, a high efficiency of conversion of solar energy in the case of known heterostructures cannot be achieved due to the poor morphology of the layers, which is caused mainly by the difference of lattice parameters of the layers of two-layer components and the substrate, and the crystal lattice of the epitaxial layer, forming a p-n junction between them. In turn, the difference of lattice parameters and determines the level of defects and dislocations, negatively affecting the efficiency of converting solar energy into electrical energy.
The object of the present invention - improving the efficiency of converting solar energy into electrical energy.
The problem is solved due to the fact that the heterostructure mnogovershinnoe solar cell nitride-based solid solutions of metals of the third group, includes a substrate made of AlN.�th are three conjugate with each other is made of In 1-xGaxN a two-layer component with p-n junctions between layers, coupled together by means of tunnel junctions. The width of the forbidden zone of the component increases in the direction towards the surface intended for exposure to solar energy. Heterostructure further comprises at least two relaxation layer disposed between the substrate and contiguous with the substrate of two-layer component, which is made of AlxInyGa1-x-yN, where x+y<1, the width of the forbidden zone dual layer components satisfy the following relations: Eg1:Eg2:Eg3=1:2,23:3,08 where 0,65≤Eg1≤0,85 eV.
The surface intended for irradiation by solar energy, can be turned to the side of the substrate.
The AlN substrate can be performed with the possibility of separation.
There are two types of recombination of electrons and holes: radiative and bestlocation. Radiative recombination is accompanied by the conversion of electron-hole pairs in the light energy, the reverse process also occurs: the light energy is converted to electron-hole pair. Nonradiative recombination is a source of heat. In the case where an electron recombines with a hole in the defect such as dislocation, recombination is nonradiative, i.e., there are large losses monetize by thermal radiation.
Since dislocations are the main source of nonradiative recombination, in the present invention is used, the substrate made of AlN, having lattice parameters close to InGaN. This combination of materials of the substrate and bilayer components reduces nonradiative recombination.
In addition, by reducing the dislocation density characteristic time of radiative recombination in the nitride semiconductors are more in comparison with time of nonradiative recombination. Small characteristic time of nonradiative recombination means that electrons and holes can recombine before they cause interaction with the dislocation.
To reduce defects and dislocations in the layers of the heterostructure, due to the misalignment of the crystal lattice of the substrate and formed on it two-layer components, in the present invention between the substrate and adjacent to the substrate layer component provides relaxation layers.
If there is only one relaxation layer adjacent to the substrate layer component arise "germinating" disposition.
On the other hand, too much relaxation of the layers increases the total resistance of the heterostructure as a whole, which is accompanied by the growth of the work�its voltage. Increasing consumption of electrical energy, and the efficiency of conversion of solar energy into electrical energy falls. In General, the amount of relaxation of the layers is from 3 to 7 and can be determined by calculation or experimentally depending on the specific parameters of the heterostructure.
It was experimentally determined that the best parameter matching of the crystal lattices of the substrate made of AlN layers and double layer components made of InGaN, is achieved under the condition that the relaxation layers disposed between the substrate and adjacent to the substrate layer component made of AlxInyGa1-x-yN, a x+y<1.
Another condition which would increase the efficiency of conversion of solar energy into electrical energy, is the optimal ratio of the width of the forbidden zone dual layer components.
In accordance with the present invention the width of the forbidden zone dual layer components must satisfy the relation: Eg1:Eg2:Eg3=1:2,23:3,08 where 0,65≤Eg3≤0,85 eV. It is this ratio of the width of the forbidden zone dual layer components is achieved at the same time the possibility for efficient solar energy absorption throughout the solar spectrum at the optimal PA�of amerov crystal lattices of layers of two-layer components.
Eg1may not be less than 0,65, because this value of the band gap layer made of InN. In the case of increasing the width of the forbidden zone bole of 0.85 does not provide conversion of infrared radiation.
In some versions it is advisable that the surface intended for exposure to solar energy, was facing the substrate.
If the substrate is conductive and has a width of the forbidden zone that overlaps a significant portion of the solar radiation spectrum, it is possible to create a vertical solar cell chip contacts are located on opposite sides of the substrate). This allows to reduce the operating voltage, improved current spreading in the heterostructure, and also simplifies the technology of manufacturing solar cell chip.
In some cases, advantageously, the substrate of AlN was performed with the possibility of separation, that allows to further reduce the operating voltage.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, which shows a heterostructure mnogovershinnoe of the solar cell.
According to the invention heterostructure mnogovershinnoe solar cell includes a substrate 1, on which are placed three conjugate with each other is made of In1-xGaxN a two-layer component 2, 3 and 4 with p-n transitions 5, 6 � 7 between the layers. Between the substrate and adjacent to the two-layer substrate component placed relaxation layers 8, 9, 10 and 11. Two-layer components are paired with each other tunneling transitions 12 and 13.
Heterostructure mnogovershinnoe solar cell is fabricated in a single epitaxial growth process, with each bilayer component is formed by injecting the appropriate concentration of the reactants at the entrance of the epitaxial reactor.
A solar cell based on a heterostructure according to the invention, operates as follows.
Irradiation of the solar cell from the side of the substrate 1.
The two-layer surface component 2 incident solar radiation. Part of the photons with energy Eg>2 eV is absorbed by a double layer 2 component and causes the generation of electron-hole pairs. The separation of electrons and holes is achieved by the electric field of the p-n junction between layers of the component 2. Photons with an energy of 1.45 ≤Eg≤2 eV is absorbed by a two-layer component 3, and photons with energy Eg≤1,45 eV - bilayer component 4, while in a two-layer components 3 and 4 as well as in two-layer component 2, the generation of electron-hole pairs and the separation of electrons and holes. The relationship between transitions with different values of the band gap is provided �tunnelname passages 12 and 13.
Samples of solar cells made in accordance with the present invention, were manufactured using chloride-hydride epitaxy (HVPE).
Table 1 presents the structure of samples of solar cells (the compositions of the layers and thickness of layers).
|The structure of a solar cell|
|Layers of the solar cell||The material of the layer||The composition of the layer||The thickness of the layer|
|Two-layer component||InN||InN||200 nM|
|The tunneling||InGaN||In0.5Ga0.5N||30 nM|
|The tunneling||InGaN||In0.33Ga0.67 N||30 nM|
|InGaN||In0.33Ga0.67 N||30 nM|
|Two-layer component||InGaN||In0.33Ga0.67 N||200 nM|
|InGaN||In0.33Ga0.67 N||100 nM|
|Relaxation layers||AlInGaN||AlInGaN||700 nM|
The width of the forbidden zone dual layer components were respectively: of 0.65 eV to 1.45 eV and 2 eV.
Solar cells were irradiated by solar radiation from the substrate.
Evaluation of the efficiency of experimental samples of the solar cells was carried out using the measuring parameters of solar cells ST-1000 company TELECOM-STV (Russia).
Table 2 presents the main characteristics of the installation for measurement of samples of solar cells.
|Characteristics of the installation for measurement of samples of solar cells|
|Type and brand of the device||Main features|
|Measuring the parameters of solar cells ST-1000 company TELECOM-STV (Russia)||1. Field uniform illumination and non-uniformity of ±1%: 150×150 mm|
|2. Range of illumination: AM 1.5, class B (IEC 904-9)|
|3. The range of measured voltages: -2,4 ÷ +2,4 V|
|4. Measurement error on�of rajini for the range of values of idling: 0.5 to 1.0 V ± 1%|
|5. The measurement resolution voltage: 0.3 mV|
|6. Current measuring range: -8,0 - +8.0 A|
|7. The uncertainty of current measurement for the range of values of short circuit: 4÷8 ± 1%|
|8. The pulse duration of illumination: less than 10 MS|
|9. The measurement resolution temperature: 0.2°C|
Measurements were conducted of the parameters of the experimental samples under standard measuring conditions (ambient temperature 16÷26°C, relative humidity not more than 85%, atmospheric pressure of 750±50 mm Hg.St.).
The absorption efficiency of the 1st transition was 18%.
The absorption efficiency of the 2nd transition was 17%.
The absorption efficiency of the 3rd transition was 15%.
In General, the efficiency of specimens with concentrators of solar radiation AM-1,5 was 50±5%.
1. Heterostructure mnogovershinnoe solar cell nitride-based solid solutions of metals of the third group, comprising a substrate made of AlN, which contains three conjugate with each other is made of In1-xGaxN a two-layer component with p-n junctions between layers, coupled together by means of tunnel junctions, the width of the forbidden zone components-age�AET in the direction to the surface
intended for irradiation by solar energy, characterized in that it further comprises at least two relaxation layer disposed between the substrate and adjacent to the substrate layer component made of AlxInyGa1-x-yN, where x+y<1, the width of the forbidden zone dual layer components satisfy the following relations:
2. Heterostructure according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface intended for irradiation by solar energy, which faces the substrate.
3. Heterostructure according to claim 1, characterized in that the substrate is made with the possibility of separation.
SUBSTANCE: solar cell comprises a substrate on which there are at least two double-layer components with p-n junctions between the layers, interfaced with each other by at least two intermediate layers. The layers of the double-layer components and intermediate layers are made of a quaternary solid solution of AlInGaN. The intermediate layers and the interfaced fragments of the solar cell have the same band-gap. The double-layer components with p-n junctions between the layers and the intermediate layers interfaced therewith have the same lattice constant. The lattice constant is different in the intermediate layers. In the layers of the double-layer components with p-n junctions, the band-gap is different with a fixed value of the lattice constant.
EFFECT: invention improves the efficiency of converting solar radiation.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: offered invention "Monolithic rapid coordinate detector of ionising particles" relates to semiconductor coordinate detectors of ionizing particles. The goals are achieved at the expense of the use of original circuit of the detector, where bipolar transistors, connected in a circuit with common collector, also due to functionally integrated monolithic design of the detector where the semiconductor substrate, generating the charge carriers, simultaneously appears to be a common collector area of bipolar structures of transistors.
EFFECT: purpose of invention is increase of speed and manufacturability of coordinate detector, that is especially important for creation of new generation of "detectors of trace neutrons" for detection of explosive substances, X-ray scanners for medical, customs and other applications characterised by higher quality of object images, compared with known analogues.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to physics and semiconductor device engineering, particularly crystalline silicon-based solar cells. The crystalline silicon-based solar cell consists of p- and n-type conductivity regions, electrodes for the p and n regions, wherein according to the invention, a diffraction grating is formed on the front surface of the crystal, said diffraction grating having a period equal to the wavelength of radiation quanta, the energy of which is equal to the band gap of the crystal.
EFFECT: invention reduces the absorption depth of solar radiation quanta, reduces optical and electrical losses and increases efficiency of conversion and enables to produce ultra-thin crystalline solar cells.
SUBSTANCE: system of agricultural field microclimate control comprises wind-protective and snow-retaining elements located on the edge of the field, a water reservoir made along the edge of the field from the side of most probable entry of dry wind. On opposite sides of the water reservoir along the field the vertical blinds are placed with the height of at least half the width of the water reservoir, mounted with the ability of rotation about the vertical axis and inclination in the vertical plane. The bottom of the water reservoir can be coated with impervious material, the water sprayers can be mounted along the water reservoir, and the sources of energy for the water sprayers the system can be provided with one or more wind-driven power-plants and solar batteries.
EFFECT: increase in the degree of protection of the field due to reducing the rate and temperature of dry wind and increase in moisture content of the surface air layer, as well as the reduction of energy consumption through the use of natural energy sources.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a LED module. A module consists of several LEDs installed on a printed circuit board with the LEDs having respectively the so-called layup with a lens by which the respective LED extends beyond the printed circuit board plane, the LEDs are connected respectively with an element for the input of optical radiation of a light guide body and the respective luminous flux of matched LEDs is emitted outside from the LED module by means of respectively matched element for luminous flux input. At least one passive LED which can be activated if one of LEDs fails is provided on the printed circuit board for LEDs in order to achieve homogeneous appearance. The luminous flux emitted by these passive LEDs enters the luminous flux input element of the respective LED and is emitted outside by the luminous flux input element.
EFFECT: development of a LED module consisting of several LEDs set on a printed circuit board, failure of some LEDs is not seen from outside due to the "input" of the luminous flux, emitted by the passive LED, into the luminous flux input element of the failed LED.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor devices, particularly polymer solar cells. Disclosed is a polymer solar cell having, arranged in series: a supporting base in the form of a transparent polymer photoluminescent substrate, a transparent anode layer, a photoelectrically active layer and a metal cathode layer, wherein the polymer photoluminescent substrate consists of an optically transparent polymer containing a luminophore, selected from luminophores of general formula (I), where R is a substitute selected from: linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups; linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one oxygen atom; linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one sulphur atom; branched C3-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one silicon atom; C2-C20 alkenyl groups; Ar denotes identical or different arylene or heteroarylene radicals selected from: substituted or unsubstituted thienyl-2,5-diiyl, substituted or unsubstituted phenyl-1,4-diiyl, substituted or unsubstituted 1,3-oxazole-2,5-diiyl, substituted fluorene-4,4'-diiyl, substituted cyclopentadithiophene-2,7-diiyl; Q denotes a radical from said series for Ar; X denotes at least one radical selected from said series for Ar and/or a radical selected from: 2,1,3-benzothiodiazole-4,7-diiyl, anthracene-9,10-diiyl, 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2,5-diiyl, 1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-3,5-diiyl, perylene-3,10-diiyl; L equals 1 or 3 or 7; n is an integer from 2 to 4; m is an integer from 1 to 3; k is an integer from 1 to 3.
EFFECT: high efficiency and simple technique of producing flexible polymer solar cells.
8 cl, 7 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for metrological determination of the internal quantum efficiency of a semiconductor photodiode based on the current-voltage characteristic thereof. The oxide biasing method is the known method of calibrating photodiodes. The efficiency of collecting charges for photocurrent generated in a p+ region needs to be determined in order to describe silicon p+nn+photodiodes. The primary reason for losses in the frontal region is the high rate of electron-hole recombination. This effect is intensified by the presence of positively charged ions which result in a surface electric field. The oxide biasing method is widely used to determine the extent of this effect on the internal quantum efficiency of a diode. The advantage of this method is direct measurement of saturation photocurrent and calculating internal quantum efficiency therefrom. However, this method has a shortcoming which lies in the degradation of the working surface of the semiconductor under the effect of a high negative voltage applied to the surface. The aim of this invention is to provide a method of determining quantum efficiency of a photodiode, which is based on comparing experimentally measured current-voltage characteristics thereof with theoretically calculated characteristics. This aim is achieved by recording to current-voltage characteristics of a photodiode at two different power values of incident laser radiation for which only the ratio is known. Said characteristics are then compared using a developed calculation procedure.
EFFECT: simple calibration procedure while maintaining accuracy characteristics of the photodiode.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optoelectronic devices. The semiconductor photoelectric generator has a transparent protective coating on a working surface on which radiation is incident and photoconverter sections optically connected by a transparent sealant with the protective coating. The photoconverter sections are inclined towards the working surface at an angle φ=5-50°. Flat mirror reflectors are mounted between the photoconverter sections with an angle of inclination towards the working surface of the generator of ψ=5-50°. The mirror reflectors and the photoconverter sections are in form of a periodic saw-tooth corner structure. The photoconverter sections have a double-sided working surface and the mirror reflectors have a double-sided reflecting surface.
EFFECT: high illumination and electric power per unit surface area of the photoconverters.
6 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: hybrid photosensitive circuit includes a diamond matrix photodetector, indium columns and a silicon multiplexer with sensitive sites arranged thereon in a staggered manner in form of a rectangular matrix and the number of which is equal to the number of indium columns. The matrix photodetector includes a diamond plate and an upper flat electrode lying thereon, as well as lower electrodes of sensitive elements of the matrix photodetector, the number of which is equal to the number of indium columns lying under the diamond plate. On the lower side of the diamond plate there are boron-doped sites arranged in a staggered manner; upper contact surfaces of odd or even lower electrodes are galvanically connected to the lower surface of the diamond plate, and the upper contact surfaces of the odd or even lower electrodes are galvanically connected the boron-doped sites. Lower contact surfaces of lower electrodes are galvanically connected through indium columns to sensitive elements of the silicon multiplexer.
EFFECT: expanding the detected radiation range 75-fold owing to simultaneous recording of the image in the ultraviolet and infrared spectrum.
SUBSTANCE: method for analogue-to-digital conversion of optical radiation involves converting the radiation into photocurrent; integrating the photocurrent over the exposure time into an electric charge which changes the initial charge input before exposure; converting the resultant charge into signal voltage; comparing the signal voltage with a reference voltage and switching the comparator as the comparison result; generating binary signals, modulated on the time of switching relative the initial time; generating digital codes based thereon; storing the digital codes and successively sending said codes to outputs, wherein the initial charge is input into the switched conductivity diode by applying a voltage corresponding to the initial charge in the forward direction at the rate of change which causes injection of minority carriers, which does not exceed the level of triggering the switching diode into the conducting state, and the reference voltage applied is the corresponding sampling voltage at a variation rate sufficiently high to cause injection of minority carriers, needed for triggering thereof upon reaching voltage corresponding to the resultant charge, with given accuracy. The device which realises this method has one or more photosensitive cells connected to address and signal lines, each cell having series-connected photodetector, initial charge input circuit, charge converter for converting the charge generated by the photodetector signal, in addition to the initial charge, into output voltage of the photodetector, a comparator which converts the difference between the output voltage of the photodetector and a reference voltage into a digital cell signal, a circuit for reading the digital cell signal through address and signal lines, a circuit for generating cell signal codes, random access memory for storing digital codes, a circuit for reading cell signal digital codes on one or more outputs of the photodetector. In a cell, the photodetector, the initial charge input circuit, the charge converter and comparator are in form of a tunnel switching electrode in a MIS (metal, insulator, semiconductor) structure, one of the leads of which is connected to the address line and the other to the signal line.
EFFECT: high spatial resolution with high equivalent quantum efficiency.
9 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: electronic engineering; semiconductor lasers for data recording, reading, and processing.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method designed to generate coherent electromagnetic radiation and width of its spectral line for mentioned lasers includes introduction of metal or superconductor nanoparticles in its system of hyperfine semiconductor layers and excitation of electrical dipole vibrations using electrons of mentioned nanoparticles.
EFFECT: greatly reduced dimensions of lasers.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: computer vision engineering; photodetectors, thermal imagers, infrared radiometers, and various sensors of computerized control devices.
SUBSTANCE: novelty in proposed device is that resistive photosensors are made of heteroepitaxial layers of different forbidden gap. Circuit set up of compensating charge capacitor connected to its potential recovery switch is connected to each integrating capacitor and through series-connected compensation addressing switch and feedback switch, to circuit transferring charge portion from charge compensating capacitor to integrating capacitor. Connected to each amplifier integrating capacitor is comparator whose output is connected to gate electrode of feedback switch and to complementing input of counter-register each of whose bits is connected to array of memory locations controlled by circuit affording exchange of addresses between counters and memory, data write and read buses of data on their transfer from counter to memory and vice versa. Memory locations are connected to counter-register bits. Device has memory readout addressing circuit and multiplexed readout buses for transferring digital data to digital outputs.
EFFECT: enhanced sensitivity and dynamic range.
17 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed invention is concerned with devices and apparatuses incorporating functional components forming planar set wherein functional components are addressing through first electrode grid with flat strip electrodes contacting one end of functional components and through second electrode grid they are contacting similar electrodes positioned perpendicular to electrodes of first electrode grid and brought in contact with opposite end of functional component. In this way, so-called matrix-addressed device is formed. Proposed optoelectronic device has functional medium in the form of active material possessing optoelectronic properties and inserted in the form of solid layer between first and second electrode grids EG1 and EG2, each incorporating parallel strip electrodes 1 and 2. Electrodes 2 of second electrode grid EG2 are positioned at certain angle to electrodes 1 of first electrode grid EG1; functional components 5 are formed in three-dimensional areas of active material 3 corresponding to relative superposition of electrodes 1 of first electrode grid EG1 and electrodes 2 of second electrode grid EG2 contacting active material 3 to organize set of matrix-addressed functional components. These functional components correspond to optically active pixels 5 of display or pixels 5 of photodetector. Electrodes 1 and 2 are disposed in each of electrode grids EG1 and EG2 in the form of dense parallel configuration and are insulated from each other by means of thin film 6 whose thickness amounts only to a fraction of electrode width. As a result, either display characterized in high surface brightness and high resolving power or photodetector of high-sensitivity and high-resolving power can be produced.
EFFECT: enhanced volumetric efficiency of pixels in active material amounting to that close to unity and, hence, enhanced resolving power.
9 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: said utility invention relates to thermal photoreceivers for the detection of monochromatic radiation in the far infrared (IR) range and determining the angle of arrival of that radiation. The development may be used in spectrometric and astronomical instruments, special purpose equipment, and communication equipment. The metallic bolometer contains a non-transparent metallic film on an optical heat-insulating substrate placed in a vacuum container with a transparent window. A dielectric layer of a certain thickness is applied on the film surface. The film surface facing the window has a corrugated section illuminated with the radiation being detected; the section length is equal to the propagation length of the surface electromagnetic wave excited in the film. The corrugation period is calculated using a certain formula.
EFFECT: invention provides increase of device selectivity and increase of long-wavelength limit of operating range.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to optoelectronics and interferometry and intended for measurement of spatial distribution of light intensity in interference field formed by counter luminous fluxes. Quadrature photo-receiving device contains photodetector including four interferentially sensitive photoelectric element, two of which are reference ones. Difference of optical distances from the first photoelectric element to the plane that is perpendicular to measured luminous flux and that limits optically distant surface of photodetector for the first photoelectric element and from i-photoelectric element to this plane is calculated from the proposed formula, signals from odd photoelectric elements of photodetector being supplied to appropriate inlets of the first differential amplifier, and signals from even photoelectric elements of photodetector to appropriate inlets of the second differential amplifier.
EFFECT: increase in ratio signal/noise of quadrature photodetector, reduction of interference caused by permanent component of luminous flux (rather than by interferential component), reduction of interference caused by interferential component of luminous flux on lengths of waves that are different from length of registered radiation wave.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to remote transfer and conversion of super-high-frequency energy into DC electrical power. The proposed method consists in fitting an aluminium foil enclosure on over the entire surface of the vehicle airframe skin. The super-high-frequency converter is made in a material representing a mix of two chemical solid-state components with grain size not over 30 to 50 microns, taken in equal proportion but different atomic numbers, and forming, when combined, a dipole solid-state matrix. Note that the said bi-component mix is applied uniformly onto the said skin enclosure, the like poles of the dipole matrix being combined and connected to appropriate terminals of the vehicle flight control components.
EFFECT: higher efficiency power supply.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to remote transfer and conversion of super-high-frequency energy into DC electrical power. The device incorporates an aluminium foil enclosure on over the entire surface of the vehicle airframe dielectric skin. The super-high-frequency converter is made in a material representing a mix of two chemical solid-state components with grain size not over 30 to 50 microns, taken in equal proportion but different atomic numbers, and forming, when combined, a dipole solid-state matrix. Note that the said bi-component mix is applied uniformly onto the said skin enclosure, the like poles of the dipole matrix being combined and connected to appropriate terminals of the vehicle flight control components.
EFFECT: higher efficiency power supply.
FIELD: physics, semiconductors.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of semiconductor equipment and electronics. Method for measurement of photoferromagnetic effect in magnetic semiconductors consists in measurement of electromotive force that occurs in the secondary winding of transformer, which is wound on adjacent section of core from magnetic semiconductor in the form of doubled ring. The primary winding of transformer represents two coils wound on nonadjacent sides of doubled ring symmetrically relative to plane of symmetry that separates core in two rings. As a result of unbalance, in sinusoidal signals of magnetic flows directed and same in value that penetrate the secondary winding that are serially and antiphase-connected to outlet of generator, due to illumination of strictly half of core on one side from mentioned plane of symmetry, in this winding electromotive force occurs that is proportional to variation of magnetic permeability under light effect.
EFFECT: provision of possibility to perform measurements of photoferromagnetic effect amplitude in more sensitive scales of metering instruments.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to energy converters of electromagnetic waves and can be used to obtain electrical energy. Converter of electromagnetic emissions contains N>1, where N - is an integer, regions with similar conductivity and one region with opposite conductivity with the formation of N of separate p-n junctions. The first electrode fits closely to each of the N regions with similar conductivity, and the second electrode - to the specified region with opposite conductivity. Converter according to the invention is capable to convert not only the usual frequency bands of electromagnetic waves (optical range), but also the wider operational frequencies bands of electromagnetic waves with operational provisions of the converter any time of the day. Converter on the invention is also characterised by high power and efficiency with simultaneous guarantee of high accuracy and stability of the output characteristic, capable of working even in conditions of significant temperature falls.
EFFECT: obtaining a converter with high power and efficiency with simultaneous guarantee of high accuracy and stability of the output characteristic, capable of working even in conditions of significant temperature falls.
17 cl, 21 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: receiver generates the electric signal proportional to energy of an electromagnetic wave, and is intended for registration of electromagnetic emission, and also can be used for electric power generation. The receiver consists of a working environment with free charged particles and where the standing electromagnetic wave actuates, and also the electrodes located definitely in the working environment or on its surface. Such construction of the receiver allows to reduce noise and to eliminate restrictions on length of a wave of registered emanation, to expand a high bound of a temperature range of operation, and also to expand an arsenal of the means intended for registration of electromagnetic emission.
EFFECT: possibility to reduce noise and to eliminate restrictions on length of a wave of registered emission, to expand high bound of a temperature range of operation, and also to expand an arsenal of the means intended for registration of electromagnetic emission.