Heterostructure of multijunction solar element

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor instruments sensitive to light. A heterostructure includes a substrate made from AlN, on which an arrangement is made for three two-layered components with p-n-junctions between layers, which are adjacent to each other and made from In1-xGaxN. Two-layered components are adjacent to each other with tunnel junctions. Width of a prohibited zone of components increases in the direction towards a surface intended for solar energy irradiation. Between the substrate and the two-layered component adjacent to the substrate there provided are relaxation layers made from solid solutions of metals of the third group. Relaxation layers allow reducing mismatch of a crystalline grid of the substrate and the two-layered components. Width of the prohibited zone of the two-layered components meets the following ratio: Eg1:Eg2:Eg3=1:2.23:3.08, where 0.65≤Eg1≤0.85.

EFFECT: due to such ratio of parameters of two-layered components, solar energy is absorbed in the whole range of a solar radiation spectrum, which allows improving conversion efficiency of solar energy to electrical energy.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to semiconductor devices, light-sensitive, designed to convert light into electrical energy, in particular to mnogoprohodnym solar elements.

Known heterostructure multi-pass solar cell comprising a substrate, which contains at least two conjugate with each other bilayer components made from solid solutions of metals of the third group, (in particular from the In1-xGaxN) with p-n junctions between layers. Two-layer components are paired with each other by tunnel junctions or ohmic contacts. The width of the forbidden zone dual-layer component increases in the direction towards the surface that is intended for irradiation of solar energy (US Patent No. 7217882. "Broad spectrum solar cell", filled: May 27, 2003, published May 15, 2007, IPC: H01L 31/00).

The known device provides a consistent conversion of solar radiation. Part of the radiation with photon energies equal to or exceeding the width of the forbidden zone, is absorbed and generates electron-hole pair. Radiation with a photon energy less than the bandgap width passes freely through the upper layers of the component and is converted into electrical energy in the components that are located further away from the source of solar energy. The variation of the band gap reaches�I by varying the composition of the epitaxial layer In 1-xGaxN.

The composition of the layers of the known heterostructure selected based on the need to ensure the conversion of the entire spectrum of solar radiation. The composition of each layer is selected so as to provide the necessary width of the forbidden zone. However, when choosing the composition of the layers is known heterostructures are not taken into account that variation of their composition changes the value of the constant of the crystal lattice. Misalignment of permanent gratings epitaxial layers and the substrate and epitaxial layer, forming a p-n junction between them leads to the appearance in the layers of the defects, and, consequently, reduce the efficiency of the solar cell.

Also known heterostructure mnogovershinnoe solar cell on the basis of solid solutions of metals of the third group, comprising a substrate made of AlN, which contains three conjugate with each other is made of In1-xGaxN a two-layer component with p-n junctions between layers, coupled together by means of tunnel junctions. The width of the forbidden zone of the component increases in the direction towards the surface that is intended for irradiation of solar energy (Patent RU №2376679. "Semiconductor mnogoprokhodnyj solar cell", Appl. 16.09.2008, publ. 20.12.2009, IPC: H01L 31/042) - prototype.

Used�e of the substrate, made of AlN, in combination with two-layer components with p-n junctions between layers made of InGaN, allows for comparison with the known technical solution (US Patent No. 7217882) to reduce the density of dislocations and, as a consequence, the number of defects in the layers due to the good combination of the values of the coefficients of thermal conductivity of the AlN substrate and layers two-layer components. Nevertheless, a high efficiency of conversion of solar energy in the case of known heterostructures cannot be achieved due to the poor morphology of the layers, which is caused mainly by the difference of lattice parameters of the layers of two-layer components and the substrate, and the crystal lattice of the epitaxial layer, forming a p-n junction between them. In turn, the difference of lattice parameters and determines the level of defects and dislocations, negatively affecting the efficiency of converting solar energy into electrical energy.

The object of the present invention - improving the efficiency of converting solar energy into electrical energy.

The problem is solved due to the fact that the heterostructure mnogovershinnoe solar cell nitride-based solid solutions of metals of the third group, includes a substrate made of AlN.�th are three conjugate with each other is made of In 1-xGaxN a two-layer component with p-n junctions between layers, coupled together by means of tunnel junctions. The width of the forbidden zone of the component increases in the direction towards the surface intended for exposure to solar energy. Heterostructure further comprises at least two relaxation layer disposed between the substrate and contiguous with the substrate of two-layer component, which is made of AlxInyGa1-x-yN, where x+y<1, the width of the forbidden zone dual layer components satisfy the following relations: Eg1:Eg2:Eg3=1:2,23:3,08 where 0,65≤Eg1≤0,85 eV.

The surface intended for irradiation by solar energy, can be turned to the side of the substrate.

The AlN substrate can be performed with the possibility of separation.

There are two types of recombination of electrons and holes: radiative and bestlocation. Radiative recombination is accompanied by the conversion of electron-hole pairs in the light energy, the reverse process also occurs: the light energy is converted to electron-hole pair. Nonradiative recombination is a source of heat. In the case where an electron recombines with a hole in the defect such as dislocation, recombination is nonradiative, i.e., there are large losses monetize by thermal radiation.

Since dislocations are the main source of nonradiative recombination, in the present invention is used, the substrate made of AlN, having lattice parameters close to InGaN. This combination of materials of the substrate and bilayer components reduces nonradiative recombination.

In addition, by reducing the dislocation density characteristic time of radiative recombination in the nitride semiconductors are more in comparison with time of nonradiative recombination. Small characteristic time of nonradiative recombination means that electrons and holes can recombine before they cause interaction with the dislocation.

To reduce defects and dislocations in the layers of the heterostructure, due to the misalignment of the crystal lattice of the substrate and formed on it two-layer components, in the present invention between the substrate and adjacent to the substrate layer component provides relaxation layers.

If there is only one relaxation layer adjacent to the substrate layer component arise "germinating" disposition.

On the other hand, too much relaxation of the layers increases the total resistance of the heterostructure as a whole, which is accompanied by the growth of the work�its voltage. Increasing consumption of electrical energy, and the efficiency of conversion of solar energy into electrical energy falls. In General, the amount of relaxation of the layers is from 3 to 7 and can be determined by calculation or experimentally depending on the specific parameters of the heterostructure.

It was experimentally determined that the best parameter matching of the crystal lattices of the substrate made of AlN layers and double layer components made of InGaN, is achieved under the condition that the relaxation layers disposed between the substrate and adjacent to the substrate layer component made of AlxInyGa1-x-yN, a x+y<1.

Another condition which would increase the efficiency of conversion of solar energy into electrical energy, is the optimal ratio of the width of the forbidden zone dual layer components.

In accordance with the present invention the width of the forbidden zone dual layer components must satisfy the relation: Eg1:Eg2:Eg3=1:2,23:3,08 where 0,65≤Eg3≤0,85 eV. It is this ratio of the width of the forbidden zone dual layer components is achieved at the same time the possibility for efficient solar energy absorption throughout the solar spectrum at the optimal PA�of amerov crystal lattices of layers of two-layer components.

Eg1may not be less than 0,65, because this value of the band gap layer made of InN. In the case of increasing the width of the forbidden zone bole of 0.85 does not provide conversion of infrared radiation.

In some versions it is advisable that the surface intended for exposure to solar energy, was facing the substrate.

If the substrate is conductive and has a width of the forbidden zone that overlaps a significant portion of the solar radiation spectrum, it is possible to create a vertical solar cell chip contacts are located on opposite sides of the substrate). This allows to reduce the operating voltage, improved current spreading in the heterostructure, and also simplifies the technology of manufacturing solar cell chip.

In some cases, advantageously, the substrate of AlN was performed with the possibility of separation, that allows to further reduce the operating voltage.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, which shows a heterostructure mnogovershinnoe of the solar cell.

According to the invention heterostructure mnogovershinnoe solar cell includes a substrate 1, on which are placed three conjugate with each other is made of In1-xGaxN a two-layer component 2, 3 and 4 with p-n transitions 5, 6 � 7 between the layers. Between the substrate and adjacent to the two-layer substrate component placed relaxation layers 8, 9, 10 and 11. Two-layer components are paired with each other tunneling transitions 12 and 13.

Heterostructure mnogovershinnoe solar cell is fabricated in a single epitaxial growth process, with each bilayer component is formed by injecting the appropriate concentration of the reactants at the entrance of the epitaxial reactor.

A solar cell based on a heterostructure according to the invention, operates as follows.

Irradiation of the solar cell from the side of the substrate 1.

The two-layer surface component 2 incident solar radiation. Part of the photons with energy Eg>2 eV is absorbed by a double layer 2 component and causes the generation of electron-hole pairs. The separation of electrons and holes is achieved by the electric field of the p-n junction between layers of the component 2. Photons with an energy of 1.45 ≤Eg≤2 eV is absorbed by a two-layer component 3, and photons with energy Eg≤1,45 eV - bilayer component 4, while in a two-layer components 3 and 4 as well as in two-layer component 2, the generation of electron-hole pairs and the separation of electrons and holes. The relationship between transitions with different values of the band gap is provided �tunnelname passages 12 and 13.

Samples of solar cells made in accordance with the present invention, were manufactured using chloride-hydride epitaxy (HVPE).

Table 1 presents the structure of samples of solar cells (the compositions of the layers and thickness of layers).

200 nM
Table 1
The structure of a solar cell
Layers of the solar cellThe material of the layerThe composition of the layerThe thickness of the layer
Two-layer componentInNInN200 nM
InNInN100 nM
The tunnelingInGaNIn0.5Ga0.5N30 nM
InGaNIn0.5Ga0.5N30 nM
Two-layer componentInGaNIn0.5Ga0.5N
InGaNhttp://Ino.5Gao.5N100 nM
The tunnelingInGaNIn0.33Ga0.67 N30 nM
InGaNIn0.33Ga0.67 N30 nM
Two-layer componentInGaNIn0.33Ga0.67 N200 nM
InGaNIn0.33Ga0.67 N100 nM
Relaxation layersAlInGaNAlInGaN700 nM
AlInGaNAlInGaN100 nM
AlInGaNAlInGaN700 nM
AlInGaNAlInGaN100 nM
SubstrateAlNAlN

The width of the forbidden zone dual layer components were respectively: of 0.65 eV to 1.45 eV and 2 eV.

Solar cells were irradiated by solar radiation from the substrate.

Evaluation of the efficiency of experimental samples of the solar cells was carried out using the measuring parameters of solar cells ST-1000 company TELECOM-STV (Russia).

Table 2 presents the main characteristics of the installation for measurement of samples of solar cells.

Table 2
Characteristics of the installation for measurement of samples of solar cells
Type and brand of the deviceMain features
Measuring the parameters of solar cells ST-1000 company TELECOM-STV (Russia)1. Field uniform illumination and non-uniformity of ±1%: 150×150 mm
2. Range of illumination: AM 1.5, class B (IEC 904-9)
3. The range of measured voltages: -2,4 ÷ +2,4 V
4. Measurement error on�of rajini for the range of values of idling: 0.5 to 1.0 V ± 1%
5. The measurement resolution voltage: 0.3 mV
6. Current measuring range: -8,0 - +8.0 A
7. The uncertainty of current measurement for the range of values of short circuit: 4÷8 ± 1%
8. The pulse duration of illumination: less than 10 MS
9. The measurement resolution temperature: 0.2°C

Measurements were conducted of the parameters of the experimental samples under standard measuring conditions (ambient temperature 16÷26°C, relative humidity not more than 85%, atmospheric pressure of 750±50 mm Hg.St.).

The absorption efficiency of the 1st transition was 18%.

The absorption efficiency of the 2nd transition was 17%.

The absorption efficiency of the 3rd transition was 15%.

In General, the efficiency of specimens with concentrators of solar radiation AM-1,5 was 50±5%.

1. Heterostructure mnogovershinnoe solar cell nitride-based solid solutions of metals of the third group, comprising a substrate made of AlN, which contains three conjugate with each other is made of In1-xGaxN a two-layer component with p-n junctions between layers, coupled together by means of tunnel junctions, the width of the forbidden zone components-age�AET in the direction to the surface intended for irradiation by solar energy, characterized in that it further comprises at least two relaxation layer disposed between the substrate and adjacent to the substrate layer component made of AlxInyGa1-x-yN, where x+y<1, the width of the forbidden zone dual layer components satisfy the following relations:
Eg1:Eg2:Eg3=1:2,23:3,08,
where 0,65≤Eg1≤0,85.

2. Heterostructure according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface intended for irradiation by solar energy, which faces the substrate.

3. Heterostructure according to claim 1, characterized in that the substrate is made with the possibility of separation.



 

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