Truss from orthorhombic pipes (roll-welded profiles)

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the construction, namely to the long construction metal lattice structures from pipes, and can be used in the manufacture of trusses, girders, columns, arches, frames and other supporting structures. The technical result is achieved by the fact that truss rods in the truss made of tubular elements, consisting of belt and lattice rigidly attached to them, made with flattened ends of the V- or W-shaped (zigzag shaped) bent elements, are made of orthorhombic shape with the ratio of diagonals 1/2, where all the large diagonal of all compressed rods is located in the plane of structure, the small diagonal - out of plane, and small diagonal of all the stretched rods is in the plane of structure, and the large - out of plane, besides the upper and lower belts are flattened in places of unshaped joints of lattice.

EFFECT: increase of the load-bearing capacity of the structure with reduction of its materials consumption.

1 tbl, 6 dwg

 

The proposed technical solution relates to the construction, namely to the elongated construction of the metallic lattice structures of pipes, and can be used in the fabrication of trusses, girders, columns, arches, frames, and other supporting structures. Tubular construction designs feature a high technical-economic characteristics as a structural material (metal) in the cross section of the elements is located in a very effective manner. However, a further increase of technical and economic characteristics at the expense of more rational use of particularly thin-walled pipes (closed gotowanych profiles) is constrained by the complexity of the technical solutions of joints for truss elements in lattice structures.

The greatest distribution in tubular farms received nodal non-faceted connection with the direct connection of the rods of the lattice to the zones [1. The metal structure. 3 T. T. 1. Elements of design: Proc. for high schools / Under the editorship of V. V. Gorev. - M.: Higher school, 2001. - S. 459, 462, Fig. 7.26, a, 7.28, and; 2. Metal structures: Proc. for high schools / Under the editorship of Y. I. Kudelina. - M.: Academy, 2007. - S. 292, 295, Fig. 9.24, 9.27]. Here, in order to avoid pushing (pulling out) the pipe diameter of the grille shall not be less than 0.3 of the pipe diameter of the belt. In farms of rectangular (square) GWS� this restriction is tightened twice, that is, the width of the rod of the lattice should be taken not less than 0.6 of the transverse dimension of the belt.

The disadvantage of nodes is the marked restriction, which leads to increased consumption of material rods and increase metal construction.

Another known technical solution is a lattice design with nodal non-faceted connection of the tubular elements of the farm (options), in which the diagonal of the cross section of a rectangular (or square) zone is located in the axial plane of the farm, and braces in the junction have through the notch (V-shaped), repeats the geometry of this junction. Through this cut the connection of each of the grid elements with belt carried by its two adjacent walls [1. Sokolov A. A., Logachev K. I., Sinkova V. A. Numerical studies of the stress-strain state nodal non-faceted connections of tubular truss elements. - Industrial and civil engineering, 2007, No. 8. - Pp. 40-41; 2. Zinkova V. A., Sokolov A. A. Nodal non-faceted connection of the tubular elements of the farm. Patent No. 2329361, 20.07.2008, bull. No. 20]. Similarly, in the axial plane of the farm of square pipes are located diagonally cross sections of all core elements (and the upper belt and lower belt, and lattice bracing between them) 1. Kuznetsov A. F., Kuznetsov V. A. Farm of square pipes. Patent No. 116877, 10.06.2012, bull. No. 16; 2. J. A. Packer, J. Wardenier, X.-L. Zhao, G. J. van der Vegte and Y. Kurobane. Construction with hollow steel sections. Design Guide for rectangular hollow section (RHS) joints under predominantly static loading. CIDECT, 2009. - P. 100-101].

A disadvantage of the known technical solution is the complexity of its application in farms besprovodnyh coatings, as a rib belt can crush the leaves of profiled flooring. In driving the coating itself a rib belt can be quashed by the run, so you need a device supporting tables under purlins, which negatively affects the consumption of materials of constructions, and also increases the complexity of their fabrication and installation. This disadvantage can be eliminated by ring elements pentagonal cross-section with a horizontal (shelf), two vertical and two inclined walls [Marutyan S. A., Kobalia T. L., Pavlenko, Y. I., S. A. Glukhov Nodal non-faceted connection of the tubular elements of the farm. Patent No. 116526, 27.05.2012, bull. No. 15].

A common shortcoming of the above technical solutions is the increased stiffness of the non-faceted nodal connections of tubular trusses [Pokrovsky A. A. On account of the stiffness of the nodes in the calculations of farms with small elements of flexibility. - Structural mechanics and calculation of structures, 2011, No. 3. - P. 31-32]. To not take into account the additional bending moments from the rigidity, �Stroitelnye rules and regulations recommended to perform the calculation of tubular trusses articulated by the scheme, provided when the ratio of the height of the cross section to the length of the truss elements does not exceed 1/15 1/10...[SNiP And-is at 23.81*. - M.: JSC "VSC", 2008. - Pp. 43-44]. It is obvious that the diagonal pivot of the square tubular sections, transforming them in a rhombic configuration, accompanied by increased stiffness of the non-faceted nodes, and this happens for two reasons. The first reason is the increase in the height of the cross section of the beam elements. The second reason is the direct coupling of the walls and edges between them are the core elements of the lattice with the same walls and edges between belt elements. In addition, through cuts V-shaped at the junction of the braces to belts, repeats the geometry of these junctions, require to observe the improved accuracy of manufacture and Assembly, which increases the complexity of the designs.

The closest technical solution to the proposed farm from rhombic tubes (gotowanych profiles) is a construction thin-walled metal lattice construction comprising tubular belt section and is rigidly attached to the bars. In one embodiment, this grille is made of tubular elements with tapered in the plane of the structure ends and the other bar elements of the V - or W-shaped (zigzag) shape [Orlik, V. M. Construction metal tonkas�enny lattice design. Application No. 4776531, 03.01.1990. - Copyright certificate №1760041, 07.09.1992. - Bul. No. 33].

This technical solution inherent disadvantages of the known tubular trusses with non-faceted adjacency lattice to belts, increasing the stiffness of joints, as the core with a tapered in-plane design ends even more tightening the nodes in this plane, which is accompanied by the growth of metal. The grille is made of steel curved elements V - or W-shaped (zigzag) shape, has slight bearing capacity, which limits the load on the structure.

The technical result of the proposed solutions is to increase the bearing capacity of the structure by reducing its consumption of materials.

Said technical result is achieved in that in the farm of tubular elements, comprising a belt and rigidly attached to the bars, made with the flattened ends of the curved elements of the V - or W-shaped (zigzag) shape, the rods farm made rhombic shape with respect to the diagonals 1/2, where the compressed rods larger diagonal is located in the plane of the structure, the smaller diagonal of the plane, and all tie bars the lower diagonal is located in the plane of the structure, and large - from the plane, the upper � lower belt in the field of non-faceted adjacency lattice tapered.

The proposed farm upper and lower belts, as well as triangular or diagonal bars between them made of rhombic closed gotowanych profiles. For immediate contiguity to the zones with the formation of non-faceted rhombic nodes profile specified in the project areas tapers and double bends give it a V - or W-shaped (zigzag) shape. The length of the strip (tape) billet rhombic profile, you can choose based on the entire length of a structure and its postal stamps. Flattening and double bends rhombic profile provide non-faceted layout of joints without structural eccentricities characteristic of tubular trusses from a rectangular (or square) gotowanych profiles, which eliminates the occurrence of bending moments and positively affects the consumption of structural material. Flattening protects the wall of the ring elements from the thrust and reduces its thickness. Along the lines of the bends rhombic profile in the plane of the structure formed of sheet joints, which correspond to the hinge-rod design scheme (s) and eliminate the need to take into account the stiffness of the nodes, which also contributes to the decrease of metal. From the plane of the same design bends tapered sections of rhombic profile have� greatest stiffness, approximating the stiffness of the mounting frame, which in the supporting structures can be shortened and braced elements, as is done in the constructions of coverings of the type "Tagil" [Metal structures. In 3 V. V. 2. Steel structures of buildings and structures (Handbook of the designer) / Under the editorship of V. V. Kuznetsov (Tsniiproekstalkonstruktsiya them. N. P. Melnikov). - M.: Publishing house of the DIA, 1998. - Pp. 235-236]. When the hinge pins in the plane of the structure and rigid (frame) from the plane of the calculated length of the truss elements of the lattice in the plane design is two times more than the estimated length of the plane [Metal structures. 3 T. T. 1. Elements of structures: a Textbook for high schools / Under the editorship of V. V. Gorev. - M.: Higher school, 2004. - P. 332, Fig. 6.11]. On this basis, the core elements of the lattice in-plane and out-plane design had the same flexibility, suitable such cross-sectional profile, in which the radii of inertia along the principal Central axes differ in two times. This condition corresponds to a thin-walled tubular cross section rhombic shape with respect to the diagonals 1/2, where the larger screen is located in the plane of the structure, and lower out-of-plane. Moreover, the value of the radius of gyration for the most diagonal exceeds the sum of the radius of gyration similar rhombic profile with equal �diagonaly, that is, a square that in a certain way contributes to the further reduction of the material of load-bearing structures. Here you can discover reserves upper bearing capacity (compressed) farm belt, and if it be done from such rhombic profile with a corresponding flattening in the non-faceted nodes. In addition, rhombic profiles in the proposed farm attitude diagonals 1/2 differ from the rhombic steel pipes, ribbed GOST 8647-57 [Sal'nikov G. P. quick reference mechanical engineer. - Kyiv: State publishing house of technical literature of the USSR, 1963. - P. 106].

To quantify the reserves of bearing capacity, it is advisable to use a calculation formula of the axial moments of inertia (Ixand IIrhombic (including square) profile

where l is the length of the median line of the wall, i.e. the line passing through the center of the wall thickness;

t - wall thickness;

n is the smaller and more b, n=a/b.

For thin-walled tubular cross section rhombic shape with respect to the diagonals 1/2 (n=0,5)

For thin-walled tubular cross-section square shape

If you enter the parameters of tonkostennoy characteristic of closed gotowanych profiles (l/t=25...50) [the�T Ρ 54157-2010. Shaped steel tubes for structural steelwork. Technical conditions. - M.: Standartenfuhrer, 2010. - S. 14-23], it is obvious that the rhombic element moment of inertia of the cross section increases intimes, and the flexibility is reduced totimes, where- the radii of inertia of the cross section rhombic and square tubes, respectively.

Thus, rhombic profile allows you to increase the bearing capacity of the upper (compressed) zone and flattening nodes in the farm ensures the centering of the non-faceted connections to the grid elements on the inner side and with ledgers on the outside. Such flattening brings the nodes of the belt to the hinges in the plane of the farm and hard (frame) mounts from the plane of the structure.

The effectiveness of the rhombic profile, flattened in places of joints, in relation to the bottom (stretched) belt tubular farms can be increased if a large diagonal cross-sectional positioning of the plane design, and less - in the plane, which will significantly increase the stiffness of the axial plane (mounting rigidity) and reduce braced elements. This design technique should be extended to the expanded tubular grid elements of the farm in which the efforts of compression and extension are alternated throughout the length of about�ETA.

The proposed technical solution is illustrated graphic material, where Fig. 1 shows a portion of a farm based coating with a triangular lattice; Fig. 2 - piece of farm run-through cover with diagonal lattice; Fig. 3 shows the top node of the farm belt with a triangular lattice, a side view; Fig. 4 - Assembly lower belt triangle girders, side view; Fig. 5 - unit upper belt farm with diagonal grate, side view; Fig. 6 is a bottom node of the farm belt with diagonal grate, side view.

The proposed technical solution tubular farm rhombic profile with respect to the diagonals of the cross section includes upper 1/2 (compressed) zone 1, the bottom (stretched) belt 2 stretched braces 3 triangular or diagonal lattice and compressed struts 4 triangular grid or rack 5 diagonal grid. At the nodes of the upper belt to the farm can lean runs of roll-formed sections 6 or with the angled short stacks 7 runs of rolled sections 8. The core elements of the upper belt 1, and short struts 4 and the rack 5 are cross-section, the larger screen which is located in the plane of the farms (construction), and lower out-of-plane. The core elements of the lower belt 2 and braces 3 are cross-section, the larger screen which is located from the plane of the farms (construction), and lower in the plane. In the places provided about�preparation under non-faceted hub connection zones with the lattice rods between them, rhombic profile belt elements tapers with the formation of the grounds, is necessary and sufficient for easy placement, alignment and secure fastening of all converging at each node of elements (including details of false ceilings, suspended cranes, utilities, process equipment, etc.). Rhombic profile truss elements of the lattice after the flattening in the right places double bends give a V - or W-shaped (zigzag) shape.

The formation of the transitional and tapered portions of the rod elements of the tubular section belts and lattice between them is recommended with the provision of the sloped transition piece 1/6 1/4... [1. Trofimov, V. I., A. M. Kaminsky Light metal structures of buildings and structures: textbook. - M.: Publishing house of the DIA, 2002. - P. 152; 2. J. A. Packer, J. Wardenier, X.-L. Zhao, G. J. van der Vegte and Y. Kurobane. Construction with hollow steel sections. Design Guide for rectangular hollow section (RHS) joints under predominantly static loading. CIDECT, 2009. - P. 102]. Along the lines of the double bends are formed of leaf hinges, the distance between which you can pick up from the condition of absolute alignment non-faceted farm nodes as with triangular lattice and diagonal. Between these hinges tapered section rhombic profile grille reinforces the same plot rhombic profile ring element, while simultaneously providing necessary and �residual weld placement. The latter should be calculated only on the difference of effort in the adjoining braces 3 and 4, the triangular lattice or the brace 3 and the rack 5 diagonal, and they can be made in the most convenient (down) position. In the assembled and welded structures (farm) the optimum angle of inclination of the braces, a triangular lattice is 45...50°, diagonal lattice - 30...35° [Metal structures: a Textbook for high schools / Under the editorship of Y. I. Kudelina. - M.: Izd. Center "Academy", 2002. - P. 267].

For comparison of the proposed (new) technical solutions with known as the base object adopted three variants of steel truss industrial building with a span of 18 m from closed gotowanych profiles.

1. Rafter farm gotowanych profiles of rectangular (square) cross section [Kuzin N. I. Design and calculation of steel trusses coatings industrial buildings: a tutorial. - M.: Publishing house of the DIA, 1998. -S. 157-172].

2. Farm of square pipes (profiles) [Kuznetsov, A. F., Kuznetsov V. A. Farm of square pipes. Patent No. 116877, 10.06.2012, bull. No. 16].

The material consumption of the alternatives compared in the following table which shows that in the new solution it is reduced by about 3.26... at 11.23%.

Thus, the proposed technical solution allows depending on certain design decisions in the selection of the relationship of the diagonals of the rhombic cross section of the pipes (closed g�towarnych profiles), as well as the location of these diagonals in the axial plane structures (farm) or from the plane considering the sign of efforts to bar elements (tension or compression) to adjust the stress-strain state of the structure. Such regulation ensures optimization of physico-mechanical properties and techno-economic characteristics of load-bearing structures of buildings and structures. This allows you as a source of blanks for rhombic profile to apply the corresponding size of square pipes, which can lead to additional positive effect. As factory compounds such preparations is quite applicable welded joints with longitudinal slits [Marutyan S. A., Kobalia T. L., Pavlenko, Y. I. Welded butt joint of tubular rods. Patent No. 2429329, 20.09.2011, bull. No. 26], which are easier to place in areas free from the flattening. In core elements of the lattice of characters of alternate efforts, so after flattening square billets is advisable to extrude in the same sequence with the required location is great and shorter diagonals of the cross section in-plane and out-plane design.

Farm rhombic tubes

(gotowanych profiles)

Farm of tubular elements, comprising a belt and tightly cover up�captive to them bars, made with tapered ends of the curved elements of the V - or W-shaped (zigzag) shape, characterized in that the rods of the farm made rhombic shape with respect to the diagonals 1/2, where the compressed rods larger diagonal is located in the plane of the structure, the smaller diagonal of the plane, and all tie bars the lower diagonal is located in the plane of the structure, and large - from the plane, wherein the upper and lower sashes in the field of non-faceted adjacency lattice tapered.



 

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