Method to detect moisture content of gases
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: measuring vessel with a capacitance sensor installed in the form of a multi-electrode flat-parallel air capacitor, to which a measurement capacitor of available capacity is connected, filled with the investigated gas, and the value of temperature and pressure are recorded. High DC voltage is supplied to the capacitance sensor installed in the measurement vessel and to the measurement capacitor of available capacity. The outlet voltage is measured on the measurement capacitor, and moisture content of the investigated gas is determined according to the temperature moisture characteristic of the sensor.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity.
2 cl, 6 dwg
The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used to measure the moisture content of various gases, and petroleum and petroleum products.
Various methods for the determination of moisture content of gases. Most of them allow you to determine moisture content based on indirect measurements of the target gas (air) when its state changes before the dew by lowering the temperature or increasing the pressure (patent RF №2450262, 10.05.2012).
Known optical method for determination of moisture content of gases (RF patent for useful model RF # 37416, 29.12.2003, the patent owner LLC NLP "TKA"). The method is based on the absorption of vacuum ultraviolet water vapor at a wavelength of 121,6 nm. Water vapor for that length have an absorption coefficient of more than 200 cm-1, while that of oxygen is specified, the coefficient is 0.5 cm-1. First, the measured signal from the sensor by blowing dry air (I0, and then measure the signal Iλwith known water vapor content. The dependence of the percentage of energy absorption on the concentration of water is determined by the law of Lambert-Bouguer-beer:
where σλ- the rate of water vapor absorption at the wavelength of 121,6 nm;
N is the concentration of water molecules;
l is the distance from the window of the lamp up to the window of the photodetector.
The study�of optical hygrometer showed the linearity of the scale, what is important in the calibration of the instrument, and performance. But this method of measuring moisture content in gases is a major drawback is the short life of the lamp and the continuous decrease in the intensity of its radiation, which requires the calibration of the instrument before each measurement.
The closest method of determining the moisture content of gases, taken as a prototype, is dielcometric indirect method of measuring moisture content of substances and gases (Berlinger, M. A., measurement of humidity. - Moscow: Energiya, 1973, pp. 55-63) depending on the dielectric permittivity of these substances. The method is based on the use of a capacitive sensor in the form of a multi-electrode parallel plate air condenser, placed in a dielectric shielded purged body with a tight lid to conclusions.
Measurement of capacitance of the sensor when this method is carried out with alternating current, for example, in a bridge circuit. The main disadvantage of this method is the low sensitivity due to the small change of the dielectric constant on the moisture content of the gas.
The objective of the claimed solution is the reduction in maintenance time and costs, improving the accuracy and reliability of measurements.
This goal is achieved due to the fact that in the known method of determination of moisture content of gases, edit�measuring vessel provided therein capacitive sensor in the form of a multi-electrode parallel plate air capacitor is filled with the studied gas and record the temperature and pressure, according to the claimed solution in series with a capacitive sensor connect the measuring condenser of known capacity, serves a high DC voltage on a capacitive sensor mounted in the measuring vessel and the measuring condenser of known capacity, measure the output voltage on the measuring capacitor and determine the moisture content of the target gas for temperature and humidity characteristics of the sensor.
The technical result obtained by the implementation of the proposed solutions is to improve the sensitivity of the inventive method, which is achieved due to the fact that the capacitive sensor located in the measuring vessel is connected to a high voltage DC voltage, and the capacitance of the sensor is determined by the voltage taken from the constant of the measuring capacitor, in series with a capacitive sensor.
The essence of the proposed method is as follows. Water vapor in the air are in the form of dipoles, uniformly, but randomly in orientation, distributed by volume. Measuring cell with the test gas (air) is a parallel plate capacitor with a chaotic arrangement of dipoles therein in the absence of an external electric field (Fig.1). The dielectric constant of the air is a little �otlichaetsa from unity (dry air). If the capacitor plates are applying a constant high voltage, the dipoles of water vapor will be oriented in the direction of the applied electric field (Fig.2). The capacity of such a condenser will increase the more, the more the humidity of the air between its plates. The mass ratio of moisture (mass moisture content) d can be calculated, given the difference in the capacitance of the capacitor in the absence of external fields and in the presence of an external field.
where C1- sensor capacitance in the absence of external fields;
K - coefficient of proportionality, taking into account the geometrical dimensions of the sensor, and the temperature and pressure of the investigated air.
The novelty of the claimed solution is that, when installed in the environment of the target gas capacitive sensor DC high voltage, moisture content of the target gas is determined by the voltage taken from the measuring capacitor, in series with a capacitive sensor using temperature and humidity response of the sensor. The proposed method of determination of moisture content of gases is a fundamentally new method�m wet substances.
The claimed solution is illustrated graphic materials, where:
Fig.1 shows the position of the dipoles in the capacitor in the absence of an external electric field;
Fig.2 shows the position of the dipoles in the capacitor at DC high voltage;
Fig.3 shows the electrical circuit for measuring the capacity of multi-electrode parallel plate air condenser;
Fig.4 shows the electrical circuit with an additional circuit;
Fig.5 shows a graph of d from Uo;
Fig.6 shows an installation for implementing the method.
For implementing the inventive method of determining the moisture content of gases, the measuring vessel provided therein capacitive sensor in the form of a multi-electrode parallel plate air capacitor, which sequentially connect the measuring condenser of known capacity, fill the investigated gas and record the temperature and pressure, then fed a high DC voltage on a capacitive sensor mounted in the measuring vessel and the measuring condenser of known capacity, measure the output voltage on the measuring capacitor and determine the moisture content of the target gas for temperature and humidity characteristics of the sensor.
Installation for implementing the method (Fig.6)comprises a capacitive sensor, made in the form of multi-electrode parallel plate air capacitor consisting of alternately arranged plane-parallel electrodes 6, interconnected by conductors 7. The capacitive sensor is placed in a shielded dielectric blown through the housing 5 with a cover 4 which is provided with 3 conclusions from the positive and negative electrode group 6, the group connects the positive terminal of high voltage source 1 and the measuring capacitor C3and C4and to the negative group connects the measuring capacitor C2known capacity, which forms the measuring bridge. Dielectric blown through the casing 5 is provided with a nozzle 2 for supplying the investigated air and a nozzle 8 for reset.
For a specific sensor removed temperature and humidity conditions, i.e., according to Uofrom humidity at different temperatures and recorded in the passport.
It is known that the allowable voltage Usupplementaryon the plates of an air capacitor (for dry air), forming the corresponding intensity of its electric field (EP) must be three times less than the breakdown voltage UPR. Thus, at UPR=30 kV/cm, Usupplementary=10 kV/cm.
For safe operation of the capacitor C in wet�spirit operating voltage U slavethis capacitor is necessary to reduce two times in comparison with Usupplementaryi.e. Uslave≤5 kV/cm.
The electrical circuit for measuring the capacitance of this capacitor can be implemented as follows.
In series with the measuring cell C1include an additional capacitor C2(Fig.3) and measure the voltage across it by the electrostatic voltmeter. From the condition of constancy of the charge in the series configuration of capacitors follows the equality of C1U1=C2U2where it is possible to calculate the capacitance of the measuring cell:
To increase the sensitivity you can use a bridge circuit (Fig.4): parallel circuit shown in Fig.3, to include additional circuit C3and C4and the output voltage Uothat depends only on the change C1, remove from points A and B. In dry air (moisture content d=0) in the measurement cell C1the output voltage is set to zero with the help of the capacitor C0. Electrostatic voltmeter, which measures Uois selected with a limit of measurement to 10 V, which significantly increases the resolution of the voltmeter and improves the accuracy of measurement.
For each design capacitive sensor previously removed the temperature-wet�STN characteristic (Fig.5):
where f (Gs, T, P) - function that takes into account the geometrical dimensions of the measuring sensor Gs, temperature T and pressure P of the target gas.
According to the dependence of d from Uo(Fig.5) may be prepared a calculation equation for a specific geometric dimensions, for example, will have the following form:
By calculating the mass ratio of moisture (mass moisture content) d and by measuring the temperature and pressure of the air on the table Ramzin (I-d) determine the relative humidity φ (%) of the test air.
The claimed solution is illustrated by the following example.
On the setting of the desired humidity fill the measuring vessel provided therein capacitive sensor air, the relative humidity of which is measured by the control hygrometer, φ=72% at T=18,9°C.
After switching high-voltage (UEast=2 kV electrostatic voltmeter in the diagonal differential circuit showed Uo=1,48 In that by the empirical formula (5) corresponds to the value d=9,85 [g/kgdry]. At temperature T=18,9°C and a pressure of 756 mm Hg. V. this value of d by the formula (6) corresponds to a relative humidity φ=72,29%.
Thus, obtained by the proposed method, the measurement error relative planetecologie:
The sensitivity of the electrical circuit of the proposed method is confirmed by the following experiment.
Without connecting a high voltage at temperature T=19,1°C measured capacitance values of the measuring device (vessel with plates of the capacitor filled with air) with a mass ratio of moisture (mass water content) d of d1=0,5 [g/kgdry], which corresponds to a relative humidity of φ=4.8% down to d2=10,5 [g/kgdry], which corresponds to φ=70% at the same temperature.
Electric capacity of vessel at d=0.5 g/kg was equal to C=113,0 pF, when d=10.5 g/kg was 113,05 pF.
When you enable the external electric field (UEast=2000) the change of voltage on the reference capacitor C2amounted to 1.48 V when d=10,5 [g/kgdry]. For dry air voltage U2=127,4 V.
In accordance with the expression (3):
At moisture content d=10,5 [g/kgdry] the voltage on C2amounted to $ 127.4+1,48=128,88 (In), resulting from the change in capacitance C1.
Also, in accordance with the expression (3):
Thus, the capacitance has changed by 1.41 pF, i.e. the sensitivity of the electrical circuit to the capacitance change measuring device (vessel with plates Conde�of Sator, air-filled) is more than 1 V/pF.
Given the nonlinearity of the output characteristic, it is advisable to use two measuring vessel with small gaps for low values of moisture content, as a more sensitive, and with large gaps for high values of moisture content, when the inevitable leaks at small gaps between the electrodes.
The peculiarity of the proposed method is the need for a source of high voltage and electrostatic voltmeter.
The experimental measurements (δ≅0,4%) allow the use generated by the proposed solution measures humidity as a special high-level standards national verification scheme (SBS).
The claimed solution can be used to create a fairly cheap, simple and convenient in operation measures and measuring instruments of moisture air, easy to manufacture, does not require expensive materials and with high sensitivity, in the range of relative humidity in accordance with national verification scheme (SBS) GOST 8.547-86, as well as working means of measurement of mass ratio of moisture of different gases and of oil and oil products.
1. Method for determination of moisture content of gases, whereby the measuring vessel with the mouth�established in it a capacitive sensor in the form of a multi-electrode parallel plate air capacitor is filled with the studied gas and record the temperature and pressure, characterized in that in series with the capacitive sensor connect the measuring condenser of known capacity, serves a high DC voltage on a capacitive sensor mounted in the measuring vessel and the measuring condenser of known capacity, measure the output voltage on the measuring capacitor and determine the moisture content of the target gas for temperature and humidity characteristics of the sensor.
2. Method for determination of moisture content of gases according to claim 1, characterized in that the capacitive sensor mounted in the measuring vessel and the measuring condenser serves a DC voltage from 1 kV to 5 kV.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: sensor of the device represents a thick-walled tube-dowel 1, made of a dielectric plastic material, on the outer cylindrical surface of which there are current electrodes 2 and 3, split by plastic dielectric gaskets 4 and on the reverse side. The tube-dowel with electrodes is inserted into a hole 6, previously drilled in the solid medium, and is spaced in it with a screw 10 screwed into it. Gaskets 4 and 5 are installed perpendicularly in a current line 8, flowing in the solid medium. A current recorder 9 is connected between current electrodes 2 and 3. A rotary lever-indicator 11 is fixed on the upper part of the dielectric tube perpendicular to the split of the tube-dowel.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of current density measurement in local volumes of solid media.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: textiles, paper.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to textile industry and can be used in control systems of transporting the textile material during technological processing in the form of a tow. The method of detecting a seam of the textile material processed in the form of a tow comprises placing the movable textile material inside the induced coil of the oscillating circuit, amplification and detection of the high frequency voltage at the output of the generator and forming while reducing voltage at the output of the amplifier-detector of the pulse of required duration for safe operation of the actuator. And the seam of the textile material is provided with a conductive label, the amplitude of high frequency voltage is set from the conditions of the required sensitivity at the output of the generator, the voltage is converted at the output of the amplifier-detector and it is compared with the driving voltage, and the resulting difference of voltage is integrated, and the voltage is applied at the output of the integrator to stabilise the amplitude of high frequency voltage at the output of the generator, and the integration process is interrupted for the period of the formed impulse action. The conductive label is used, for example, as a metallised thread, which is used for sewing the textile material pieces in the continuous web.
EFFECT: increase in reliability of detection of the seam of textile material processed in the form of a tow and providing automatic compensation of external disturbing effects.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: textiles, paper.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of engineering for light industry and can be used to create the systems for detecting metal particles in textile materials, in nonwoven substrate in production of synthetic leather, felt, etc. The method of detecting metal particles in the displaced fibrous material consists in placing the displaced fibrous material in the working area of induced coil of oscillating circuit in which high-frequency oscillations are created using the generator. Further, amplification and detection of high-frequency output voltage of the generator is carried out. At that at the output of the amplifier-detector the impulse of the required duration for reliable operation of the actuating mechanism is formed. The output voltage of the amplifier-detector is compared with driving voltage. The resulting voltage difference is integrated, and the voltage is applied at the output of the integrator to stabilise the amplitude of high-frequency voltage at the generator output, and the integration process is interrupted for the duration of the impulse formed.
EFFECT: increase in reliability of detection of metal particles in the displaced fibre material and providing automatic compensation of external disturbing actions.
FIELD: textiles, paper.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of engineering for light industry and can be used to create systems to detect metal particles in textile materials, in nonwoven substrate in production of synthetic leather, felt, etc. The method of detecting metal particles in the movable fibrous material consists in placing the movable fibrous material into the workspace of induced coil of the oscillating circuit in which using a generator the high-frequency oscillations are generated. Then, amplification and detection of high-frequency voltage at the output of the generator is carried out. And at the output of the amplifier-detector the impulse of the required duration is formed for safe operation of the actuator. From the conditions of the required sensitivity the amplitude of high-frequency voltage is set at the output of the generator, the voltage is converted at the output of the amplifier-detector and it is compared with the driving voltage. The obtained voltage difference is integrated and the voltage at the output of the integrator is used for stabilisation of the amplitude of high-frequency voltage at the output of the generator. And the process of integration is interrupted at the time of formation of the impulse for the time interval, the value of which is defined as a functional dependence on the linear velocity of the fibrous material, and the process of integration is renewed at the end of the pulse and the time interval of interruption of the integration process, and at the time of bringing the circuit into operation state the actuation of the actuator is blocked for the time interval, obviously longer than the duration of damped transitory processes in most inertial node of the circuit.
EFFECT: increase in reliability of detection of metal particles in the movable fibrous material and providing automatic compensation of external disturbing effects.
SUBSTANCE: method of determining chlorobenzene in natural and waste water using gas chromatography and equilibrium vapour analysis includes determining chlorobenzene on a chromatographic capitally column in a carrier gas current which is nitrogen; generating and detecting the investigated ions formed in a flame with a flame-ionisation detector. The method also includes preparing a basic solution using a more viscous ethylene glycol solvent, hence the basic solution is well preserved for 2 months at temperature in the range of -2°C to -10°C; preparing calibration solutions for chlorobenzene concentration in the range of 0.0003-0.02 mg/dm3; sample preparation, calibrating the chromatograph by perforating the vapour phase of the prepared concentrations; plotting a calibration curve; sample preparation for the analysed water samples; perforating the vapour phase into the evaporator of the chromatograph. The obtained data are processed using ChemStation software which comes in a set with the MAESTRO 7820A chromatographic kit, and qualitative identification and quantitative content of the determined substance is obtained.
EFFECT: improved consistency and accuracy of analysis, shorter duration of the method and easier analysis in environmental monitoring conditions.
6 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system consists of two peristaltic pumps, a loop-containing injector, a flow amperometric cell with includes a biosensor, a potentiostat. As the biosensor, the electroanalytic system contains a lactate biosensor. The injector loop includes an accumulative column.
EFFECT: increase of selectivity and sensitivity of determination, reduction of the limit of lactate detection.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: scope of application: for carbon monoxide detection in air. Invention consists in the following: manufacturing method includes obtaining nanocrystalline wide gap semiconducting oxides MeO (SnO2, ZnO, In2O3), obtaining sols of quantum dots of narrow gap semiconductors CdX (X=Se, Te, S) and oxides impregnation with sols of quantum dots followed by drying for formation of heterocontacts MO/CdX.
EFFECT: providing possibility of decrease of semiconductive sensor materials temperature to the room temperature upon detection of carbon monoxide in air and providing high sensitivity and low energy consumption of sensor.
FIELD: instrumentation technology.
SUBSTANCE: change of control of gas mixtures with different preset concentrations of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor is carried out in dynamic mode at constant and equal, equal to the predetermined, consumptions from different sources of control gas mixtures with different preset concentrations of the controlled component. Change of gas mixtures with different preset concentrations of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor and achievement of stabilisation of the output signal of the sensor, corresponding to the level of concentration of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor is provided at equal parameters of the control gas mixtures and for minimum time which is easily calculated and taken into account in determining the operation speed of the gas analytical sensor. This ensures accuracy of determining of the operation speed of the gas analytical sensor. Use of the dynamic mode of feeding the first gas mixture, as well as change of the first gas mixture to the second gas mixture during the testing of the gas analytical sensor enables to stabilise faster the predetermined concentration of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor and thus to ensure the constancy of pressure and composition of gas mixtures on the sensor element of the sensor, which increases the accuracy of evaluation of its operation speed. With this mode of feeding the gas mixtures the performance data of the gas reducers on the sources of feeding the control gas mixtures remain dynamic and do not affect the process of feeding the stable gas mixture at program switches of the valves.
EFFECT: increase in reliability of determining the operation speed of the gas analytical sensor by feeding to the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor of control gas mixtures stable in composition and pressure in dynamic mode.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: veterinary medicine.
SUBSTANCE: strip of filter paper with the width of 20 mm is attached on the filter, mounted in the ventilation system of the test livestock building, for a period of 4 hours. 1% sterile glucose solution is prepared on physiological solution, which is used as a nutrient medium. The strip of filter paper is placed in 10 ml solution of glucose and thermostated at the temperature 37±1°C for 2 hours. Then the electric conductivity of the solution is measured. The conclusion about the necessity in sanitary-hygienic processing of livestock buildings is made when the electric conductivity value is 287.3 mcS/cm, which corresponds to maximum allowable concentration of microorganisms in the air of the working area or below.
EFFECT: invention enables to determine reliably the microbiological environment in the buildings and to make the prompt conclusion about the necessity of sanitary-hygienic processing of livestock buildings.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to measurement equipment and can be applied in determination of electric parameters of space. Method involves placement of probe in the form of open flat capacitor screened from solar radiation by opaque screen, in space and feed of HF signals of definite frequency to the probe. Measurement data are obtained from the probe in the form of loss angle tangent and dielectric permeability of medium under examination, allowing for determination of attenuation rate per length unit for space.
EFFECT: possible determination of attenuation rate per length unit for space.
FIELD: thermal and nuclear power stations; meter calibration in extremely pure water of condensate type and power unit feedwater.
SUBSTANCE: for pH-meter calibration ammonia whose concentration varies by 1.5 - 2 times is dosed in working medium. Electric conductivity and temperature of working-medium H-cationized sample are measured. Measurement results are processed in computer with aid of set of equations characterizing ionic equilibrium in source sample and H-cationized samples. Calculated pH value is compared with measurement results.
EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability of meter calibration in extremely pure waters.
1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has housing provided with three cylinders made of a dielectric material. The housing receives the cylinder with a piston.
EFFECT: improved design.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science; evaluating water-physics properties of soils.
SUBSTANCE: porous probe communicating with water-filled tank is driven into soil, cathode is inserted in probe and anode, in soil. Voltage is applied to electrodes from dc power supply and soil moisture potential preventing water transfer from tank to soil is determined by measuring current between them.
EFFECT: reduced single measurement time due to eliminating escape of significant amount of water from measuring instrument.
1 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises measuring section made of dielectric pipe whose inner diameter is equal to the inner diameter of the pipeline, two electrodes which form a capacitor made of segments of the dielectric pipe, mounted diametrically opposite, and connected with the electronic unit. The electronic unit has a self-excited oscillator whose frequency-generating circuit includes the capacitor and device for processing frequencies with the indicator. The electrodes are arranged inside the dielectric pipe of the measuring section. The transverse length of each electrode can be greater than half inner diameter of the pipeline. The longitudinal length of each electrode may not exceed half length of the dielectric pipe.
EFFECT: enhanced sensitivity.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: analytical methods.
SUBSTANCE: electrodes of piezoelectric resonator are modified with menthol phenyl salicylate vaseline oil, recommended solvent being toluene, modifier film weight 5-20 μg, drying temperature 20-35°C, and drying time 40-48 h. The following gains in aromatic amine determination sensitivity are thus obtained: for aniline, from 282 to 368 Hz-m3/g; for o-tolidine, from 68 to 78 Hz-m3/g; for 9-nitroaniline, from 136 to 125 Hz-m3/g. Reductions in relative deviation are, respectively, 6.0 to 3.2%, 7.0 to 3.6%, and 6.0 to 4.3%, sensor response time is decreased by 5 times, regeneration time is decreased by 24 times, and aniline detection threshold is lowered from 0.84 to 0.11 Δ, g/m3.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity and accuracy of determination.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 11 ex
FIELD: scanning probe microscopy.
SUBSTANCE: scanning probe microscope has sample holder, first platform, onto which case is mounted, and piezoscanner. Elastic membrane is placed between case and piezoscanner. There is unit for preliminary bringing sample and probe together, as well as housing and probe fixer. The second platform is introduced into the scanner, onto which unit for preliminary bringing sample and probe together. Base and sample holder is put together with cup by means of first hole and the second hole. Second hole is connected with inert gas source. Cup is made of chemically-proof material. Case is made to be air-proof. Locker of the probe is fastened to piezoscanner. Housing is mounted onto cup for interaction with airtight case. Aerostatic plain bearing is formed between housing and airtight case. Sample holder, cup, housing, airtight case, elastic membrane and probe locker form all together closed cavity of electrochemical cell.
EFFECT: simplified exploitation; widened operational abilities.
11 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: detector can be used in concentration meters as positive and negative aeroiones. Aeroion concentration detector has bias voltage source and receiving probe. Detector additionally has two resistors connected in series, auxiliary electrode and electrometer for measuring output voltage that is proportional to measured concentration of aeroiones. Receiving probe has to be volumetric electrode made of metal grid inside which the auxiliary electrode is located. The latter is isolated from volumetric electrode.
EFFECT: improved functional abilities.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes mounting a sample between panels of capacitor converter of electromagnetic radiation, deforming thereof in loading device. Loading device has oppositely mounted in metallic body of loading device metallic rods, force detector and registration system. Compressing external force is applied to sample from first metallic rod through force detector body and it is destroyed due to reaction force of conic indenter of second metallic rod. Metallic body of loading device is a first plate of capacitor converter, second plate - second metallic rod, mounted in bushing of dielectric material, placed in metallic body. Stand has screen, frame, capacitor converter, loading device, force detector and registration system. Between ends of metallic rods force detector and sample are positioned. Second metallic rod is provided with conic indenter.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: analytical chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: sensor can be used for inspecting level of oxidants and antioxidants in liquid. Device for detecting absence or presence of reduction-oxidation reactive-capable analyzed matter in water sample has electro-chemical cell with sensor chamber, first and second electrodes, hole for introducing sample into sensor chamber and reagent placed inside sensor chamber. Electro-chemical cell is designed to be removable after usage in any unique experiment. Reagent is capable of subjecting to reduction-oxidation reaction directly with analyzed matter to generate electric signal indicating absence or presence of analyzed matter. Method of detecting level of reduction-oxidation reaction-capable matter is also proposed as well as method of measurement of sulfur dioxide in sample of vine and method of producing device mentioned before.
EFFECT: improved precision.
36 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology; criminology.
SUBSTANCE: main and ancillary electrodes are installed before procedure of getting imprints of dust trace. Voltage applied to main and ancillary electrodes is regulated within wide high-voltage range. Device for getting imprints of dust traces has electric charge storage, main and ancillary electrodes and connecting cable of ancillary electrode, mechanical unit driven into action by muscle force of expert. Mechanical unit is connected with mechanical energy/electric energy converter which is connected with electric charge storage. Main electrode is coated with insulating dielectric film and connected with electric charge storage.
EFFECT: improved exploitation characteristics; independence on external electric power sources; reduced chance of electric current shock.
2 cl, 2 dwg