Method to detect moisture content of gases

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: measuring vessel with a capacitance sensor installed in the form of a multi-electrode flat-parallel air capacitor, to which a measurement capacitor of available capacity is connected, filled with the investigated gas, and the value of temperature and pressure are recorded. High DC voltage is supplied to the capacitance sensor installed in the measurement vessel and to the measurement capacitor of available capacity. The outlet voltage is measured on the measurement capacitor, and moisture content of the investigated gas is determined according to the temperature moisture characteristic of the sensor.

EFFECT: increased sensitivity.

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The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used to measure the moisture content of various gases, and petroleum and petroleum products.

Various methods for the determination of moisture content of gases. Most of them allow you to determine moisture content based on indirect measurements of the target gas (air) when its state changes before the dew by lowering the temperature or increasing the pressure (patent RF №2450262, 10.05.2012).

Known optical method for determination of moisture content of gases (RF patent for useful model RF # 37416, 29.12.2003, the patent owner LLC NLP "TKA"). The method is based on the absorption of vacuum ultraviolet water vapor at a wavelength of 121,6 nm. Water vapor for that length have an absorption coefficient of more than 200 cm-1, while that of oxygen is specified, the coefficient is 0.5 cm-1. First, the measured signal from the sensor by blowing dry air (I0, and then measure the signal Iλwith known water vapor content. The dependence of the percentage of energy absorption on the concentration of water is determined by the law of Lambert-Bouguer-beer:

where σλ- the rate of water vapor absorption at the wavelength of 121,6 nm;

N is the concentration of water molecules;

l is the distance from the window of the lamp up to the window of the photodetector.

The study�of optical hygrometer showed the linearity of the scale, what is important in the calibration of the instrument, and performance. But this method of measuring moisture content in gases is a major drawback is the short life of the lamp and the continuous decrease in the intensity of its radiation, which requires the calibration of the instrument before each measurement.

The closest method of determining the moisture content of gases, taken as a prototype, is dielcometric indirect method of measuring moisture content of substances and gases (Berlinger, M. A., measurement of humidity. - Moscow: Energiya, 1973, pp. 55-63) depending on the dielectric permittivity of these substances. The method is based on the use of a capacitive sensor in the form of a multi-electrode parallel plate air condenser, placed in a dielectric shielded purged body with a tight lid to conclusions.

Measurement of capacitance of the sensor when this method is carried out with alternating current, for example, in a bridge circuit. The main disadvantage of this method is the low sensitivity due to the small change of the dielectric constant on the moisture content of the gas.

The objective of the claimed solution is the reduction in maintenance time and costs, improving the accuracy and reliability of measurements.

This goal is achieved due to the fact that in the known method of determination of moisture content of gases, edit�measuring vessel provided therein capacitive sensor in the form of a multi-electrode parallel plate air capacitor is filled with the studied gas and record the temperature and pressure, according to the claimed solution in series with a capacitive sensor connect the measuring condenser of known capacity, serves a high DC voltage on a capacitive sensor mounted in the measuring vessel and the measuring condenser of known capacity, measure the output voltage on the measuring capacitor and determine the moisture content of the target gas for temperature and humidity characteristics of the sensor.

The technical result obtained by the implementation of the proposed solutions is to improve the sensitivity of the inventive method, which is achieved due to the fact that the capacitive sensor located in the measuring vessel is connected to a high voltage DC voltage, and the capacitance of the sensor is determined by the voltage taken from the constant of the measuring capacitor, in series with a capacitive sensor.

The essence of the proposed method is as follows. Water vapor in the air are in the form of dipoles, uniformly, but randomly in orientation, distributed by volume. Measuring cell with the test gas (air) is a parallel plate capacitor with a chaotic arrangement of dipoles therein in the absence of an external electric field (Fig.1). The dielectric constant of the air is a little �otlichaetsa from unity (dry air). If the capacitor plates are applying a constant high voltage, the dipoles of water vapor will be oriented in the direction of the applied electric field (Fig.2). The capacity of such a condenser will increase the more, the more the humidity of the air between its plates. The mass ratio of moisture (mass moisture content) d can be calculated, given the difference in the capacitance of the capacitor in the absence of external fields and in the presence of an external field.

where C1- sensor capacitance in the absence of external fields;

C'1- capacity in the presence of an external field;

K - coefficient of proportionality, taking into account the geometrical dimensions of the sensor, and the temperature and pressure of the investigated air.

The novelty of the claimed solution is that, when installed in the environment of the target gas capacitive sensor DC high voltage, moisture content of the target gas is determined by the voltage taken from the measuring capacitor, in series with a capacitive sensor using temperature and humidity response of the sensor. The proposed method of determination of moisture content of gases is a fundamentally new method�m wet substances.

The claimed solution is illustrated graphic materials, where:

Fig.1 shows the position of the dipoles in the capacitor in the absence of an external electric field;

Fig.2 shows the position of the dipoles in the capacitor at DC high voltage;

Fig.3 shows the electrical circuit for measuring the capacity of multi-electrode parallel plate air condenser;

Fig.4 shows the electrical circuit with an additional circuit;

Fig.5 shows a graph of d from Uo;

Fig.6 shows an installation for implementing the method.

For implementing the inventive method of determining the moisture content of gases, the measuring vessel provided therein capacitive sensor in the form of a multi-electrode parallel plate air capacitor, which sequentially connect the measuring condenser of known capacity, fill the investigated gas and record the temperature and pressure, then fed a high DC voltage on a capacitive sensor mounted in the measuring vessel and the measuring condenser of known capacity, measure the output voltage on the measuring capacitor and determine the moisture content of the target gas for temperature and humidity characteristics of the sensor.

Installation for implementing the method (Fig.6)comprises a capacitive sensor, made in the form of multi-electrode parallel plate air capacitor consisting of alternately arranged plane-parallel electrodes 6, interconnected by conductors 7. The capacitive sensor is placed in a shielded dielectric blown through the housing 5 with a cover 4 which is provided with 3 conclusions from the positive and negative electrode group 6, the group connects the positive terminal of high voltage source 1 and the measuring capacitor C3and C4and to the negative group connects the measuring capacitor C2known capacity, which forms the measuring bridge. Dielectric blown through the casing 5 is provided with a nozzle 2 for supplying the investigated air and a nozzle 8 for reset.

For a specific sensor removed temperature and humidity conditions, i.e., according to Uofrom humidity at different temperatures and recorded in the passport.

It is known that the allowable voltage Usupplementaryon the plates of an air capacitor (for dry air), forming the corresponding intensity of its electric field (EP) must be three times less than the breakdown voltage UPR. Thus, at UPR=30 kV/cm, Usupplementary=10 kV/cm.

For safe operation of the capacitor C in wet�spirit operating voltage U slavethis capacitor is necessary to reduce two times in comparison with Usupplementaryi.e. Uslave≤5 kV/cm.

The electrical circuit for measuring the capacitance of this capacitor can be implemented as follows.

In series with the measuring cell C1include an additional capacitor C2(Fig.3) and measure the voltage across it by the electrostatic voltmeter. From the condition of constancy of the charge in the series configuration of capacitors follows the equality of C1U1=C2U2where it is possible to calculate the capacitance of the measuring cell:

To increase the sensitivity you can use a bridge circuit (Fig.4): parallel circuit shown in Fig.3, to include additional circuit C3and C4and the output voltage Uothat depends only on the change C1, remove from points A and B. In dry air (moisture content d=0) in the measurement cell C1the output voltage is set to zero with the help of the capacitor C0. Electrostatic voltmeter, which measures Uois selected with a limit of measurement to 10 V, which significantly increases the resolution of the voltmeter and improves the accuracy of measurement.

For each design capacitive sensor previously removed the temperature-wet�STN characteristic (Fig.5):

where f (Gs, T, P) - function that takes into account the geometrical dimensions of the measuring sensor Gs, temperature T and pressure P of the target gas.

According to the dependence of d from Uo(Fig.5) may be prepared a calculation equation for a specific geometric dimensions, for example, will have the following form:

By calculating the mass ratio of moisture (mass moisture content) d and by measuring the temperature and pressure of the air on the table Ramzin (I-d) determine the relative humidity φ (%) of the test air.

The claimed solution is illustrated by the following example.

On the setting of the desired humidity fill the measuring vessel provided therein capacitive sensor air, the relative humidity of which is measured by the control hygrometer, φ=72% at T=18,9°C.

After switching high-voltage (UEast=2 kV electrostatic voltmeter in the diagonal differential circuit showed Uo=1,48 In that by the empirical formula (5) corresponds to the value d=9,85 [g/kgdry]. At temperature T=18,9°C and a pressure of 756 mm Hg. V. this value of d by the formula (6) corresponds to a relative humidity φ=72,29%.

Thus, obtained by the proposed method, the measurement error relative planetecologie:

The sensitivity of the electrical circuit of the proposed method is confirmed by the following experiment.

Without connecting a high voltage at temperature T=19,1°C measured capacitance values of the measuring device (vessel with plates of the capacitor filled with air) with a mass ratio of moisture (mass water content) d of d1=0,5 [g/kgdry], which corresponds to a relative humidity of φ=4.8% down to d2=10,5 [g/kgdry], which corresponds to φ=70% at the same temperature.

Electric capacity of vessel at d=0.5 g/kg was equal to C=113,0 pF, when d=10.5 g/kg was 113,05 pF.

When you enable the external electric field (UEast=2000) the change of voltage on the reference capacitor C2amounted to 1.48 V when d=10,5 [g/kgdry]. For dry air voltage U2=127,4 V.

In accordance with the expression (3):

113,0×(2000-127,4)=C2×127,4→C2=1661 pF.

At moisture content d=10,5 [g/kgdry] the voltage on C2amounted to $ 127.4+1,48=128,88 (In), resulting from the change in capacitance C1.

Also, in accordance with the expression (3):

C1×(2000-128,88)=1661×128,88→C1=114,41 pF.

Thus, the capacitance has changed by 1.41 pF, i.e. the sensitivity of the electrical circuit to the capacitance change measuring device (vessel with plates Conde�of Sator, air-filled) is more than 1 V/pF.

Given the nonlinearity of the output characteristic, it is advisable to use two measuring vessel with small gaps for low values of moisture content, as a more sensitive, and with large gaps for high values of moisture content, when the inevitable leaks at small gaps between the electrodes.

The peculiarity of the proposed method is the need for a source of high voltage and electrostatic voltmeter.

The experimental measurements (δ≅0,4%) allow the use generated by the proposed solution measures humidity as a special high-level standards national verification scheme (SBS).

The claimed solution can be used to create a fairly cheap, simple and convenient in operation measures and measuring instruments of moisture air, easy to manufacture, does not require expensive materials and with high sensitivity, in the range of relative humidity in accordance with national verification scheme (SBS) GOST 8.547-86, as well as working means of measurement of mass ratio of moisture of different gases and of oil and oil products.

1. Method for determination of moisture content of gases, whereby the measuring vessel with the mouth�established in it a capacitive sensor in the form of a multi-electrode parallel plate air capacitor is filled with the studied gas and record the temperature and pressure, characterized in that in series with the capacitive sensor connect the measuring condenser of known capacity, serves a high DC voltage on a capacitive sensor mounted in the measuring vessel and the measuring condenser of known capacity, measure the output voltage on the measuring capacitor and determine the moisture content of the target gas for temperature and humidity characteristics of the sensor.

2. Method for determination of moisture content of gases according to claim 1, characterized in that the capacitive sensor mounted in the measuring vessel and the measuring condenser serves a DC voltage from 1 kV to 5 kV.



 

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