Superhigh-speed aircraft and corresponding method of air movement

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to superhigh-speed aircraft , as well as to method of air movement using superhigh-speed aircraft. Aircraft moves by means of engine system consisting of turbojet engines (TB1, TB2), aero-thermo-dynamic ducts (ST1, ST2) and rocket engine which can be streamlined by closing to lower frontal resistance during cruising. The aircraft has triangle gothic wing (A) equipped with moving small wings (a1, a2) on outer ends of triangle wing (A) rear edge.

EFFECT: lower noise.

21 cl, 21 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates

The invention relates to ultra-high-speed aircraft, and the aircraft using the aircraft in accordance with the invention.

The level of technology

Recently in Japan and the U.S. had conducted research on ultrafast non-stop traffic. In light of these initiatives, the company EADS and ASTRIUM also carried out in the framework of ASP (short for "ASTRIUM SPACE PLANE") steps for the development of ultrafast non-stop aircraft.

To date we have implemented ultra-fast non-stop aircraft, such as aircraft "Concorde" and "Tupolev TU-144", and they were both supersonic. Proposed by the present invention the solution of ultra-high-speed aircraft can significantly improve the performance of these two aircraft.

In particular, the aircraft proposed by the present invention can significantly reduce the level of noise that accompanies the breaking the sound barrier and also known as supersonic "cotton", and this noise was the main, if not the only obstacle to the opening of other lines, except for transatlantic, for aircraft "Concorde".

Disclosure of the invention

The object of the invention is an aircraft containing�its fuselage, triangular Gothic wing, located on both sides of the fuselage, and the engines adapted to the propulsion of the aircraft. In the aircraft according to the invention:

the fuselage contains a tank of hydrogen in a liquid state or in suvabrata state (the state of "slush" in English) and one or more tanks with liquid oxygen;

- triangular Gothic wing has a flat upper surface and a lower surface, wherein the wing root starts essentially at the level where it starts with the extension of the forward fuselage;

- at each outer end of the trailing edge of the Delta wing fixed small wing using a cylindrical part whose axis is parallel to the axis of the fuselage, with each small wing consists of two essentially identical elements of trapezoidal shape, is fixed to the cylindrical and arranged in one plane with the two sides of the cylindrical parts, each cylindrical part is made with possibility of rotation around its axis so that both elements of the trapezoidal shape, is fixed on a cylindrical part, were located either in the plane parallel to the plane of the triangular Gothic wing, or in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the triangular Gothic wing and

the motor system comprises at least one turbojet engine, which can retract into the fuselage and is located at the front of the fuselage, at least one ramjet engine fixed geometry and a rocket engine in the rear fuselage, hatch, located on the rear part of the fuselage and arranged to be opened and closed respectively for opening of a rocket engine to the external environment or isolation of the rocket engine from the external environment.

According to an additional distinctive feature of the invention, the fuselage is formed of a front section or nose, which continues the section of a passenger cabin and a rear section, the front section has a constant cross-section that gradually expands from the passenger cabin section and the rear section has a constant cross-section which gradually tapers in the rearward direction of the aircraft.

According to another additional distinctive feature of the invention, the center of gravity of each tank of liquid oxygen, both empty and full, is as close to the center of gravity of the aircraft.

According to another additional distinctive feature of the invention, a rocket engine is a single engine, or �main engine in combination with one or more auxiliary engines.

According to another additional distinctive feature of the invention, the aircraft swept angle of the leading edge is from 70 to 75° from the straightforward calculation for the Delta wing.

The object of the invention is also a method of air transportation using aircraft in accordance with the invention, the method includes the takeoff phase of the aircraft, in this case, according to the invention, the takeoff phase contains the following steps:

- a phase of taxiing of the aircraft, during which the aircraft moves by the thrust of the turbojet engine to reach the target point on the runway, with two elements trapezoidal shape of each of the two smaller wings are located in a plane parallel to the triangular Gothic wing, with the purpose of take-off;

- the stage of opening or inspection of opening the rear hatch of the aircraft;

- the takeoff phase, during which the aircraft is moving at the same time by the thrust of the turbojet or turbojets and rocket engine, the aircraft gradually enters a phase of quasiparticles set altitude, using a strong thrust developed by the rocket engine so that the aircraft reaches and exceeds the speed in Max 1 during the phase of ascent, p�and this turbojet engine or turbofan engines shut down and put into the fuselage to achieve the speed in Max 1 and both the trapezoidal shape of each of the two small wings of the aircraft are gradually being transferred in the plane perpendicular to the plane of the triangular Gothic wing, as soon as the aircraft reaches or exceeds the speed 1 Max.

The object of the invention is also a method of air transportation using aircraft in accordance with the invention, the method includes the landing phase of an aircraft from an air corridor of flight at cruising speed, at which the aircraft moves by the thrust of the ramjet engine or engines, with both elements of the trapezoidal shape of each of the two small wings of the aircraft are located in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the triangular Gothic wing, according to the invention, the landing phase of an aircraft consists of the following steps:

stop ramjet engine or engines;

- gradual release of air brakes ("split flaps" in English), which causes the aircraft to the phase of decline at a steep slope with decreasing quasiparticle transonic speed;

- gradual change in the position of two elements of the trapezoidal shape of each of the small wings so that these elements are moved in a plane parallel to the plane of the triangular Gothic wing, as soon as the speed of the aircraft reaches and/or �Thanet below speed 1 Max;

- gradual removal of the air brakes, exhaust and ignition turbojet or turbojets, as soon as the speed of the aircraft drops below 1 Max; and

- the inclusion of the aircraft in standard air traffic.

According to an additional distinctive feature of the invention, the flight at cruising speed characterized by the following parameters:

the altitude of the aircraft relative to the earth essentially is 30000 m to 35,000 m;

- the distance of the scattering of the shock wave from the nose of the aircraft is essentially from 110 km to 175 km;

- the speed of the aircraft is essentially from Max 4 to 4.5 Max; and

the angle α of the aperture cone of the Maha essentially consist of 11 to 15°.

The present invention ultrafast aircraft speeds, twice the speed of the aircraft "Concorde", that is, 4+Max, and its cruising altitude of flight of at least greater than 20 km, which is comparable with conventional airliner.

Besides these General characteristics, the aircraft in accordance with the invention can carry the equivalent of 2-3 t, that is, for example, about twenty passengers and, in addition, has an important advantage in regard to the environmental aspect, due to the movement in the phase of acceleration and flight at cruising speed combined with� oxygen, accordingly, persons on Board (liquid oxygen) and the oxygen of the ambient air, and also onboard hydrogen which is the fuel of the future.

Ultrafast aircraft in accordance with the invention can have a double use, namely in civil and military aviation.

In applying for civil aviation major market services are business travel and transportation of VIPs (an abbreviation for "Very Important Person") that require a transcontinental flight both ways in one day.

The use for military purposes includes, for example, strategic intelligence, ultrafast transport of expensive equipment and weapons, as well as the elite airborne groups. Derivative offensive use of aircraft may provide for the application of high-precision strikes and disabling expensive priority objectives, for example by heavy duty electromagnetic pulses called pulse EMP (short for "Electro Magnetic Pulse"). As satellites, aircraft in accordance with the invention is characterized by an almost complete invulnerability in relation to systems protivozdushnoy defense, while maintaining the flexibility and unpredictability of the classic aircraft.

Characteristics of an aircraft in accordance with the invention enables a�make him cover a distance of about 9000 km (for example, Paris - San Francisco or Tokyo - Los Angeles, CA) three hours of flight time.

Operational concept and architecture of an aircraft in accordance with the invention provide:

- standard pre-flight and post-flight operations with the help of airport infrastructure with the refueling with liquid hydrogen and oxygen;

- the failure of interaction with General air traffic during flight at cruising speed (height of flight at cruising speed is beyond modern air corridors);

- almost all-weather operations, since the altitude is such that there are no meteorological phenomena affecting normal piloting;

- regular air service total air vessel, with the exception of the system of rocket engines, which require special operations.

Brief description of the drawings

Other distinctive features and advantages of the invention will be more apparent from the following description of a preferred embodiment with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Fig.1 - bottom view ultrafast aircraft in accordance with the invention.

Fig.2 is a perspective view of a special element of the ultrafast aircraft in accordance with the invention.

Fig.3 is a side view Svirsk�Rosten an aircraft in accordance with the invention.

Fig.4 is a top view of half of the ultrafast aircraft in accordance with the invention.

Fig.5 is a front view of ultrafast aircraft in accordance with the invention.

Fig.6 - view in longitudinal section ultrafast aircraft in accordance with the invention.

Fig.7-11 - different types in the cross-section of ultrafast aircraft in accordance with the invention, shown in Fig.6.

Fig.12 - view the details of the ultrafast aircraft in accordance with the invention, shown in Fig.6.

Fig.13 is a perspective view from the rear of the aircraft in accordance with the invention.

Fig.14A, 14B and 14C is a partial rear view of the aircraft in accordance with the invention under different provisions of the hatch, made with the possibility of opening and overlapping access to a jet engine outside.

Fig.15 is a perspective view ultrafast aircraft in accordance with the invention.

Fig.16 - change of the center of thrust application ultra-fast aircraft in accordance with the invention depending on the speed expressed by the Mach number.

Fig.17 - change of track stability ultra-fast aircraft in accordance with the invention depending on the speed expressed by the Mach number.

Fig.18-21 - the different phases of flight ultra-fast air su�on in accordance with the invention.

In all figures the same elements are designated by the same positions. Size l denote the distance. Size ⌀ denote the diameters. The values θ denote the angles. The quantity R denotes the radius of curvature.

The implementation of the invention

Fig.1 shows a bottom view of the example of ultrafast aircraft in accordance with the invention.

Shown in Fig.1 distance l have the following meanings, provided as non-limiting examples:

l1=52995 mm;

l2=37855 mm;

l3=36524 mm;

l4=7135 mm;

l5=4394 mm;

l6=2150 mm;

l7=3000 mm;

l8=7115 mm;

l9=8929 mm.

Similarly, shows the diameters ⌀ not have the following limiting values:

⌀1=3500 mm;

⌀2=1800 mm.

Ultrafast aircraft in accordance with the invention, shown in Fig.1 comprises in combination the following elements:

- The fuselage of F that contains the Rv tank for liquid hydrogen or hydrogen in suvabrata condition (see Fig.6 and 10) and two tanks R01 and R02 for liquid oxygen, the tank Rv, R01 and R02 are designed to provide power rocket motor Mf.

- Triangular Gothic wing And with maximally flat upper surface, is equipped at its rear end on each side of the fuselage two flaps v1, v2,.

- Sweep angle θ3 of the leading edge of an aircraft, see Fig.4) preferably is from 70 to 75° from the relatively straightforward calculation of the Delta wing.

Cabin R meant for passengers located in the front of the host wing+fuselage thus to lie in a plane of the wind in flight at cruising speed so as to minimize the involvement of this part in General, the frontal resistance of the aircraft and not create any lift.

- Cockpit and nose, forming a section of CN, located in the continuation of the passenger cabin P in front of the aircraft.

- Landing chassis TRa, TRb, TRc, made with the possibility of cleaning the aircraft, and the kinematics of the chassis preferably simplified to the maximum.

Two small movable wing A1, A2, installed symmetrically relative to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, with each small wing mounted on the outer end of the trailing edge of the Delta wing.

Two ramjet engine ST1, ST2 are arranged symmetrically relative to the axis of the aircraft, with each ramjet engine has a fixed geometry that is optimized for the phase of flight at cruising speed.

- Two turbojet engine TB1, TB2, located in the transition zone between the passenger cabin P fuselagem F and arranged to retract into the fuselage in an unusable state.

- Rocket engine Mf (see Fig.6, 14A, 14B) installed in the rear fuselage and is capable of opening out or closing in the fuselage with a rear hatch R of the aircraft (see Fig.14A-14C).

In the described example shown in Fig.1, the aircraft in accordance with the invention contains two turbojet engine and two ramjet engine. However, the invention generally also relates to aircraft, containing at least one turbojet engine and at least one ramjet engine.

Preferably, the inlets of the two ramjet engines ST1, ST2 are located in the front areas, which are secondary races, and/or front area of the aircraft, which operates bow that secures the air intake without interference.

Preferably, the extension of the front part of the fuselage creates a secondary oblique jump, actively cooperating with the lower surface of the wing, creating lift force due to the compression, which in English is called "compression lift".

Fig.2 shows a movable small wing A1, A2 ultra-high-speed air vehicles in accordance with the invention. Movable small wing consists of two essentially identical elements�s trapezoidal shape located in one plane on either side of a cylindrical part mounted on the outer end of the trailing edge of the Delta wing. The axis of the Central cylindrical part parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. A cylindrical part made with the possibility of rotation for the installation of the movable wing of small or in a horizontal position at subsonic speeds, or in a vertical position at supersonic speeds. For convenience, both the position of the moving small wing shown in Fig.2.

Fig.3 shows the side view of the ultrafast aircraft in accordance with the invention in the case where the small wings A1, A2 are arranged vertically (i.e. perpendicular to the axis of the aircraft). Shown in Fig.3 distance l have the following meanings, provided as non-limiting examples:

l10-57630 mm;

l11-42995 mm;

l12=37685 mm;

l13=21995 mm;

l14=17995 mm;

l15=17950 mm;

l16=13000 mm;

l17=6780 mm;

l18=6657 mm;

l19 - 7400 mm;

l20=6097 mm.

Similarly, presented as a non-limiting example, the angles θ1 and θ2 have the following meanings:

θ1=5°;

θ2=58°.

Fig.4 shows a top view of half of the ultrafast aircraft in accordance with the invention. Small wing A1 is shown in a horizontal position. Positions B1 and B2 are shown, respectively, p�the position of the barycenter of the reference area of the aircraft in subsonic configuration (small horizontal wings A1, A2) and in a supersonic configuration (vertical small wings A1, A2).

Not restrictive of the distance l shown in Fig.4, have the following meanings:

l21=15326 mm;

l22=27878 mm;

l23=7556 mm;

l24=35009 mm;

l25=36722 mm.

Not restrictive angle θ3 (the sweep of the leading edge of the aircraft) equal to 74°.

Fig.5 shows a front view of the ultrafast aircraft in accordance with the invention.

In this case, the distance l not have the following limiting values:

l26=27188 mm;

l27=19788 mm;

l28=11262 mm;

l29=6578 mm;

l30=6037 mm;

l31=7900 mm;

l32=2650 mm.

In addition, the radius R1 is equal 2797 mm, and the angle θ4 is equal to 20°.

Fig.6 shows a view in longitudinal section of an aircraft in accordance with the invention.

Not restrictive of the distance l shown in Fig.6 have the following meanings:

l33=5495 mm;

l34=11500 mm;

l35=4200 mm;

l36=21000 mm;

l37=10800 mm;

l38=1500 mm.

The radius R2 is equal to 445 mm.

Fig.7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 aircraft in accordance with the invention, shown respectively in transverse section on the lines in Fig.6: a-A (crew cab), (passenger cabin),-With (rear fuselage of a passenger cabin just before turbojet engines), D-D (the fuselage just behind the turbojet engines, while the positions TB1', TB2' correspond to turbojet engines, cleaned�th in the fuselage, and positions TB1, TB2 shown turbojet engines, released from the fuselage) and e-E (the fuselage at the rear of the chassis) of Fig.6.

Fig.8 the distance l39 is, for example, 630 mm, and the distance l40 equal to, for example, 505 mm. In Fig.9 the distance l41 is, for example, 2150 mm, and the distance l42 and l43 are respectively equal, for example, 650 mm and 600 mm. In Fig.11 the distance l44 is, for example, 870 mm, and the radius R4 equal to 1550 mm.

Fig.12 shows a detail of Fig.6, namely a view in longitudinal section of the hydrogen tank Rv, and in the background two oxygen tank R01. The distance l45 is, for example, 18805 mm, and the distance l46 is, for example, mm. 20471 Radii of curvature R4 and R5 are respectively equal to 591 mm 1839 mm.

Fig.13 shows a perspective view from the rear of the aircraft in accordance with the invention. Luke R, preferably consisting of two cusps P1, P2, closes access to the rocket engine Mf outside. Rocket engine Mf contains, for example, main engine MP and two auxiliary engine MA, mA inputs2, located on two sides from the main engine closer to the bottom of the fuselage than the main engine.

Fig.14A, 14B, 14C illustrates a partial rear view of the aircraft in accordance with the invention at various positions of the valves Luke R. Each of the valves P1, P2 is pivotally mounted around its own horizontal axis. Fig.14A made�len case when Luke P is closed and therefore completely isolates the rocket engine from the external environment (case not working rocket engine). Fig.14C shows a case, when the door D1 is closed, and the shutter P2 is open. In this case, only the auxiliary engines are open to the outside, with the doorway opening outwards of the main engine is partially blocked (in the case of not running the main engine and operating auxiliary engines). Fig.14C shows a case when both shutters are open. Main engine and auxiliary engines are open to the outside (this corresponds to the case where both the main engine and auxiliary engines operate). Fig.15 for illustration shows a view in perspective of ultrafast aircraft in accordance with the invention.

As we all know, during the flight of the aircraft center of application of thrust and the center of gravity of the aircraft must be aligned. Known technical solution relating to the aircraft "Concorde", involved the displacement of the center of gravity of the aircraft to comply with this condition at any speed of the aircraft. However, the implementation of this decision is possible only in the presence of movable ballast on Board. This is not the case of an aircraft in accordance with the invention. The solution in accordance with the invention is displaced�completion of the center of thrust application ultra-fast aircraft by changing the position of the smaller wing, as mentioned above with reference to Fig.2.

Fig.16 shows the estimated change in the center of the application CP thrust of the aircraft in accordance with the invention depending on the speed, expressed as a Mach number.

In the first zone ZA speed of the aircraft below the speed of sound (1 Max), and in the second area ZB speed exceeds the speed of sound. The first curve C1 shows the change of the center of thrust application CP in the case where the rear small wings A1, A2 are horizontal in the zone ZA and vertical in the zone ZB. The second curve C2 shows the change of the center of thrust application of the SR in the absence of a rear small wings. Curves C1 and C2 are the same, as soon as the speed of the aircraft exceeds Max 1 (small wings are in the plane perpendicular to the triangular wing). Preferably, the curve C1 shows no change of the center of application of traction throughout the speed range. Thus, an aircraft in accordance with the invention has a rear small wings, corresponding to small wings, shown in the drawings, depending on the speed of the aircraft the position of the small wing is horizontal at speeds below 1 Max and vertical speeds above 1 Max.

Fig.17 shows the change of track stability St ultrafast aircraft in accordance with the invention, coils� from the speed expressed as a Mach number. The speed range is also distributed between the aforementioned zones ZA and ZB. The first curve C3 shows the change of track stability St in the case where the rear small wings are horizontal in the zone ZA and vertical in the zone ZB, and the second curve C4 shows the change of track stability in the absence of a rear small wings. From the graph it is clear that the traveling stability of the air vehicle in accordance with the invention is excellent and much better compared to aircraft that do not contain small rear wings, under all other equal conditions. With the above-described positioning of the small wings associated reference alignment (i.e. the position of the center of gravity of the aircraft), which coincides with the center of application of thrust at supersonic speed (curve C1 in the zone ZB of Fig.16). This is an additional advantage of the invention that allows you to design the aircraft, centered in the rear sector.

Fig.18-21 shows the various phases of flight ultra-fast aircraft in accordance with the invention.

Fig.18 shows a first example of the takeoff phase of the aircraft in accordance with the invention.

The aircraft carries out a normal takeoff cycle under the action of turbojets TB1, TB2, with the participation of rocket engines�La Mf. Rocket engine Mf can be a single rocket engine with a continuously variable thrust or combined rocket engine with a single thrust, consisting, for example, of three or four separate engines, one engine is the main. First taxiing the aircraft from the point of Parking to the target point on the strip is carried out only with the help of turbojet engines (see point P1 in Fig.18). When the brake is released only after verification of normal operation of the rocket engine.

The takeoff is continued in the configuration turbojet engines/rocket engine (see points P1-P3 in Fig.18), with an initial climb rate of the aircraft is approximately 350 km/h (see points P1-P2 in Fig.18). Then (point p3 in Fig.18) either include a main rocket engine (the case of a combined motor) or develop maximum power of the rocket engine (the case of a single rocket engine), and altitude of the aircraft is almost vertically. The command for opening the hatch R serves depending on different configurations necessary for normal operation of the rocket engine (described above, see Fig.14B, 14C). In the event of failure of ignition of the main rocket engine produces a stepped discharge of cryogenic propellant in the waiting area and return to the Aer�Drome departures can be made with virtually no rocket fuel on Board, which significantly contributes to the safety of landing in a situation of interrupted flight. During the climb the aircraft it sound leaves a trail ES, the intensity of which varies in time and has a limited duration. As soon as you start the main rocket engine or as soon as the rocket engine with variable thrust develops maximum power, phase begins the climb with a strong thrust. Shortly before entering the transonic region of flight turbojet engines shut down and clean the inside of the fuselage. The ratio of thrust-to-weight is set to a value essentially equal to or greater than 1. During this phase of flight the aircraft manufactures climb under a large angle (i.e. nearly vertical) with transonic acceleration at high altitude (for example, between 15,000 km and 20,000 km) with the help of the rocket engine (see point P4 in Fig.18). If the rocket engine is an engine with variable thrust, is preferably carried out precise control of acceleration.

This type of trajectory results in a considerable reduction of impact on the ground focused sonic boom (called in English "super-boom") that appears when breaking the sound barrier (1 Max). Indeed, given quasiparticle trajectory to earth misses �and one shock wave, and the energy is dissipated in all horizontal radial directions. On the ground in the vertical trajectory of the accelerating aircraft produced sound track ES are concentrated close to the airport and lasts essentially less than one minute.

During the phase of take-off in the private embodiment, the passengers and, if necessary, the crew are in the hammocks to ensure maximum comfort.

Once making supersonic flight the aircraft is at very high altitude (see point P5 in Fig.18), the path gradually bends to the horizontal of, for example, using a ballistic trajectory, the rocket engine off and give it a streamlined shape through the full operation of the sliding roof R and run ramjet engines, the aircraft is in the corridor of flight at cruising speed, for example, at a height of between 30000 m and 35000 m (see point P6 in Fig.18). Begins the phase of flight at cruising speed (see point P7 in Fig.18).

Fig.19 shows a variant of the takeoff phase of the aircraft in accordance with the invention. Under this option, the aircraft performs in a horizontal plane relative to the earth loop maneuver before you take the direction to their destination. The purpose of this option is the reduction �mind in the airport area due to the movement of the sound track in the direction from the airport. In fact, after the phase of climb vertical trajectory of the aircraft is bent to the horizontal direction, returning to the airport (see point RA in Fig.19), and the aircraft occupies the corridor of flight at cruising speed at the point, which is closer to the airport than in the previous case (see point RA in Fig.19).

Fig.20 is symbolized by an aircraft in accordance with the invention, in the corridor of flight at cruising speed. For simplicity shows only the nose N of the aircraft in accordance with the invention.

In the corridor of flight at cruising speed, the flight parameters are, for example, the following:

- the height Z of the flight of the aircraft relative to the earth, essentially equal to 35000 m;

- the distance D scattering is essentially equal to 145 km.

- the speed V of the aircraft, ranging from Max 4 to 4.5 Max; and

- the angle α between forming a Mach cone, essentially equal to 12.8°.

For comparison, you can specify the following values in the case of the known solutions relating to the aircraft "Concorde":

- Z=20000 m;

- D=35km;

- V=Max 2;

- α=30°.

Ramjet engines have a fixed geometry, which greatly simplifies their geometrical construction and lowers their weight. During this phase of flight thrust ramjet engines modulate depending on the needs of the relief of the aircraft during the flight...) due to changes in the consumption of hydrogen. Preferably while flying at a cruising speed of the aircraft has only a very limited impact on the environment due to the very high altitude of the flight at cruising speed, as well as of the permanent rate of the aircraft. If necessary, in the design of an aircraft can include a geometric solution to reduce sonic booms, suggested during the conference HISAC 2009 (see the concept of Dry and Dassault), for example, a pronounced dihedral bearing surface.

With regard to gases emitted by aircraft during the phases of acceleration and of flight at cruising speed, it is preferably not thrown WITH2and water vapor and, possibly, gaseous hydrogen. During flight at cruising speed electrical power required for normal operation of the aircraft (lighting, air conditioning, etc.), is obtained using any known means, such as batteries, fuel cells, etc.

At the approach to the destination airport phase starts decreasing flight speed and reduce. Fig.21 shows an example of phase reduce flight speed and lower.

When approaching the destination airport (e.g., about 750 km from the airport) at a certain point of the trajectory of the aircraft (see point P8 in Fig.21) ramjet d�hately off. The aircraft begins to reduce its speed. After that a gradual release of air brakes ("split flaps" in English) causes the aircraft to decrease under a high angle, almost vertically at transonic speeds (see point P9 in Fig.21). The decrease in tilt is carried out at a large angle of incidence, or an air brake at almost a zero angle of incidence. Thus the focused sonic boom (see the aforementioned "super-boom") is directed away from the surface of the earth, and the sound waves are almost horizontal. Once installed subsonic mode, include extra traction and gradually removed the air brakes (see point P10 in Fig.21). Then release turbojet engines (see point P11 in Fig.21) to restart, if necessary, using the relative wind ("wind milling" in English). Passengers and, if necessary, the crew can be in the hammocks to ensure the greatest comfort during this phase of decline.

During the landing phase at some point the aircraft begins to participate in an existing air graphics, including, for example, for flying standby. The final landing approach of an aircraft produce standard, i.e. on the speed of the aircraft correspond to�her normal speed civil aircraft, with the possibility of leaving on the second circle, if necessary. After landing, the aircraft produces taxiing down to a complete stop using only the thrust of turbojet engines (see point P12 in Fig.21).

Preliminary evaluation of a lateral keel and roll of an aircraft in flight when landing leads to smaller values than for the aircraft "Concorde".

Taxiing on the ground provide aircraft turbojet engines which give it the mobility that is similar to the mobility of a classic airliner.

During these phases, the aircraft complies with the requirements of environmental regulations in the field of civil aviation.

The turbojet engine or turbofan engines are used only during the phases of landing, waiting, go-around and landing at the end of the flight. Such use of turbojet engines can significantly reduce their size and weight compared to standard use. Consequently, the turbojet engine or turbofan aircraft engines in accordance with the invention is easier to clean the inside of the fuselage.

Preferably the combined use of turbojet engines and rocket engine provides a great compromise with the exact�of view and the relationship of thrust to weight in combination with a reduction of drag during flight at cruising speed, in particular, for the phases of approach and landing, when the aircraft is involved in an existing air chart.

1. The aircraft containing the fuselage (F), triangular Gothic wing (A), located on either side of the fuselage, and engines (TB1, TB2, ST1, ST2, Mf) is arranged to provide movement of the aircraft, characterized in that:
the fuselage comprises a reservoir (Rv) with hydrogen in the liquid state or in suvabrata condition and one or more reservoirs (R01, R02) with liquid oxygen;
- triangular Gothic wing (A) has a flat upper surface and a lower surface, wherein the wing root starts essentially at the level of the expansion of the front part of the fuselage;
- at each outer end of the trailing edge of the Delta wing fixed small wing (A1, A2) through the cylindrical, the axis of which is parallel to the axis of the fuselage, with each small wing consists of two essentially identical elements of trapezoidal shape, is fixed to the cylindrical and arranged in one plane with the two sides of the cylindrical parts, each cylindrical part is made with possibility of rotation around its axis so that both elements of the trapezoidal shape, is fixed on a cylindrical part, were located either in plosko�and, parallel to the plane of the triangular Gothic wing, or in the plane perpendicular to the plane of the triangular Gothic wing; and
the motor system comprises at least one turbojet engine (TB1, TB2), which can retract into the fuselage and be at the level of the front part of the fuselage, at least one ramjet engine (ST1, ST2) fixed geometry and a rocket engine (Mf), located in the rear fuselage, hatch (R), located on the rear of the fuselage and arranged to be opened and closed respectively for opening of a rocket engine to the external environment or isolation of the rocket engine from the external environment.

2. The aircraft according to claim 1, characterized in that the fuselage (F) is formed by a front section or nose, which continues the section of a passenger cabin and a rear section, the front section has a constant cross-section that gradually expands from the passenger cabin section and the rear section has a constant cross-section which gradually tapers in the rearward direction of the aircraft.

3. The aircraft according to claim 1, characterized in that the center of gravity of each reservoir (R01, R02) for liquid oxygen, both empty and full, is as close to the center of gravity of the aircraft.

4. Air su�but according to claim 2, characterized in that the center of gravity of each reservoir (R01, R02) for liquid oxygen, both empty and full, is as close to the center of gravity of the aircraft.

5. Aircraft according to any of claims.1-4, characterized in that the rocket engine consists of either a single engine or main engine in combination with one or more auxiliary engines.

6. Aircraft according to any of claims.1-4, characterized in that the two ramjet engine (ST1, ST2) are located under a triangular Gothic wing on both sides of the fuselage.

7. The aircraft according to claim 5, characterized in that the two ramjet engine (ST1, ST2) are located under a triangular Gothic wing on both sides of the fuselage.

8. Aircraft according to any of claims.1-4, 7, characterized in that the sweep angle of leading edge 70 to 75°, designed for straight Delta wing.

9. The aircraft according to claim 5, characterized in that the sweep angle of leading edge 70 to 75°, designed for straight Delta wing.

10. The aircraft according to claim 6, characterized in that the sweep angle of leading edge is from 70° to 75°, designed for straight Delta wing.

11. Aircraft according to any of claims.1-4, 7, 9, 10,�liaudies, what rocket motor (Mf) is the engine with a continuously variable thrust engine with separate thrust.

12. The aircraft according to claim 5, characterized in that the rocket motor (Mf) is the engine with a continuously variable thrust engine with separate thrust.

13. The aircraft according to claim 6, characterized in that the rocket motor (Mf) is the engine with a continuously variable thrust engine with separate thrust.

14. The aircraft according to claim 8, characterized in that the rocket motor (Mf) is the engine with a continuously variable thrust engine with separate thrust.

15. Method of air transportation using aircraft according to any of claims.1-14, wherein the method includes the takeoff phase of the aircraft, characterized in that the takeoff phase contains the following steps:
- a phase of taxiing of the aircraft on the ground, during which the aircraft moves by the thrust of the turbojet or turbojets (TB1, TB2) to reach the target point (P1) on the strip, with two elements trapezoidal shape of each of the two small wings (A1, A2) are located in a plane parallel to the triangular Gothic wing;
- the stage of opening or inspection of the open state of the rear hatch (R), located at the rear of the aircraft;
- the takeoff phase, during which air su�but simultaneously moves by the thrust of the turbojet or turbojets (TB1, TB2) and a rocket motor (Mf), the aircraft gradually enters a phase of quasiparticles climb, using strong thrust developed by a rocket motor (Mf) so that the aircraft reaches and exceeds the speed in Max 1 during the phase of ascent, with turbojet or turbofan engines (TB1, TB2) shut down and put into the fuselage (F) to achieve speed in Max 1 and both the trapezoidal shape of each of the two small wings (A1, A2) of the aircraft are gradually being transferred to the plane perpendicular to the plane of the triangular Gothic wing, as soon as the aircraft reaches and/or exceeds the speed 1 Max.

16. A method according to claim 15, characterized in that it comprises a stage during which the aircraft is gradually converted into a horizontal position relative to the earth, while the rocket engine is turned off, close the cowl and include ramjet engines, and the aircraft enters a phase of flight at cruising speed, once a horizontal position relative to the earth.

17. A method according to claim 16, characterized in that the aircraft performs in a horizontal plane relative to the earth flying in loop-like trajectory, returning to his original point, before you enter into a phase �Oleta at cruising speed.

18. A method according to claim 16 or 17, characterized in that the flight at cruising speed has the following options:
the altitude of the aircraft relative to the earth essentially is 30000 m to 35,000 m;
- the distance of the scattering of the shock wave from the nose of the aircraft is essentially from 110 km to 175 km;
- the speed of the aircraft is essentially from Max 4 to 4.5 Max; and
the angle α of the aperture cone of the Maha essentially consist of 11 to 15°.

19. Method of air transportation using aircraft according to any of claims.1-14 containing the landing phase of an aircraft from an air corridor cruising flight in which the aircraft moves by the thrust of the ramjet engine or ramjet engines, with both elements of the trapezoidal shape of each of the two small wings (A1, A2) are located in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the triangular Gothic wing, characterized in that the landing phase of an aircraft consists of the following steps:
stop ramjet engine or ramjet engine (ST1, ST2);
- gradual release of air brakes, which puts the aircraft into a phase of decline at a steep slope with decreasing quasiparticle transonic speed;
- gradual change polozhenie.doc elements trapezoidal shape of each of the small wings (A1, A2) so that these elements are moved in a plane parallel to the plane of the triangular Gothic wing, as soon as the speed of the aircraft reaches and/or falls below speed 1 Max;
- gradual closing of the air brakes and the production of turbojet engines, as soon as the speed of the aircraft drops below 1 Max; and
- the inclusion of the aircraft in standard air schedule.

20. A method according to claim 19, in which the downward phase of a steep slope is carried out either with a very large angle of attack, or nearly zero angle of attack.

21. A method according to claim 19 or 20, characterized in that the flight at cruising speed has the following options:
the altitude of the aircraft relative to the earth essentially is 30000 m to 35,000 m;
- the distance of the scattering of the shock wave from the nose of the aircraft is essentially from 110 km to 175 km;
- the speed of the aircraft is essentially from Max 4 to 4.5 Max; and
the angle α of the aperture cone of the Maha essentially consist of 11 to 15°.



 

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