Hydrocarbon hydroprocessing method and device

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of hydroprocessing of hydrocarbonic raw materials comprising: hydrocracking of the first flow of hydrocarbons in presence of the first hydrogen flow and hydrocracking catalyst for obtaining of the outgoing hydrocracking flow; hydrotreating of the second flow of hydrocarbons in presence of the second flow of hydrogen and the hydrotreating catalyst for obtaining of the outgoing hydrotreating flow; separation of the outgoing hydrotreating flow at the temperature 121-316°C (250-600°F) into the vaporous outgoing hydrotreating hydrogen containing flow, and the liquid outgoing hydrotreating flow; mixing, at least, a part of the named outgoing vaporous hydrotreating flow, at least, with a part of the named outgoing hydrocracking flow for obtaining of a mix; and fractionation, at least, of a part of the named mix. The invention also relates to the device for hydrocarbon hydroprocessing.

EFFECT: offered invention allows to obtain motor (diesel) fuel with low sulphur content.

6 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex

 

The claiming priority of an earlier national application

The present application claims priority applications US 61/487,012, filed may 17, 2011 and US 13/168,052; 13/168,078; 13/167,945 and 13/167,979, all filed on June 24, 2011

The technical field to which the invention relates

The technical field to which the invention relates is hydroprocessing two hydrocarbon streams.

Prior art

Hydroprocessing may include processes that convert hydrocarbons in the presence of a catalyst of hydroprocessing and hydrogen into more valuable products. Hydrocracking is a process of hydroprocessing, in which carbohydrates are degraded in the presence of hydrogen and a hydrocracking catalyst to hydrocarbons with lower molecular weight. Depending on the required output, the hydrocracking zone may include one or more layers of the same or different catalysts. Hydrocracking is a process used for cracking hydrocarbon feedstocks such as vacuum gas oil (VGO), to diesel fuel, including kerosene and motor fuels.

Mild hydrocracking is typically used in flowchart to cracking with fluidized catalyst (FCC) or other processing facilities to improve the quality of unreacted oil, which can be enjoyed in SL�blowing further on the technological scheme of the installation in the conversion of the feedstock into lighter products such as diesel fuel. As global demand for diesel motor fuel is growing in comparison with gasoline, mild hydrocracking is used as a means to change the list of products in favor of diesel fuel at the expense of gasoline. Mild hydrocracking can operate at less severe conditions than a partial or full hydrocracking to balance the production of diesel fuel by installing the FCC, which is mainly used for the production of naphtha. Partial or complete metamorphosis when hydrocracking is used for the production of diesel fuel with a lower yield of unreacted oil, which can be served in a setting that is located further on the technological scheme.

Due to environmental concerns and newly adopted rules and regulations, commercial production of diesel fuel must meet higher limits of impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen. The new regulations require essentially complete removal of sulfur from diesel fuel. For example, requirements for diesel fuel with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is usually less than 10 g/mn wt. sulphur.

The process of Hydrotreating is a hydrogenation process for the removal of heteroatoms, such as sulfur and nitrogen from hydrocarbon streams ASSOTSIATSIYA technical conditions for the fuel and the saturation of olefinic compounds. Hydrotreating can be conducted at high or low pressures but is usually performed at a lower pressure than hydrocracking. In such cases, there is a need for coordination of processing units when they operate at different pressures.

In this regard, there is a continuing need for better ways to produce more marketable motor fuel from a hydrocarbon feedstock. Such methods must ensure the compliance of commercial motor fuels increasingly rigid product requirements.

Summary the essence of the invention

In the method of implementation of the present invention includes a method of hydroprocessing hydrocarbons comprising hydroprocessing first hydrocarbon feed stream in the presence of a first hydrogen stream and Hydrotreating catalyst to obtain the exit stream of hydroprocessing. The second stream of hydrocarbons Hydrotreating in the presence of a second hydrogen stream and Hydrotreating catalyst to obtain the effluent of the Hydrotreating. The effluent of the Hydrotreating share at a temperature 149-260°C (300-500°F) vapor effluent of the Hydrotreating comprising hydrogen and a liquid effluent of the Hydrotreating. The vaporous effluent of the Hydrotreating is mixed at least with a part wijedasa�about the flow of hydroprocessing.

In another implementation of the method of the invention includes a method of producing a diesel fuel comprising hydrocracking the hydrocarbon feed stream in the presence of a first hydrogen stream and hydrocracking catalyst to obtain a more low-boiling hydrocarbons in the effluent of the hydrocracking. The effluent of the hydrocracking is separated into a vaporous effluent of the hydrocracking comprising hydrogen and a liquid effluent of the hydrocracking. The flow of diesel fuel Hydrotreating in the presence of a second hydrogen stream and Hydrotreating catalyst to obtain diesel fuel with low sulfur content in the effluent of the Hydrotreating. The effluent of the Hydrotreating is separated into a vaporous effluent of the Hydrotreating comprising hydrogen and a liquid effluent of the Hydrotreating. The vaporous effluent stream is mixed with liquid Hydrotreating effluent stream hydrocracking.

In yet another implementation of the method of the invention includes a method of producing a diesel fuel comprising hydrocracking the hydrocarbon feed stream in the presence of a first hydrogen stream and hydrocracking catalyst to obtain a more low-boiling hydrocarbons in the effluent of the hydrocracking. The effluent of the hydrocracking is separated into a vaporous effluent of the hydrocracking, containing�th hydrogen, and liquid effluent of the hydrocracking. The flow of diesel fuel Hydrotreating in the presence of a second hydrogen stream and Hydrotreating catalyst to obtain diesel fuel with low sulfur content in the effluent of the Hydrotreating. The effluent of the Hydrotreating is separated into a vaporous effluent of the Hydrotreating containing hydrogen, and liquid effluent of the Hydrotreating. The vaporous effluent stream is mixed with liquid Hydrotreating effluent stream hydrocracking. The vaporous effluent of the Hydrotreating evaporated in a stream of cold vapor and a stream of cold liquid. Cold liquid flow fractionary in a distillation column in the fractionation section and serves the flow of cold vapor containing hydrogen in the hydrotreater unit.

In the implementation of the device of the present invention includes a device for hydroprocessing hydrocarbons comprising a hydrocracking reactor associated with the first line of hydrogen and the first line of hydrocarbon hydrocracking flow of hydrocarbons into low-boiling hydrocarbons supplied to the line outgoing flow hydrocracking. Cold separator associated with the hydrocracking reactor for creating vapor exit stream of the hydrocracking containing hydrogen, in the upper line of the chase and liquid effluent� hydrocracking in the line of still bottoms. The hydrotreater unit associated with the second line of hydrogen, is suitable for Hydrotreating a second hydrocarbon feed stream to obtain the effluent of the Hydrotreating. The warm separator associated with the Hydrotreating reactor, is designed to separate the effluent of the Hydrotreating in the vaporous effluent of the Hydrotreating containing hydrogen, in the upper line of a shoulder strap and a liquid exit stream Hydrotreating in the line of still bottoms. Line bottoms of cold separator connected to the upper line of the shoulder strap of the warm separator.

In another implementation of the device of the invention further includes a device for producing a diesel fuel comprising a hydrocracking reactor associated with the first line of the hydrogen line and a hydrocarbon hydrocracking flow of hydrocarbons into low-boiling hydrocarbons supplied to the line outgoing flow hydrocracking. The hydrotreater unit associated with the second line of hydrogen, is suitable for hydrotreatment of a stream of diesel fuel to obtain diesel fuel with low sulfur content in the effluent of the Hydrotreating. The warm separator associated with the Hydrotreating reactor, is designed to separate the effluent of the Hydrotreating in the vaporous effluent of the Hydrotreating containing hydrogen, in line ve�knego of the chase and the liquid effluent of the Hydrotreating in the line of still bottoms. Cold separator associated with the hydrocracking reactor, to create a vapor exit stream of the hydrocracking containing hydrogen, in the upper line of a shoulder strap and a liquid exit stream of the hydrocracking in the line of still bottoms. Line bottoms of cold separator is connected with the line of the upper shoulder straps of the warm separator.

In yet another implementation of the device of the invention includes a device for the production of diesel fuel, comprising a hydrocracking reactor associated with the first line of hydrogen and the hydrocarbon feedstock for hydrocracking flow of hydrocarbons into low-boiling hydrocarbons supplied to the line outgoing flow hydrocracking. The hydrotreater unit associated with the second line of hydrogen and a hydrocracking reactor, is suitable for hydrotreatment of a stream of diesel fuel to obtain diesel fuel with low sulfur content in the effluent of the Hydrotreating. The warm separator associated with the Hydrotreating reactor, is designed to separate the effluent of the Hydrotreating in the vaporous effluent of the Hydrotreating containing hydrogen in the upper line of the chase, and the liquid effluent of the Hydrotreating in the line of still bottoms. Cold separator associated with the hydrocracking reactor, designed to create a vapor exit stream hydrogr�king, containing hydrogen in the upper line of the chase, and liquid exit stream of the hydrocracking in the line of still bottoms. The hydrocracking reactor is associated with the line of the upper shoulder straps of the cold separator. Cold evaporative drum is associated with the warm separator. Cold evaporative drum has a line top of shoulder strap to create a flow of cold vapor associated with the Hydrotreating reactor, and a cold evaporative drum has a line of still bottoms associated with the fractionation section.

In another implementation of the method of the invention includes hydroprocessing and a Hydrotreating process comprising hydroprocessing the first stream of hydrocarbons in the presence of a first hydrogen stream and Hydrotreating catalyst to obtain the exit stream of hydroprocessing. A second hydrocarbon stream is subjected to Hydrotreating in the presence of a second hydrogen stream and Hydrotreating catalyst to obtain the effluent of the Hydrotreating. At least part of the specified exit stream Hydrotreating mixed, with at least part of the specified outgoing flow of hydroprocessing to obtain a mixture. At least a portion of said mixture fractionary.

In another implementation of the invention includes hydrocracking and Hydrotreating process comprising hydrocracking a first hydrocarbon stream in the Pris�under the first hydrogen stream and hydrocracking catalyst to obtain a more low-boiling hydrocarbons in the effluent of the hydrocracking. A second hydrocarbon stream is subjected to Hydrotreating in the presence of a second hydrogen stream and Hydrotreating catalyst to obtain the effluent of the Hydrotreating. The effluent of the Hydrotreating mixed, with at least part of the specified exit stream of the hydrocracking to produce a mixture. At least a portion of said mixture fractionary.

In another implementation of the method of the invention includes hydrocracking and Hydrotreating comprising hydrocracking a first hydrocarbon stream in the presence of a first hydrogen stream and hydrocracking catalyst to obtain a more low-boiling hydrocarbons in the effluent of the hydrocracking. The effluent of the hydrocracking is separated in a cold separator to create a vaporous exhaust stream of the hydrocracking comprising hydrogen and a liquid exit stream of the hydrocracking. A second hydrocarbon stream is subjected to Hydrotreating in the presence of a second hydrogen stream and Hydrotreating catalyst to obtain the effluent of the Hydrotreating. The liquid effluent of the hydrocracking and the specified output stream Hydrotreating evaporated to generate a flow of steam and cold flow of cold liquid. The vaporous effluent stream is recycled to the hydrocracking cycle to generate at least part of the first stream of hydrogen. The flow of cold vapor who�remaut into the cycle to create, at least part of the second stream of hydrogen.

In another implementation of the device of the invention includes a device for hydrocracking and Hydrotreating unit comprising a hydrocracking reactor associated with the first line of hydrogen and the first line of hydrocarbon feedstock for hydrocracking the hydrocarbon stream into low-boiling hydrocarbons supplied to the line outgoing flow hydrocracking. The hydrotreater unit associated with the second line of hydrogen and the second line hydrocarbon feedstock for hydrotreatment of a stream of diesel fuel to obtain the exit stream of the in-line Hydrotreating the effluent of the Hydrotreating. Line the effluent of the Hydrotreating is associated with the specified line of the outgoing flow hydrocracking. Section of the fractionation associated with the specified line exit stream Hydrotreating and the specified line of the outgoing flow hydrocracking.

In another implementation of the device of the invention further includes a device for hydrocracking and Hydrotreating unit comprising a hydrocracking reactor associated with the first line of hydrogen and the first line of hydrocarbon feedstock for hydrocracking a first hydrocarbon feed stream in the low-boiling hydrocarbons supplied to the line outgoing flow hydrocracking. The cold separator is associated with the specified line of the exit stream of the hydrocracking process for the separation of the criminal code�cated outgoing flow hydrocracking in the vaporous effluent of the hydrocracking, containing hydrogen in the upper line of the chase and the liquid effluent of the hydrocracking in the line of still bottoms. The hydrotreater unit associated with the second line of hydrogen and the second line hydrocarbon feedstock for Hydrotreating a second hydrocarbon feed stream to obtain the exit stream of the in-line Hydrotreating the effluent of the Hydrotreating. Line the effluent of the Hydrotreating is associated with a specified line of still bottoms. Section of the fractionation associated with the specified line exit stream Hydrotreating cold and specified separator.

In another implementation of the device of the invention includes a device for hydrocracking and Hydrotreating unit comprising a hydrocracking reactor associated with the first line of hydrogen and the first line of hydrocarbon feedstock for hydrocracking a first hydrocarbon feed stream in the low-boiling hydrocarbons supplied to the line outgoing flow hydrocracking. The cold separator is associated with the specified line of the exit stream of the hydrocracking process for the separation of the specified exit stream of the hydrocracking in the vaporous effluent of the hydrocracking containing hydrogen in the upper line of the chase, and the liquid effluent of the hydrocracking in the line of still bottoms. The first line of hydrogen is associated with the specified line of the upper turret ring. The hydrotreater unit associated with the second line in�Dorada and the second line hydrocarbon feedstock for Hydrotreating a second hydrocarbon feed stream to obtain the exit stream of the in-line Hydrotreating the effluent of the Hydrotreating. Evaporative drum is associated with the specified line exit stream Hydrotreating and the specified line liquid exit stream of the hydrocracking to create a flow of cold vapor in the upper line of the chase and the flow of cold fluid into the line of still bottoms. The second line of hydrogen is associated with the specified line of the upper turret ring.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig.1 is a simplified process flow diagram for implementing the present invention.

Fig.2 is a simplified flowchart of an alternative implementation of the present invention.

Definition

The term "connection" means that the material flow is technologically possible between these components.

The term "connection further on the technological scheme" means that at least part of the material of the current object, which is linked further by the processing circuit, technologically can be inferred from the objects with which he is associated.

The term "preceding the connection on the technological scheme" means that at least part of the material from the current object bound above on the technological scheme, technologically can flow into the object with which it is associated.

The term "column" means a distillation column or columns for the selection of one or more components with different Le�uchastiu. Unless otherwise specified, each column includes a refrigerator on top of the column to condense and return parts of phlegm in the upper part of the column and re-evaporation in the lower part of the column and returning a portion of the still bottoms in the lower part of the column. The incoming stream of the column can be pre-heated. The upper pressure is the vapor pressure of the upper turret ring on the steam outlet from the column. The lower temperature is the fluid temperature at the exit of the cube. The top line of the overhead line and still bottoms are clean lines of the next column on the technological scheme of selection of phlegm or re-evaporation in the column.

In accordance with the use in the description of the term "true boiling point" (TBP) means test method for determining the boiling point of the material, which conforms to ASTM D2892 liquefied gas, distillate fractions and a bottoms standardized quality, which can be obtained analytical data and determined the outputs of the above fractions by mass and volume, which are plotted wt%. distillate temperature using a column with fifteen theoretical plate fregmove number 5:1.

In accordance with the use in the description, the term "transformation" means the transformation of raw materials into the material, which �epic at the boiling point or below the boiling range of diesel fuel. Border-boiling fractions of diesel fuel is in the range 343-399°C (650-750°F) by the method of distillation TBP.

In accordance with the use in the description, the term "boiling range of diesel fuel" means a hydrocarbon boiling in the range 132-399°C (270-750°F) using the method of distillation TBP.

In accordance with the use in the description, the term "separator" means a tank that has an input and at least the upper output of the chase and the conclusion still bottoms and may also have a bottom outlet of the water flow from the sump of the separator. Evaporative drum represents the type of separator which may be associated with the separator further on the technological scheme, which can work at higher pressure.

The implementation of the invention

Reactors mild hydrocracking working in low stiffness and, consequently, with low conversion. Diesel fuels derived mild hydrocracking is not of sufficient quality to meet applicable technical specifications for fuel, in particular sulphur. As a result of diesel fuels derived mild hydrocracking must be recycled to the Hydrotreating unit to be added to existing diesel fuel. In many cases attractive is the integration of installations mild hydrocracking and hydro�cleaning to reduce capital and operating expenses.

A typical installation of hydroprocessing high pressure, such as the installation of a hydrocracking or Hydrotreating unit high pressure and has a cold cold separator and evaporative drum. Often, but not always, have hot the hot separator and the evaporator drum. Conventional Hydrotreating device has only a cold separator. Cold separator can operate at a lower temperature for optimal separation of hydrogen for use as a recirculating gas, but is thermally inefficient, since the flow of liquid Hydrotreating is necessary to heat for fractionation to obtain low-sulfur diesel fuel.

To avoid this cooling and heating without compromising the hydrogen separation, it is suggested to use warm separator with a Hydrotreating unit at operating temperatures sufficient to maintain the desired product, such as diesel fuel in the liquid phase. The separated liquid stream may be sent to warm to fractionation to extract the desired product. May require high heat to bring the liquid stream to a temperature fractionation, but it is smaller than needed if it was used cold separation. The steam from the warm separator can be mixed�n, at least part of the effluent of hydroprocessing. In one aspect, the vapor of the warm separator can be directed into the cold evaporative drum mixing reduces the temperature to an acceptable level for separation. If necessary, can be added to the cooler to further reduce the temperature. The resulting steam is cold evaporative drum is recirculated gas to the Hydrotreating unit. In essence, the installation of hydroprocessing and Hydrotreating share cool evaporative drum, which becomes a cold separator to the Hydrotreating unit.

Device and method 8 hydroprocessing hydrocarbons include a compression section 10, the installation of 12 hydroprocessing, installation 14 Hydrotreating and fractionation section 16. The first hydrocarbon feedstock is first supplied to the apparatus 12 of hydroprocessing, which may be a hydrocracking installation of 12 that turns raw materials into low-boiling hydrocarbons, which may include diesel fuel. The effluent of the Hydrotreating fractionary in the fractionation section 16. The second hydrocarbon feed stream is fed to the Hydrotreating unit 14 to create the effluent of the Hydrotreating. The flow of diesel fuel obtained in the fractionation section 16, can be a second stream of hydrocarbon �raw materials, which Hydrotreating to obtain diesel fuel with low sulfur content.

Section 10 of the compression can be performed with the possibility of creating two streams feeding hydrogen at different pressures. In this arrangement, the intermediate compression section 10 of compressing the feed stream of hydrogen in the feed line 20 of the hydrogen serves in the first compressor 22 associated with subsequent line 20 feeding hydrogen to raise the pressure of the feed stream of hydrogen and the creation of the first stream of the compressed hydrogen feed in line 24. The first compressor stage 22 is compression, which may represent a series of compressors.

Division 26 for further technological scheme of the first compressor 22 on the first line 24 feeding compressed hydrogen allows the first portion of the compressed hydrogen feed to file in the first line of the 28th division and the second part of the compressed hydrogen feed to submit to the second line 30 division. The second part of the first feeding of the compressed hydrogen in the second line 30 division sent to the Hydrotreating unit 14.

The first part of the compressed hydrogen feed to the first separation line 28 may be further compressed by the second compressor 32 to produce a second compressed feed stream in the second line 34 feeding of compressed hydrogen. The second compressor 32 is the article�dia compression, that could present a series of compressors. The second compressor 32 is connected further by the processing circuit with the first line 28 of the separation and the first compressor 22. Second compressed feed stream in line 34 may be connected through a first stream of recycled hydrogen in line 36 to generate the first stream of hydrogen hydroprocessing in the first line 38 hydrogen. The first line 38 of hydrogen is related further on the technological flow with the second line 34 compressed hydrogen, two compressors 22 and 32 and the first stream of recycled hydrogen in line 36. The intermediate compression provides a second thread 34 of the compressed hydrogen feed to the feed section 12 of hydroprocessing at a higher pressure than the second portion of the feed stream of the compressed hydrogen in the second line 30 division.

Other compression scheme. For example, the feed stream of the compressed hydrogen in the second line 30 division may be supplemented or superseded by a third feed stream of hydrogen in the line 31, which may yield a lower purity hydrogen, which is sufficiently pure for the Hydrotreating unit 14. It is also assumed that the second line 30 division to be located after the second compressor 32 on the technological scheme and in this case, the installation of 12 hydroprocessing and installation 14 gidroochistki� will work under almost the same pressure.

The first stream of hydrocarbon feedstock may be introduced into line 40, through the compensation tank which is not shown. The first line 38 of hydrogen can combine a first hydrocarbon feed stream from line 40 to generate a flow of the raw material of the first hydroprocessing in line 42. In one aspect, the method and device are particularly suitable for hydroprocessing hydrocarbons. Examples of hydrocarbons include hydrocarbon streams comprising components boiling above 288°C (550°F), such as atmospheric gas oil, VGO vacuum gas oil, deasphalting, vacuum and atmospheric residual oil, distillate coking, straight run distillates, petroleum neasfaltirovanyj solvent, pyrolysis oil, high boiling synthetic oils, cycle oil, the products of hydrocracking, catalytic cracking distillates and hydrocarbons may contain 0.1 to 4 wt%. sulphur.

A suitable hydrocarbon feedstock is a VGO or other hydrocarbon fraction comprising at least 50 wt%. and usually, at least 75% wt., its components boiling at temperatures above 399°C (750°F). Typical VGO typically has a temperature range boiling between 315°C (600°F) and 565°C (1050°F).

Hydroprocessing, which occurs in setting of hydroprocessing may be hydrocracking or hydroasis�coy. Hydrocracking refers to the process by which carbohydrates are degraded in the presence of hydrogen to hydrocarbons with lower molecular weight. Hydroprocessing, which occurs in setting of hydroprocessing, can also be hydrotreatment. Hydrotreating, which may occur in the installation of 12 hydroprocessing, will be described below with reference to the Hydrotreating unit 14. In any case, the pressure in the system 12 hydroprocessing may be higher than that in the Hydrotreating unit 14. Hydrocracking is the preferred process in the installation of 12 hydroprocessing. Consequently, the term "hydroprocessing" in the description will include the term "hydrocracking" and the term "Hydrotreating".

The reactor 46 hydroprocessing, which may be a reactor 46 hydrocracking, linked further by the processing circuit with one or more compressors 22 and 32 on line 20 feeding of hydrogen, the first line 28 of division and first line 40 hydrocarbons. Can be carried out heat exchange of the first hydrocarbon feed stream of hydroprocessing in line 42 from the output of hydroprocessing that can be output hydrocracking in line 48 the outgoing flow of hydroprocessing that can be output hydrocracking in line 48 of the output process of hydroprocessing and additionally heated in playannouncement to the entrance to the reactor 46 hydrocracking, which can be used for hydrocracking the hydrocarbon stream into low-boiling hydrocarbons.

The reactor 46 hydroprocessing may include one or more vessels, several layers of catalyst in each vessel and various combinations of Hydrotreating catalyst and hydrocracking catalyst in one or more vessels. In some aspects, the hydrocracking reaction can provide an overall conversion of at least 20%. and usually more than 60% of about. hydrocarbon feedstock to products boiling below the boiling point of diesel shoulder strap. The reactor 46 hydroprocessing can operate at partial conversion of more than 50%. or a complete transformation, at least 90%. raw material relative to the total transformation. Full conversion is effective for the maximum yield of diesel fuel. The first vessel or layer may include a catalyst for Hydrotreating to saturate, demetallization, desulfurization, or diazotrophy feedstock hydrocracking.

The reactor 46 hydroprocessing can work in the mild hydrocracking. Conditions mild hydrocracking provide 20-60 vol.%, preferably 20-50%. complete conversion of hydrocarbons into a product with a boiling point below the boiling point of diesel shoulder strap. In mild hydrocracking conversion products are mainly diesel fuel. In the process of soft chiffon.� hydrocracking, the Hydrotreating catalyst has the same or greater role in the transformation than the hydrocracking catalyst. The transformation provided by the Hydrotreating catalyst may be a significant part of the overall transformation. If the reactor 46 hydroprocessing designed for mild hydrocracking, it is assumed that the reactor 46 mild hydrocracking can be loaded all of the catalyst Hydrotreating, all of the catalyst hydrocracking or more layers of catalyst for Hydrotreating and several layers of hydrocracking catalyst. In the latter case, the layers of hydrocracking catalyst can usually follow the layer of Hydrotreating catalyst. Most typically for three layers of Hydrotreating catalyst may be followed by zero, one or two layers of hydrocracking catalyst.

The reactor 46 hydroprocessing in Fig.1 has four layers within the reactor vessel. If you want a mild hydrocracking, it is assumed that the first three catalyst layer includes a catalyst for Hydrotreating and the last catalyst bed includes a catalyst for hydrocracking. If you prefer partial or full hydrocracking, the more layers of hydrocracking catalyst may be used in addition to the number of layers used in the mild hydrocracking process.

In the mild hydrocracking feedstock is selectively turns�I'm in heavy products, such as diesel fuel and kerosene with a low yield of light hydrocarbons such as naphtha and gas. Pressure is also reasonable to limit the hydrogenation of the cubic product to the optimum level for further processing.

In one aspect, for example, if it is preferred to balance middle distillates and gasoline in the product of the transformation, the mild hydrocracking may be performed in the first reactor 46 hydrocracking the hydrocracking catalysts on a substrate of amorphous aluminosilicate or low zeolite in combination with one or more hydrogenation components in the form of metals of the VIII or group VIB. In another aspect, when significantly more preferred is a middle distillate in the product of the transformation in the production of gasoline, partial or full hydrocracking may be performed in the first reactor 46 hydrocracking with a catalyst which comprises in General, any crystalline zeolite as a substrate on which is deposited a metal of group VIII as the hydrogenation component. Additional hydrogenation components may be selected from group VIB, for inclusion in the zeolite substrate.

Zeolite substrate cracking in the prior art sometimes refers to molecular sieves and are usually composed of silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and one or more katio�s, such as sodium, magnesium, calcium, rare earth metals, etc. They are also characterized by pores of the crystals are relatively uniform in diameter from 4 to 14 angstroms (10-10m). It is preferable to use zeolites with a relatively high molar ratio of silica/alumina of equal 3-12. Suitable zeolites found in nature include for example mordenite, stilbite, heulandite, ferrierite, dachiardite, chabazite, erionite and fogasa. Suitable synthetic zeolites include, for example, crystalline types B, X, Y, and L, for example, synthetic pajazit and mordenite. The preferred zeolites are those having pore diameter of crystals 8-12 angstroms (10-10m), in which the molar ratio of silicon dioxide/aluminum oxide is 4-6. One example of a zeolite falling in the preferred group is synthetic Y molecular sieve.

Natural zeolites are usually found in the sodium form, the form of an alkaline earth metal or in a mixed form. Synthetic zeolites are almost always first get in the sodium form. In any case, for use as the substrate of the catalyst cracking process, preferably, most or all of the original monovalent metals of the zeolite have been replaced by ion exchange with polyvalent metal and/or an ammonium salt with subsequent heating of the�m for the decomposition of ammonium ions, associated with the zeolite, leaving in their place hydrogen ions and/or exchange centers, which were actually removed cations further removal of water. In a hydrogen or decationization" form Y zeolites of this type are more particularly described in US 3,130,006.

Zeolites in a mixed form polyvalent metal-hydrogen can be obtained by using a first ion exchange with an ammonium salt and then partial reverse exchange of the polyvalent metal salt, followed by calcination. In some cases, as in the case of synthetic mordenite, the hydrogen form can be obtained by direct acid treatment of zeolites in the form of alkali metals. In one aspect, the preferred substrates of cracking catalysts are those of at least 10% and preferably at least 20% are deficient in cations of the metal, relative to the initial ion-exchange capacity. In another aspect, the desired and stable class of zeolites zeolite is at least 20% of the ion exchange capacity occupied by hydrogen ions.

The active metals employed in the preferred hydrocracking catalysts of the present invention as hydrogenation component, are metals of group VIII, i.e. iron, cobalt, Nickel, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium and platinum. In addition to these metals and other� activators can also be used in conjunction with them, including metals VTB group, for example, molybdenum and tungsten. The amount of hydrogenation metals in the catalyst may vary within wide limits. Generally speaking, can be used in any number of 0.05-30 wt%. In the case of noble metals, they are usually preferably used in an amount of 0.05-2% wt.

Method of incorporating metal hydrogenation consists in bringing into contact of the substrate material with an aqueous solution of a suitable compound of the desired metal wherein the metal is present in cationic form. After adding the selected metal or metals of the hydrogenation of the obtained catalyst powder was filtered, dried, granulated with the addition of lubricants, binders, etc., if necessary, and calcined in air at a temperature of, for example, 371-648°C (700-1200°F) to activate the catalyst and decomposition of ammonium ions. Alternative component of the first substrate may be granular, with subsequent addition of the hydrogenation component and activation by calcining.

The above catalysts may be used in undiluted form, or the powdered catalyst can be mixed together and granular with other relatively less active catalysts, diluents or binders such as alumina, silica gel, kogali silica-hydroxy�and aluminum, activated clay, etc., in proportions in the range of 5-90% of the mass. These diluents can be used as such or they may contain a small portion of added hydrogenation metals, such as metals VIB and/or VIII group. The hydrocracking catalysts activated with additional metal may also be used in the method of the present invention, which include, for example, aluminophosphate molecular sieves, crystalline chromogenicity and other crystalline silicates. Crystal promotility more fully described US 4,363,718.

In one embodiment, the hydrocracking conditions may include a temperature of from 290°C (550°F) to 468°C (875°F), preferably 343(650°F) - 435°C (815°F), pressure from 4.8 MPa (700 psi) to 20.7 MPa (3000 psi), the hourly space velocity of fluid (LHSV) of 1.0 to less than 2.5 h-1and the flow rate of hydrogen 421(2500)-2527 nm3/m3oil (15000 cubic feet/barrel). If you want a mild hydrocracking conditions may include a temperature of 315(600°F)-441°C (825°F), pressure of 5.5 MPa (gauge pressure) (800 psig) to 13.8 MPa (gauge pressure) (2000 pounds per square inch) or more preferably from 6.9 MPa (gauge pressure) (1000 psig) to 11.0 MPa (gauge pressure) (1600 psig), h�Savoy space velocity of fluid (LHSV) 0,5-2 h -1, preferably 0.7 to 1.5 h-1and the flow rate of hydrogen from 421 nm3/m3oil (2500 cubic feet/barrel) to 1685 nm3/m3oil (10,000 cubic feet/barrel).

The effluent of hydroprocessing, which preferably is the output stream of the hydrocracking, exits the reactor 46 hydrocracking and fed into the line 48 of the output stream of hydroprocessing. The effluent of the hydrocracking preferably includes a first hydrocarbon feed stream which has been subjected to hydrocracking to more low-boiling hydrocarbons. Can be conducted to heat the effluent of the hydrocracking in line 48 the outgoing flow of hydroprocessing with the first flow of raw materials hydroprocessing in line 42 and in one implementation can be cooled before entering the cold separator 50. The cold separator 50 is connected further by the processing circuit with the reactor 46 hydrocracking. Cold separator can operate at 46-63°C (115-145°F) and a pressure slightly below the pressure in the reactor 46 hydroprocessing taking into account the pressure drop for the preservation of hydrogen and light gases in the upper chase and liquid under normal conditions of hydrocarbons in Cuba. The cold separator 50 separates the output stream of hydroprocessing, which may be the output stream of the hydrocracking to create a vaporous exhaust stream of hydroprocessing that �can be vaporous effluent stream hydrocracking, containing hydrogen in line 52 of the upper turret ring and liquid effluent of hydroprocessing, which may be a liquid effluent stream in hydrocracking line 54 of still bottoms. As the line still bottoms includes at least a portion of the outgoing flow of hydroprocessing that can be output hydrocracking, it is considered a line facing the flow of hydroprocessing, which can be a line 48 outgoing flow hydrocracking. In the cold separator also includes a sump for collecting the water phase in line 56. The cold separator 50 serves for the separation of hydrogen from the effluent of hydroprocessing in line 48 the outgoing flow of hydroprocessing to return to the cycle in the reactor 46 hydroprocessing in line 52 of the upper shoulder strap.

Withdrawing a vaporous stream in hydrocracking line 52 upper turret ring can be compressed by the compressor 60 to generate the first stream of recycled hydrogen in line 36, which is compressed vaporous effluent stream of hydroprocessing that can be vaporous effluent stream hydrocracking. Before compression, the gas can be cleaned of impurities such as hydrogen sulfide, but it is not shown in Fig.1. The recycle compressor 60 may be connected further by the processing circuit with the reactor 46 hydrocracking. Therefore, ballynacarrigy the compressor 60 is connected further by the processing circuit with line 52 of the upper shoulder straps of the cold separator 50.

In one implementation of the first stream of recycled hydrogen in line 36 may be combined with a second stream of compressed hydrogen feed in line 34 for further technological scheme of the recirculating compressor 60. However, if the pressure of the stream of recycled hydrogen in line 36 is too large to create the feed stream of hydrogen without increasing the number of compressors on line 20 feeding hydrogen and a feed stream of hydrogen may be added to the incoming flow vaporous hydrocracking in line 52 of the upper turret ring on the technological scheme to recycle compressor 60. However, this will increase the load on the recirculation compressor 60 through increased productivity.

The first stream of recycled hydrogen in line 36 may be combined with a second stream of compressed hydrogen feed in line 34 to generate the first stream of hydrogen in the first line 38 hydrogen. Consequently, the first line 38 hydrogen linked further by the processing circuit with line 52 of the upper shoulder straps of the cold separator 50.

At least part of the effluent of the hydrocracking in the outgoing flow line 48 hydroprocessing can be fractionated in the fractionation section 16, a related further on the technological scheme of the reactor 46 hydrocracking. In one aspect, the liquid effluent of the hydrocracking in Lee�AI 54 still bottoms may be fractionated in the fractionation section 16. Separation in a cold separator in the description is not considered fractionation.

In another aspect, the fractionation section 16 may include a cold evaporative drum 64. Cold evaporative drum may be any separator that separates the liquid effluent of hydroprocessing on the steam and liquid fractions. The liquid effluent of the hydrocracking in line 54 may be mixed with the vaporous effluent stream Hydrotreating of warm line 102 of the upper stream and fed into the line 58 Association for evaporation in a cool evaporative drum 64. In this aspect, the liquid output stream in hydrocracking line 54 bottoms unite the upper line 102 of the chase. Cold evaporative drum can be linked further by the processing circuit with line 54 still bottoms from the cold separator 50 line 58 of the Association. Cold evaporative drum can operate at the same temperature as the cold separator 50, but usually at lower pressures in the range 2,1-7,0 MPa (gauge pressure) (300-1000 pounds per square inch) and preferably from 4.1 to 5.5 MPa (gauge pressure) (600-800 pounds per square inch). A lower pressure to cool the evaporator drum is able to provide a lower pressure vaporous exhaust stream in Hydrotreating line 102 vaporous vyhodyaschih� stream Hydrotreating.

Cold evaporative drum can be linked further by the processing circuit with line 102 of the upper shoulder strap warm separator 100. The vaporous effluent of the Hydrotreating warm line 102 of the upper shoulder strap can be introduced into the cold evaporative drum 64 separately from the liquid exit stream of the hydrocracking in line 54 of still bottoms and mixed in cool evaporative drum 64. Evaporation in a cool evaporative drum 64 gives the cold flow of steam into the cold line 66 of the upper shoulder strap and a cold liquid stream in line 68 from the evaporation of the liquid exit stream and vaporous hydrocracking effluent stream to the hydrotreater. Water stream in line 56 from the sump of the cold separator may also be sent to the cold evaporator 64. The water stream is removed from the clarifier in a cool evaporative drum 64 in line 65. The cold liquid stream in line 68 of still bottoms may be further fractionated in the fractionation section 16.

The fractionation section 16 may include a Stripping column 70 and a distillation column 80. Cold liquid stream in line 68 of still bottoms may be heated and fed to the Stripping column 70. Cold liquid stream that contains at least a portion of the liquid exit stream and vaporous hydrocracking effluent stream Hydrotreating can be udaleniem from line 72, to create a flow of light fractions of hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, steam and other gases in line 74 of the upper shoulder strap. Part of the flow of light fractions may be condensed and delegirovano in a Stripping column 70. Stripping column 70 can operate at a temperature of cube 232°C (450°F) to 288°C (550°F) and the pressure in the upper part of 690 kPa (100 psi) - 1034 kPa (gauge pressure) (150 psi). The bottoms stream of the hydrocracking in line 76 may be of the heated flame heater and fed into a distillation column 80. Thus, distillation column 80 is connected further by the processing circuit with line 68 bottoms cold evaporative drum 64.

In a distillation column 80 may also be removed by distillation residue hydrocracking with steam from line 82 to create a top of a shoulder strap of naphtha in line 84, the flow of diesel fuel injected into the line 86 from a side of a shoulder strap and stream unturned oil in the line 88, which may be suitable for further processing, for example, in the installation FCC. The flow of the upper shoulder straps of naphtha in line 84 may require further processing before mixing in the Park of gasoline. Usually requires catalytic reforming to improve the octane number. The reforming catalysts often requires additional desulfurization of naphtha in the Hydrotreating unit �of igraine before reforming. In one aspect, the naphtha after hydrocracking of naphtha can be desulfurizer in an integrated installation 96 Hydrotreating. It is also assumed that additional side straps, which is not shown, can be selected to create a separate thread of light diesel fuel or kerosene, selected higher flow of heavy fuel oil sent to the line 86 of diesel fuel. Consequently, at least part of the effluent of hydroprocessing that can be output hydrocracking in the outgoing flow line 48 hydroprocessing, can be fractionated to generate a flow of diesel fuel in the line 86 of diesel fuel. The second hydrocarbon feed stream may be created by the flow of diesel fuel in the line 86 of diesel fuel.

The upper portion of a shoulder strap of naphtha in line 84 may be condensed and delegirovano in a distillation column 80. The distillation column may operate at a temperature of Cuba 288°C (550°F) 385°C (725°F), preferably 315°C (600°F) to 357°C (675°F) and a pressure close to or equal to the atmospheric pressure. Part of the VAT residue hydrocracking can be re-heated to boiling and returned to the distillation column 80, instead of using distillation with steam.

The sulfur content in the flow of diesel fuel in the line 86 is reduced, but may not with�to testout technical requirements for low sulfur (LSD), which is less than 50 ppm wt. sulfur, specifications ULSD, which make up less than 10 ppm wt. sulfur or other requirements. Therefore, it may be additionally carried out a post processing installation 14 hydrotreatment of diesel fuel to meet these requirements.

The cold vapor stream containing hydrogen in line 66 cold upper turret ring can provide hydrogen for Hydrotreating required in section 14 of Hydrotreating. Second recycle compressor 90 may be connected further by the processing circuit with line 66 a pair of upper shoulder straps cold evaporative drum 64 and the second line 30 division submitting the second part of the first feed stream of compressed hydrogen and/or third stream of hydrogen feed line 31 for compressing one, two or all of these streams to create a second stream of a second hydrogen line 92 of hydrogen. It is also assumed that the second part of the first feed stream of the compressed hydrogen in the second line 30 division and/or the third feed stream of hydrogen in lines 31 are connected to the line 66 cold upper turret ring on the technological scheme after the second recycle compressor 90. The second line 92 of hydrogen can be further connected on the technological scheme with additional lines 31 hydrogen. Before compression, the vapor stream in Linyi top of a shoulder strap can be cleaned from impurities, such as hydrogen sulfide, but it is not shown in Fig.1.

The second stream of the second hydrogen line 92 of hydrogen can connect with a second hydrocarbon feed stream in line 86 to generate a flow of 94 feedstock hydrotreatment. The flow of diesel fuel in the line 86 can also be mixed with further raw materials which are not shown. Alternative second hydrocarbon feed stream can be provided independent of the hydrocarbon feed stream, not a stream of diesel fuel in the line 86. Can be carried out heat exchange flow 94 feedstock hydrotreatment with outgoing stream of in-line Hydrotreating 98 the effluent of the Hydrotreating followed by heating in a flame heater and fed into the reactor 96 Hydrotreating. Consequently, the hydrotreatment reactor can be related further on the technological scheme of the fractionation section 16, line 66 a pair of upper shoulder straps cold evaporative drum reactor 46 hydrocracking. Thus, the hydrotreatment reactor can be linked further by the processing circuit with the second line 30 division, the second line 92 of hydrogen and a second line 86 of hydrocarbons. In the reactor 96 hydrotreatment is carried out Hydrotreating a second hydrocarbon stream, which may be a stream of diesel fuel, in the presence of a stream of hydrogen for Hydrotreating catalyst and Hydrotreating to create o�ceived stream in Hydrotreating line 98 exit stream Hydrotreating.

The reactor 96 hydrotreatment can involve more than one vessel and several layers of catalyst. The reactor 96 hydrotreatment in Fig.1 has two layers in one reactor. In the reactor 96 Hydrotreating hydrocarbons with heteroatoms optionally pass demetallization, desulfurization and diazotrophy. The hydrotreatment reactor can also include a Hydrotreating catalyst, which is suitable for the saturation of aromatic compounds, dewaxing and hydroisomerization.

If the reactor 46 hydrocracking works as a reactor mild hydrocracking, hydrocracking reactor can handle turning up to 20-60%. raw materials boiling above the boiling point of diesel fuel, to obtain products boiling in the boiling range of diesel fuel. Consequently, the reactor 96 Hydrotreating must have a very low degree of conversion in the first place to carry out the desulfurization in Association with the reactor 46 mild hydrocracking to meet the technical specifications on fuel, as defined ULSD.

Hydrotreating is a process in which hydrogen is brought into contact with a hydrocarbon in the presence of suitable catalysts which are primarily active in the removal of heteroatoms, such as sulfur, nitrogen and metals from hydrocarbon feedstock. In the Hydrotreating of hydrocarbons with double and triple bonds m�gut to become saturated. Aromatic hydrocarbons can also be converted into saturated. Some Hydrotreating processes specifically designed to saturate aromatic compounds. The cloud point of the product of Hydrotreating also can be reduced. Suitable for use in the present invention, the hydrotreatment catalysts are any known conventional Hydrotreating catalysts and include containing at least one metal of group VIII, preferably iron, cobalt and Nickel, more preferably cobalt and/or Nickel and at least one metal of group VI, preferably molybdenum and tungsten, on a substrate material with a high surface area, preferably aluminium oxide. Other suitable Hydrotreating catalysts include zeolitic catalysts, and the catalysts of noble metals, noble metal selected from platinum and palladium. The scope of the claims of the present invention includes more than one type of Hydrotreating catalyst be used in the same reactor 96 Hydrotreating. The metal of group VIII is usually present in the amount of 2-20 wt.%, preferably 4-12 wt%. The group VI metal is usually present in amounts of 1-25 wt.%, preferably 2-25 wt%.

Preferred reaction conditions for Hydrotreating include temperature 290°C (550°F) to 455°C (850°F), preferably 16°C (600°F) - 427°C (800°F) and more preferably 343°C (650°F) to 399°C (750°F), pressure of 2.1 MPa (300 psig), preferably from 4.1 to 6.9 MPa (600-1000 psi), the hourly space velocity of the fresh liquid hydrocarbon feedstock of 0.5-4 h-1, preferably 1.5 to 3.5 h-1and the flow rate of hydrogen 168-1011 nm3/m3oil (1000-6000 cubic foot/barrel), preferably 168-674 nm3/m3oil (1000-4000 cubic foot/barrel) diesel feedstock with a Hydrotreating catalyst or a combination of Hydrotreating catalysts.

Can be carried out heat exchange of the exhaust stream in Hydrotreating line 98 exit stream Hydrotreating flow of feedstock hydrotreatment in line 94. The effluent of the Hydrotreating in line 98 exit stream Hydrotreating can be separated in a warm separator 100, which is connected further by the processing circuit with the reactor 96 Hydrotreating. The warm separator 100 creates a vaporous effluent of the Hydrotreating comprising hydrogen in a warm line 102 top of the chase, and the liquid effluent of the Hydrotreating warm line 104 of still bottoms. The vaporous effluent of the Hydrotreating warm line 102 of the upper shoulder strap, containing hydrogen that can be mixed, at least part of the effluent of the hydrocracking supplied to the line 48 the outgoing flow of hydroprocessing.

Mixing can be performed�about prior to cooling and introduction of the effluent of the hydrocracking in the cold separator 50. In this case, the vaporous exhaust stream in Hydrotreating warm line 102 upper turret ring is separated in the cold separator 50. The details of this implementation are presented in US 13/076,608 and US 13/076,631, these items are included in this description by reference.

However, the mixing is preferably performed at the outlet of the cold separator 50 and preferably from liquid effluent stream in hydrocracking line 54 bottoms cold separator. In this aspect, line 54 VAT residue of the cold separator 50 is connected further on the technological scheme and warm line 102 of the upper shoulder strap warm separator 100. It is also assumed that the mixing can be carried out in a cold evaporative drum 64. Cold evaporative drum 64 is connected further on the technological scheme with warm warm separator line 102 of the upper shoulder strap and a cold separator 50 line 54 of still bottoms. Consequently, the vaporous effluent of the Hydrotreating warm line 102 of the upper shoulder strap is mixed, with at least part of the effluent of hydroprocessing that can be output hydrocracking in line 48 the outgoing flow of hydroprocessing.

The warm separator 100 may accordingly operate at 121°C (250°F) to 316°C (600°F), preferably 149-260°C (300-500°F). The pressure in the warm separator 96 is slightly below the pressure�ia in the reactor 96 Hydrotreating taking into account the pressure drop. The steam in warm lines 102 of the upper shoulder strap can enter the line 54 bottoms or cold evaporative drum 64, because the pressure below the operating pressure of hydroprocessing and pressure cold separator, equivalent to the pressure of the Hydrotreating and the warm pressure of the separator.

The warm separator may operate to receive, at least 90% of the mass. diesel fuel, preferably at least 93% of the mass. diesel fuel in a liquid stream in a warm line 104 of still bottoms. All other hydrocarbons and gases rise in the effluent vapor Hydrotreating warm line 102 of the upper shoulder strap, which connects the liquid effluent of the hydrocracking in line 54 of still bottoms, and can be recycled immediately after heating before entering the cold evaporative drum 64. Therefore, the cold evaporative drum 64 and, thus, the second recycle compressor 90 are connected further on the technological scheme of warm line 102 of the upper shoulder strap warm separator 100.

Hydrogen in a warm flow of the upper shoulder strap is included in the cold drum is possible on line 54 VAT residue and evaporated in a stream of cold vapor in line 66 of the upper shoulder strap, which can be returned into the cycle, at least as part of the second line 92 of hydrogen and fed into the reactor 96 Hydrotreating. Consequently, the WTO�th line 92 of hydrogen is further connected on the technological scheme of cold line 66 of the upper shoulder strap.

Cold evaporative drum 64 is used to separate hydrogen from a vaporous exhaust stream in Hydrotreating warm line 102 top of the chase to return to the cycle in the reactor 96 Hydrotreating. The cold vapor stream in line 66 of the upper shoulder strap can be cleaned of impurities such as hydrogen sulfide gas before compression, a second recycle compressor 90, but not necessarily. The recycle compressor 90 is connected further on the technological scheme with the specified cold line 66 of the upper shoulder strap. Accordingly the circle line recirculating gas from the hydrocracking section 12 and section 14 of Hydrotreating uses a separate recirculation compressors 60 and 90, respectively.

At least a portion of the liquid effluent stream in Hydrotreating warm line 104 still bottoms may be fractionated in a distillation column, such as a Stripping column 110 Hydrotreating. The distillation column 110 may be further connected on the technological scheme of warm line 104 bottoms warm separator 100. The liquid stream of warm separator in a warm line 104 still bottoms may be heated and fed to the stripper column 110. The warm liquid separator can be separated in a Stripping column 110 steam from line 112 to create a stream of naphtha and light fractions in line 114 of the upper shoulder strap. Stream get�th diesel fuel is removed at line 116 of still bottoms, containing less than 50 ppm wt. sulfur, qualification LSD and preferably less than 10 ppm wt. sulfur, ULSD qualification. It is assumed that the Stripping column 110 can operate as a distillation column with reboiler and not with the Stripping steam.

When the warm separator 100 at an elevated temperature to remove most of the lighter hydrocarbons of diesel fuel, a Stripping column 110 Hydrotreating can operate more simply, since it is not designed to separate the naphtha from lightweight components and because very little naptha must be separated from diesel fuel. In addition, the warm separator 110 makes possible the joint use of cold evaporative drum 64 with the reactor 46 hydrocracking and heat necessary for fractionation stripper column 110, is stored in liquid the effluent of the Hydrotreating.

Fig.2 illustrates the implementation of the method and the device 8', which use the hot separator 120 for the initial separation of the effluent of the hydrocracking in line 48' exit stream of hydroprocessing. Many of the elements of Fig.2 have the same configuration as that of Fig.1 and the same reference numbers. The elements in Fig.2 that correspond to elements in Fig.1, but have a different configuration denoted by the same reference numbers as in Fig.1, but noted symb�scrap of a stroke (').

The hot separator 120 in the section 12' of hydroprocessing linked further by the processing circuit with the reactor 46 hydroprocessing and creates a vaporous hydrocarbon stream in the hot line 122 of the upper shoulder strap and a liquid hydrocarbon stream in the hot line 124 of still bottoms. The hot separator 120 operates at 177°C (350°F) to 343°C (650°F), preferably 232-288°C (450-550°F). The hot separator can operate at a lower pressure than the reactor 46 hydroprocessing taking into account the pressure drop. Vaporous hydrocarbon stream in the hot line of the upper turret ring 122 may be combined with vapor effluent stream in Hydrotreating warm line 102 overhead from the upper section 14 of Hydrotreating and mixed and served in a hot line 122 top of the chase, the location of which is not shown. Preferably vaporous hydrocarbon stream in the hot line 122 upper turret ring can be cooled before entering the cold separator 50', without combining with another stream. Consequently, the vaporous hydrocarbon stream can be separated in a cold separator 50' to create a vaporous exhaust stream of hydroprocessing containing hydrogen in line 52 of the upper turret ring and liquid effluent of hydroprocessing in line 54' bottoms, and which is processed as described above with reference to Fig.1. The cold separator 50', so �by Braz, linked further by the processing circuit with a hot line 122 of the upper shoulder strap hot separator 120.

Liquid hydrocarbon stream in the hot line 124 of still bottoms may be fractionated in section 16' fractionation. In one aspect, at least a portion of the liquid hydrocarbon stream in the hot line 124 of still bottoms may be combined with vapor effluent stream in Hydrotreating warm line 102 overhead from the upper section 14 of Hydrotreating and mixed, but this implementation is not shown. In one aspect, the liquid hydrocarbon stream together with the vaporous effluent stream Hydrotreating of warm line 102 top of the chase sent to hotline 124 bottoms or without it, may be vaporized in the hot evaporative drum 130 to generate a flow of light fractions in line 132 of the upper shoulder strap and a heavy flow of liquid in line 134 of still bottoms. Hot evaporative drum 130 can operate at the same temperature as the hot separator 120, but at a lower pressure in the range from 2.1 MPa (gauge pressure) (300 psi) to 6.9 MPa (gauge pressure) (1000 psi). The stream of heavy liquid in line 134 of still bottoms may be further fractionated in section 16' fractionation. In one aspect, the stream of heavy liquid in Lee�AI 134 may be introduced to the Stripping column 70' at a lower level, what is the point of applying cold liquid stream in line 68 of still bottoms.

In one implementation, shown in Fig.2, the vaporous effluent of the Hydrotreating warm line 102 of the upper shoulder strap is combined with a stream of light fractions in line 132 of the upper turret ring and is mixed and fed into the joint line 136 of the upper shoulder strap. The mixture of light fractions and vapor exit stream Hydrotreating can be cooled and connected to the incoming flow of liquid hydrocracking in line 54' bottoms. Attached flow in the joint line 58' may enter section 16' fractionation may first after the split in the cold evaporator 64. It is also assumed that the vaporous effluent of the Hydrotreating warm line 102 top of a shoulder strap or attached to the line 54' or put into cold evaporative drum without pre-mixing, but preferably is combined with the stream of light fractions in line 132 of the upper turret ring on the technological scheme to the chiller on line 136, which provides the possibility of cooling to improve the separation.

The rest of the implementation in Fig.2 can be the same as described in Fig.1 with the previously mentioned exceptions.

In the description described the preferred embodiment of the present invention, including best mode of carrying out Fig�plants, known to the inventors. It should be understood that the illustrated implementation are examples only and should not be construed as limiting the scope of the claims of the invention.

Without more detail we can assume that the specialist in the art can, using the preceding description, to apply the present invention in its most full. The above preferred specific implementation, therefore, should be considered only as illustrative, and not limiting the rest of the disclosure in any way.

Above all temperatures are given in degrees centigrade and all parts and percentages are mass, unless otherwise noted. Pressure provided at the outlet of the vessel and, in particular, the release of vapor in the vessels with multiple outputs.

From the above description, the specialist in the art can easily determine the essential features of the present invention and, without departing from the essence and scope of the claims of the invention can perform various changes and modifications of the invention to adapt it to different applications and conditions.

1. Method of hydroprocessing hydrocarbon feedstock, including:
hydrocracking of the first stream of hydrocarbons in the presence of a first hydrogen stream and hydrocracking catalyst to obtained�I exit stream of the hydrocracking;
Hydrotreating the second stream of hydrocarbons in the presence of a second hydrogen stream and Hydrotreating catalyst to obtain the effluent of the Hydrotreating;
the separation of the effluent of the Hydrotreating at a temperature of 121-316°C (250-600°F) vapor effluent of the Hydrotreating containing hydrogen, and liquid effluent of the Hydrotreating;
mixing at least part of the vaporous exhaust stream Hydrotreating at least part of the specified exit stream of the hydrocracking to produce a mixture; and
fractionation of at least part of said mixture.

2. A method according to claim 1, further comprising:
the separation of the effluent of the Hydrotreating in the vaporous effluent of the Hydrotreating containing hydrogen, and the liquid effluent of the Hydrotreating;
mixing the specified vapor exit stream of the liquid Hydrotreating effluent stream to the hydrocracking; and
evaporation vapor exit stream Hydrotreating in a cold vapor stream and a cold fluid stream and the cold fractionation of the liquid stream in a distillation column in the fractionation section and the filing of the specified stream of cold vapor containing hydrogen, specified in the hydrotreatment reactor.

3. A method according to claim 1, further comprising the fractionation of at least a specified �Asti specified outgoing flow of hydroprocessing to create a second hydrocarbon stream.

4. A method according to claim 1, further comprising separation of the effluent of the Hydrotreating in the vaporous effluent of the Hydrotreating containing hydrogen, and liquid effluent of the Hydrotreating and fractionating at least part of the liquid exit stream Hydrotreating to create a flow of diesel fuel with low sulphur content.

5. Device for hydroprocessing hydrocarbons comprising:
the hydrocracking reactor is associated with the first line of hydrogen and the first line of hydrocarbons, for hydrocracking the hydrocarbon stream into low-boiling hydrocarbons sent to the line outgoing flow hydrocracking;
the hydrotreater unit associated with the second line of hydrogen and the second line hydrocarbon feedstock for hydrotreatment of a stream of diesel fuel to obtain the exit stream of the in-line Hydrotreating the effluent of the Hydrotreating;
moreover, the specified line exit stream Hydrotreating is associated with the specified line of the exit stream of the hydrocracking;
cold separator associated with the hydrocracking reactor for creating vapor exit stream of the hydrocracking containing hydrogen, in the upper line of a shoulder strap and a liquid exit stream of the hydrocracking in the line of still bottoms;
the warm separator associated with the Hydrotreating reactor for separating leaving�the eye of Hydrotreating on the vaporous effluent of the Hydrotreating containing hydrogen, in the warm upper line of the chase and the liquid effluent of the Hydrotreating warm line still bottoms, and line bottoms of cold separator is connected to the warm line of the upper shoulder straps of the warm separator;
the section of the fractionation associated with the specified line exit stream of hydrotreated and with the said line exit stream of the hydrocracking; and
the section of the fractionation associated with the hydrocracking reactor for fractionating the effluent of the hydrocracking and diesel fuel, the specified feed flow of diesel fuel received in said fractionation section, and a second line of hydrocarbons, which is a line of diesel fuel.

6. The device according to claim 5, further comprising a distillation column that is associated with the warm line bottoms warm separator for fractionating at least part of the liquid exit stream Hydrotreating to create a flow of diesel fuel with low sulfur content.



 

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FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: method for reducing the adverse effect of detergent additive on cold flow of fuel composition containing distillate fuel, detergent additive and additive improving the cold flow, which involves introduction to the above composition of additional additive chosen from: (a) acids and their mixtures; and (b) additives improving the lubricating capacity. Also, there proposed is the method for improvement of cold flow of fuel composition, method improving the detergent additive concentration in fuel composition, method for obtaining fuel composition, method for reducing the amount of additive improving the cold flow and operating method of the fuel consumption system.

EFFECT: improvement of service performance of cold flow of fuel composition containing distillate fuel, detergent additive and additive improving the cold flow.

26 cl, 7 ex, 10 tbl

FIELD: organic chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to using a flocculating and sequestering agent with the organic solution as an agent to facilitate such purification. A method of purifying an organic solution, comprising contacting a flocculating and sequestering agent with the organic solution, which organic solution comprises fatty acid alkyl esters, wherein the water content of the organic solution is equal or less than 5% by weight, when the pH in the organic solution is 9 to 12, wherein the flocculating and sequestering agent is chosen from polyaluminium coagulants. There is provided a process for purification of an organic solution of fatty acid alkyl esters suitable for use as biodiesel, comprising: adding a flocculating and sequestering agent chosen from polyaluminium coagulants to the organic solution so as to facilitate the purification when the pH in the organic solution is 9 to 12 and removing a portion from the organic solution, which portion comprises the flocculating and sequestering agent, and impurities, wherein the water content of the organic solution is equal or less than 5% by weight.

EFFECT: process will enable less energy input and becomes less time-consuming and less costly, as compared to the known processes using water to purify the organic solution.

10 cl, 3 tbl, 12 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves preparation of plant oil with heating to 80°C, alkaline ethanolysis using potassium hydroxide in ethanol with molar concentration of 2 mol/dm3 to obtain an ether-glycerine mixture which is separated to form two fractions - glycerine and a mixture of ethers. The mixture of ethers (biodiesel fuel) undergoes filtration, sorption purification and dehydration. The obtained biodiesel fuel is stored. Preparation of the plant oil is carried out such that before heating, the plant oil is mixed with 1% aqueous solution of an Ecofriend enzyme-probiotic preparation and the obtained mixture is held for 24 hours at temperature 23-27°C. After holding for 24 hours, the mixture of plant oil and this preparation is heated to said heating temperature. The products are taken in the following ratio, pts.wt: plant oil 5; 1% aqueous solution of Ecofriend enzyme-probiotic preparation 5; potassium hydroxide in ethanol 5.

EFFECT: method increases the amount of the obtained biodiesel fuel.

2 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fluidised-bed reactor and a method of catalytic hydrogenation in the reactor. The fluidised-bed reactor comprises a reactor shell, vertical to the ground, a phase separator located within the top part of the shell, an internal circulation zone, located under the phase separator. The internal circulation zone comprises a cylinder, a tapered diffusion section and a guide support. Both the cylinder and the tapered diffusion section at the bottom of the cylinder are located inside the reactor shell, the guide support is fitted on the shell inner wall at the bottom of the tapered diffusion section. The guide support is an annular protrusion of the reactor inner wall.

EFFECT: invention provides effective hydrogenation resulting in a high quality product, and stable operation of the reactor.

26 cl, 2 dwg, 4 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hydrocarbon oil hydrotreating method using at least the first and second reactors. The method includes (i) contacting of hydrocarbon oil in the first reactor at high temperature and pressure with hydrotreating catalyst in presence of hydrogen-containing gas wherein hydrogen is consumed; (ii) division of the outgoing flow obtained at the stage (i) into partially hydrotreated hydrocarbon oil and contaminated hydrogen-containing gas by means of a steam stripper, wherein the waste hydrogen-containing gas is used as stripping gas; (iii) contacting of partially hydrotreated hydrocarbon oil obtained at the stage (ii) in the second reactor at high temperature and pressure with hydrotreating catalyst in presence of pure hydrogen-containing gas with consumption of this hydrogen, at that at least 80% of hydrogen consumed at the stages (i) and (iii) are replenished by additional pure hydrogen-containing gas supplied to the second reactor; (iv) separation of the product produced at the stage (iii) in the second reactor into hydrotreated hydrocarbon oil and waste hydrogen-containing gas, at that hydrotreated hydrocarbon oil may be extracted as a product, and (v) transporting of at least a part of hydrogen-containing gas obtained at the stage (iv), which has temperature of at least 200°C to perform the stage (ii) while using this gas as stripping gas.

EFFECT: effective usage of waste hydrogen-containing gas promotes minimisation of the required capacity of the compressor, facilitation of steam stripping, improvement of heat usage.

17 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed process comprises compression of boost hydrogen in first compressor to get first flow of compressed boost hydrogen. First flow of compressed boost hydrogen is compressed in second compressor to get second flow of compressed boost hydrogen. Said second flow of compressed boost hydrogen is separated as second flow of compressed boost hydrogen for hydraulic treatment. First flow of hydrocarbons is processed over first flow for hydraulic processing including second flow of compressed boost hydrogen and first hydraulic processing catalyst to get first effluent flow of hydroprocessing products. Second flow of hydrocarbons is processed over second flow for hydraulic processing including first flow of compressed boost hydrogen and first hydraulic processing catalyst to get second effluent flow of hydroprocessing products. Said second effluent flow of hydroprocessing products is separated to get vaporous second effluent flow of hydroprocessing products. Said vaporous second flow is added to said boost hydrogen flow upstream of said first compressor.

EFFECT: perfected feed of hydrogen to separate process units.

9 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of diesel fuel production. Particularly, it pertains to compression of makeup hydrogen flow in compressor to bleed hydrogen flow from said compressed makeup hydrogen flow. Hydrocarbons flow is subjected to hydro cracking in the presence of hydrogen flow and catalyst to get outlet hydro cracking products flow to be separated in liquid flow and vapour flow to be compressed to get hydrogen compressed flow. Liquid outlet flow is fractionated to obtain diesel fuel flow. Hydrogen flow is bled for hydraulic cleaning from said compressed hydrogen flow for hydraulic cleaning of diesel fuel flow in the presence of hydrogen flow and catalyst to get outlet hydro cracking products flow. Invention covers also the diesel fuel production plant.

EFFECT: perfected process.

10 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hydrocracking processes, under conditions of which large proportion of heavy hydrocarbon stock e.g. Vacuum Gas Oil (VGO) turns to hydrocarbons with lower molecular mass and lower boiling temperature. The invention relates to the method of production of base oil, involving: a) hydrocracking of heavy hydrocarbon stock with hydrocracking catalyst containing the preset amount less than 15 wt % of beta-zeolite with flow coming out of a hydrocracking plant containing at least 40 wt % of hydrocarbons boiling at temperature of 382°C (720°F), and b) separation from flow coming out of a hydrocracking plant of unconverted oil with pour point not above 18°C (65°F) in form of high-boiling fraction containing base oil.

EFFECT: improvement of base oil quality.

11 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to a combined method of conversion of oil-derived hydrocarbon fractions into high-quality hydrocarbon mixtures as fuel, which includes catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon fraction in catalyst fluidised bed with catalyst containing ERS-10 zeolite, where the specified catalyst contains at least two components, where the specified components represent: (a) a component containing one or more catalytic cracking catalysts in fluidised, and (b) a component containing ERS-10 zeolite for obtaining Light Cycle Gas Oil (LCGO), hydrotreatment of light cycle gas oil, interaction of hydrotreated light cycle gas oil obtained at the previous stage of hydrotreatment in presence of hydrogen with catalytic system. The invention also touches the method of catalytic cracking and a stage of catalytic cracking in fluidised bed.

EFFECT: production of high-quality hydrocarbons, conversion increase.

21 cl, 3 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the hydroconversion method for raw hydrocarbons in the mix with the circulating part of the hydroconversion vacuum residue by a high-aromatic modifier, dispersion of a catalyst precursor and hydrogen-containing gas which is supplied in the amount of maximum 800 nm3 per 1 m3 of raw material in terms of hydrogen and of minimum the value of chemical hydrogen demand. The above is carried out in a reactor with an internal circular baffle plate which adjoins the reactor top in a pressure tight way and forms axial and circular cavities, and with separation space at the top of the circular cavity. Hydroconversion gas is removed from the separation space, liquid hydroconversion product is removed from the top of the axial cavity, circulating reaction mass is removed from the bottom of the reactor's circular cavity, cooled and delivered for mixing with heated raw liquid-vapour mixture, the temperature of the liquid hydroconversion product is kept close to the upper limit of the hydroconversion temperature range, the temperature of the heated raw mixture and the temperature of the circulating reaction mass are kept close to the lower limit of the hydroconversion temperature range. Hydroconversion products are separated and rectified to isolate light fractions, heavy gas oil and vacuum residue, part of the latter is recirculated, and the balance part is recovered to produce regenerated catalyst precursor.

EFFECT: reduction of power inputs and metal consumption of equipment along with the provision for high yield of light fractions.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel for jet engines from kerosene stock. Proposed method comprises hydrofining of kerosene stock with freezing point interval of 163-302°C (325-575°F) over hydrofining catalyst under conditions of hydrofining. This allows getting hydrofined kerosene stock. Besides, it includes dewaxing of, in fact, all hydrofined kerosene stock over catalyst including 1-D molecular sieve with ten rings under conditions of dewaxing to get water-dewaxed kerosene stock. Also, it includes fractionating of water-dewaxed kerosene stock to get fuel for jet engines.

EFFECT: higher yield, better properties.

10 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: initial hydrocarbon raw material is initially separated and first part of initial raw material is introduced into first zone of dehydration reaction, which functions without oxidation re-heating, and obtained as a result output flow is introduced into second zone of dehydration reaction, which functions without oxidation re-heating. Obtained as a result output flow from second zone of dehydration reaction, together with second part of initial raw material is introduced into third zone of dehydration reaction, which functions with oxidation re-heating.

EFFECT: increased method productivity.

10 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to method of production of high-octane petrol and includes fractionation of hydrotreated naphtha into light and heave fractions; light naphtha isomerisation and heavy naphtha reforming in presence of platinum-containing catalyst with delivery of excessive hydrogen from reforming to isomerisation. Isomerisation is carried out with sulfate-zirconia catalyst with subsequent separation of isomerisate into three fractions: low-boiling fraction, medium fraction containing n-hexane and methylpenthanes and high-boiling fraction; medium fraction is recirculated to isomerisation raw material. By rectification from reformate light and heavy reforming fractions are obtained; heavy fraction is mixed with low- and high-boiling fractions of isomerisate with production of the target product while light fraction of reforming boiling away up to 85-95°C is subjected to hydroisomerisation at 250-300°C in presence of platinum-containing catalyst and obtained hydroisomerisate is delivered to be mixed with isomerisate.

EFFECT: reduction of benzole and aromatic hydrocarbons content in compliance with requirements to modern types of petrol with preservation of integration for reforming and isomerisation processes.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power mechanical engineering and can be used in power units with the liquid metal heat carrier. The mass-transfer apparatus contains the housing and the flowing reactionary camera placed in it filled with the solid-phase granulated means of oxidation, the electric heater located in the reactionary camera. The housing of the device is fitted with the storage of the spare solid-phase granulated means of oxidation located below the reactionary camera and executed designed as the glass attached to the reactionary camera with the bottom.

EFFECT: increase of time of operation of the mass-transfer apparatus.

19 cl, 1 dwg

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