Multi-junction semiconductor solar cell
SUBSTANCE: solar cell comprises a substrate on which there are at least two double-layer components with p-n junctions between the layers, interfaced with each other by at least two intermediate layers. The layers of the double-layer components and intermediate layers are made of a quaternary solid solution of AlInGaN. The intermediate layers and the interfaced fragments of the solar cell have the same band-gap. The double-layer components with p-n junctions between the layers and the intermediate layers interfaced therewith have the same lattice constant. The lattice constant is different in the intermediate layers. In the layers of the double-layer components with p-n junctions, the band-gap is different with a fixed value of the lattice constant.
EFFECT: invention improves the efficiency of converting solar radiation.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl
The invention relates to semiconductor devices, light-sensitive, designed to convert light into electrical energy, in particular to mnogoprohodnym solar elements.
Known mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell (Patent RU №2376679 "Semiconductor mnogoprokhodnyj solar cell", Appl. 16.09.2008, publ. 20.12.2009, IPC: H01L 31/042) comprising a substrate made of AlN, which contains at least two conjugate with each other is made of solid solutions of metals of the third group (in particular, In1-xGaxN) two-layer components, with p-n junctions between layers. Two-layer components are paired with each other intermediate layers, in particular tunneling transitions. The width of the forbidden zone dual-layer component increases in the direction towards the source of solar energy. Mnogoprokhodnyj solar cell further comprises a two-layer component made of In1-x-yGaxAlyN p-n-p junction between layers, placed at the source of solar energy, coupled with adjacent double-layer component of In1-xGaxN tunneling through junction or ohmic contact.
Known solar cell provides the possibility of expanding the range of use of the ultraviolet end of the spectrum, blah�of odara which significantly increases the efficiency of the solar cell as a whole.
However, such a solar cell has a poor morphology of the layers caused by the difference of the parameters of their crystal lattice, which is accompanied by a high level of threading dislocation density in the layers. The mismatch in the lattice constant is a consequence of the use in combination with AlN substrate IngaN ternary compounds, which leads to the formation of defects and limits the efficiency of the solar cell.
Also known semiconductor mnogoprokhodnyj a solar cell comprising a substrate, containing at least two double-layered component with p-n junctions between layers made from solid solutions of nitrides of metals of the third group, coupled between an intermediate layer, with the width of the forbidden zone of the component increases in the direction towards the surface that is intended for irradiation of solar energy (US Patent No. 7217882 "Broad spectrum solar cell", filled: May 27, 2003, published May 15, 2007, IPC: H01L 31/00) - prototype.
Known solar cell provides a consistent conversion of solar radiation. Part of the radiation with photon energies equal to or exceeding the width of the forbidden zone, is absorbed and generates electron-hole pair. Radiation with a photon energy less than the bandgap width passes freely through the upper layers of the component and conversion�ized into electrical energy in components located farther from the source of solar energy. The variation of the band gap is achieved by varying the composition of the epitaxial layer In1-xGaxN.
In known solar cell structure of layers of two-layer components with p-n transition between the layers is selected based on the need to ensure the conversion of the entire spectrum of solar radiation. The composition of each layer is selected so as to provide the necessary width of the forbidden zone, while not taken into account that the variation of the composition of the layers changes the value of the constant of the crystal lattice, while the misalignment of permanent gratings epitaxial layers causes the layers of the defects, and, consequently, reduce the efficiency of the solar cell.
In the cases above, the width of the forbidden zone within each bilayer component remains fixed, resulting in decreased efficiency of conversion of solar radiation into electric current, effectively absorbed because only photons with energy corresponding to the band gap of a two-layer component. The photons with energy exceeding the gap width of a two-layer component, give rise to carriers with excess kinetic energy in the conduction band. Due to�of tolknoveniya with the atoms of the crystal lattice, the electrons quickly lose that energy and "sink to the bottom of the conduction band". This process is called thermalization of carriers, in which all the excess energy of the carriers is lost in heating of the crystal lattice and does not give contribution to the produced solar cell energy. Losses associated with this process are among the main factors limiting the efficiency of solar energy conversion.
The present invention is to improve the efficiency of conversion of solar radiation into electrical energy.
The problem is solved due to the fact that in mnogoprohodnym semiconductor solar cell comprising a substrate, containing at least two double-layered component with p-n junctions between layers made from solid solutions of nitrides of metals of the third group, coupled between the intermediate layers, the width of the forbidden zone of the component increases in the direction towards the surface intended for exposure to solar energy, the layers of two-layer components and the intermediate layers are made of Quaternary solid solution AlInGaN, between the substrate and the two-layer component with p-n-p junction between layers and each pair of two-layer components with p-n transitions between layers are placed, at least two intermediate layers, the intermediate layers and associated fragments solar cells back�HN with the same value of the width of the forbidden zone, two-layer components with p-n junctions between layers and associated intermediate layers formed with the same value of the lattice constant, conjugate between layers two-layer components with p-n transitions between layers are made with different values of the band gap, and coupled between the intermediate layers with different values of the lattice constant.
The substrate mnogovershinnoe semiconductor solar cell may be formed from a conductive material, in particular silicon carbide.
It is also advisable to intermediate layers between two-layer components were made in the form of tunnelling.
Losses associated with thermalization in the proposed technical solution, is almost completely eliminated due to the fact that the width of the forbidden zone within each bilayer component gradually increases toward the radiation source, which ensures the absorption of radiation in a wide range of wavelengths (energies). In addition, when the gradient variation of the band gap lattice constant does not change inside a two-layered component. This leads to a significant reduction of defect formation in the heterostructure solar cell of the proposed design compared with the same het�restructure solar cells, in which the lattice constant inside the bilayer of the components is not fixed. In the proposed heterostructure solar cell in each of the intermediate layers, combining a two-layer components, the lattice constant is changed, because it is necessary to perform in a nearby absorbing transition conditions of the gradient change in the width of the forbidden zone at a fixed value of the lattice constant. Thus in the intermediate layer provides a smooth change of the lattice constant to reduce defect formation in epitaxial layers of the solar cell.
The proposed mnogoprohodnym solar cell layers two-layer components and the intermediate layers are made of four-component solid solution of AlxInyGa1-x-yN (x≥0, y≥0, x+y≤1), since only the use of layers of solid solution helps to ensure the variation of the band gap at a fixed value of the lattice constant and the change in lattice constant with a fixed value for the width of the forbidden zone. In the case of any ternary solid solution of nitrides of metals of the third group, the variation of the band gap is inevitably accompanied by a change in the lattice constant and the change in lattice constant by changing the width of the forbidden zone.
Execution �tlojki of conductive material provides the possibility of placing one of the contacts from the side of the substrate, and another on the top layer. This placement of the contacts improves the current spreading throughout the structure of the solar cell that also has a positive impact on the efficiency of conversion of solar energy into electrical energy.
Compared to other conductive materials that can be used as the substrate material, silicon carbide is characterized by properties similar to the properties of nitride materials.
The implementation of intermediate layers located between a two-layer components in the form of tunnelling provides a better pairing two-layer components according to electrical parameters. It was established experimentally that the sequence characteristics of the layers inherent in the present invention, can best be realized in the case of performing the intermediate layer in the form of tunnelling.
The invention is illustrated by drawings - Mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell.
According to the invention mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell includes a substrate 1, on which is placed a two-layer components 2, 3 and 4 with p-n junctions 5, 6 and 7 between the layers. The substrate with the adjacent two-layer component are paired with each other by two intermediate layers 10 and the two-layer components interfaced between �Wallpaper of intermediate layers, forming a tunneling transitions 8 and 9.
Mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell was made entirely within a single epitaxial process.
Mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell made in accordance with the present invention, operates as follows:
Irradiation mnogovershinnoe semiconductor solar cell from the side of the substrate 1.
The two-layer surface component 2 incident solar radiation. Part of the photons with energy Eg>the 2.48 eV is absorbed by a double layer 2 component and causes the generation of electron-hole pairs. The separation of electrons and holes is achieved by the electric field of the p-n junction between layers of the component 2. Photons with an energy of 1.9 eV≤Eg≤2,48 eV is absorbed by a two-layer component 3, and photons with energy Eg≤1.9 eV - bilayer component 4, while in a two-layer components 3 and 4, as well as in a two-layer component 2, the generation of electron-hole pairs and the separation of electrons and holes. The relationship between transitions with different values of the band gap tunnel is provided with passages 8, 9. The connection between the substrate and the adjacent two-layered component secured intermediate layers 10.
When the solar cell is practically absent p�Teri, associated with thermalization process, since for a photon with a given energy in a solar cell has a sublayer having the same energy as the photon, the result of which will lead to the absorption of a photon without releasing excess energy.
Samples of solar cells made in accordance with the present invention, were manufactured using chloride-hydride epitaxy (HVPE).
Table 1 presents the structure of samples of solar cells (the compositions of the layers and thickness of layers).
|The structure of a solar cell|
|Layers of the solar cell||The material of the layer||Bandgap and lattice constant of the layer||The thickness of the layer|
|Two-layer component with p-n-transition||AlInGaN||1,5≤Eg<1.9 eV, a=a 3.7 Å||200 nm + 200 nm|
|Intermediate layers forming the tunnel junction||AlInGaN||3,5≤a≤a 3.7 Å, Eg=1.9 eV||30 nm + 30 nm|
|Two�Loen component with p-n-transition||AlInGaN||1,9≤Eg≤2,48 eV, a=3.5 Å||200 nm + 200 nm|
|Intermediate layers forming the tunnel junction||AlInGaN||3,26≤a≤3.5 Å, Eg=2,48 eV||30 nm + 30 nm|
|Two-layer component with p-n-transition||AlInGaN||2,48≤Eg≤3,2 eV, a=3,26 Å||200 nm + 200 nm|
|Intermediate layers||AlInGaN||3,18≤a≤3,26 Å, Eg=3.2 eV||100 nm + 100 nm|
Eg- bandgap (eV) and lattice constant (Å).
The range of changes in the composition (x, y) for each layer of AlxInyGa1-x-yN is determined from the following relationships:
Eg=x·Eg(AlN)+y·Eg(InN)+(1-x-y)·Eg(GaN)-xy-C12-x(1-x-y)·C13-y(1-x-y)·C23where Eg(AlN), Eg(InN), Eg(GaN) - parameters of the band gap of AlN, InN, GaN, respectively, C12, C13, C23- parameters sagging bandgap (eV) for solid solutions AlIn
a=a(AlN)·x+a(InN)·y+a(GaN)·(1-x-y) where a(AlN), a(InN), a(GaN) - parameters of the crystal lattice of AlN, InN, GaN, respectively.
Evaluation of the efficiency of experimental samples of the solar cells was carried out using the measuring parameters of solar cells ST-1000 company TELECOM-STV (Russia).
Table 2 presents the main characteristics of the installation for measurement of samples of solar cells.
|Characteristics of the installation to change parameters of the samples of the solar cells|
|The type and brand of the device||Main features|
|Measuring the parameters of solar cells ST-1000 company TELECOM-STV (Russia)||1. Field uniform illumination and non-uniformity of ±1%: 150×150 mm|
|2. Range of illumination: AM 1.5, class B (IEC 904-9)|
|3. The range of measured voltages: -2,4 ÷ +2,4 V|
|4. Measurement error voltages for the range of values of idling: 0.5 to 1.0 V±1%|
|5. The measurement resolution voltage: 0.3 mV|
|6. Current measuring range: -8,0 - +8.0 A|
|7. The uncertainty of current measurement for the range of values of short circuit: 4÷8±1%|
|8. The pulse duration of illumination: less than 10 MS|
|9. The measurement resolution temperature: 0.2°C|
Measurements were conducted of the parameters of the experimental samples under standard measuring conditions (ambient temperature 16÷26°C, relative humidity not more than 85%, atmospheric pressure of 750±50 mm Hg.St.).
The efficiency of specimens with concentrators of solar radiation of AM 1.5 Global was 50%±5%.
1. Mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell comprising a substrate, containing at least two double-layered component with p-n junctions between layers made from solid solutions of nitrides of metals of the third group, coupled between an intermediate layer, with the width of the forbidden zone of the component increases in the direction towards the surface that is intended for irradiation by solar energy, characterized in that the layers of two-layer components and the intermediate layers are made of Quaternary solid solution AlInGaN, between the substrate and the two-layer component with p-n-p junction between layers and each pair of two-layer components p-n junctions between layers placed, at least two intermediate layers, the intermediate layers and associated fragments of a solar cell formed with the same width of the forbidden zone, dual-layer components with p-n junctions between layers and associated intermediate layers formed with the same value of the lattice constant, conjugate between layers two-layer components with p-n transitions between layers are made with different values of the band gap, and coupled between the intermediate layers with different values of the lattice constant.
2. Mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the substrate is made of conductive material.
3. Mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell according to claim.1 and 2, characterized in that the substrate is made of silicon carbide.
4. Mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the intermediate layers located between two layered components, made in the form of tunnelling.
SUBSTANCE: offered invention "Monolithic rapid coordinate detector of ionising particles" relates to semiconductor coordinate detectors of ionizing particles. The goals are achieved at the expense of the use of original circuit of the detector, where bipolar transistors, connected in a circuit with common collector, also due to functionally integrated monolithic design of the detector where the semiconductor substrate, generating the charge carriers, simultaneously appears to be a common collector area of bipolar structures of transistors.
EFFECT: purpose of invention is increase of speed and manufacturability of coordinate detector, that is especially important for creation of new generation of "detectors of trace neutrons" for detection of explosive substances, X-ray scanners for medical, customs and other applications characterised by higher quality of object images, compared with known analogues.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to physics and semiconductor device engineering, particularly crystalline silicon-based solar cells. The crystalline silicon-based solar cell consists of p- and n-type conductivity regions, electrodes for the p and n regions, wherein according to the invention, a diffraction grating is formed on the front surface of the crystal, said diffraction grating having a period equal to the wavelength of radiation quanta, the energy of which is equal to the band gap of the crystal.
EFFECT: invention reduces the absorption depth of solar radiation quanta, reduces optical and electrical losses and increases efficiency of conversion and enables to produce ultra-thin crystalline solar cells.
SUBSTANCE: system of agricultural field microclimate control comprises wind-protective and snow-retaining elements located on the edge of the field, a water reservoir made along the edge of the field from the side of most probable entry of dry wind. On opposite sides of the water reservoir along the field the vertical blinds are placed with the height of at least half the width of the water reservoir, mounted with the ability of rotation about the vertical axis and inclination in the vertical plane. The bottom of the water reservoir can be coated with impervious material, the water sprayers can be mounted along the water reservoir, and the sources of energy for the water sprayers the system can be provided with one or more wind-driven power-plants and solar batteries.
EFFECT: increase in the degree of protection of the field due to reducing the rate and temperature of dry wind and increase in moisture content of the surface air layer, as well as the reduction of energy consumption through the use of natural energy sources.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a LED module. A module consists of several LEDs installed on a printed circuit board with the LEDs having respectively the so-called layup with a lens by which the respective LED extends beyond the printed circuit board plane, the LEDs are connected respectively with an element for the input of optical radiation of a light guide body and the respective luminous flux of matched LEDs is emitted outside from the LED module by means of respectively matched element for luminous flux input. At least one passive LED which can be activated if one of LEDs fails is provided on the printed circuit board for LEDs in order to achieve homogeneous appearance. The luminous flux emitted by these passive LEDs enters the luminous flux input element of the respective LED and is emitted outside by the luminous flux input element.
EFFECT: development of a LED module consisting of several LEDs set on a printed circuit board, failure of some LEDs is not seen from outside due to the "input" of the luminous flux, emitted by the passive LED, into the luminous flux input element of the failed LED.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor devices, particularly polymer solar cells. Disclosed is a polymer solar cell having, arranged in series: a supporting base in the form of a transparent polymer photoluminescent substrate, a transparent anode layer, a photoelectrically active layer and a metal cathode layer, wherein the polymer photoluminescent substrate consists of an optically transparent polymer containing a luminophore, selected from luminophores of general formula (I), where R is a substitute selected from: linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups; linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one oxygen atom; linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one sulphur atom; branched C3-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one silicon atom; C2-C20 alkenyl groups; Ar denotes identical or different arylene or heteroarylene radicals selected from: substituted or unsubstituted thienyl-2,5-diiyl, substituted or unsubstituted phenyl-1,4-diiyl, substituted or unsubstituted 1,3-oxazole-2,5-diiyl, substituted fluorene-4,4'-diiyl, substituted cyclopentadithiophene-2,7-diiyl; Q denotes a radical from said series for Ar; X denotes at least one radical selected from said series for Ar and/or a radical selected from: 2,1,3-benzothiodiazole-4,7-diiyl, anthracene-9,10-diiyl, 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2,5-diiyl, 1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-3,5-diiyl, perylene-3,10-diiyl; L equals 1 or 3 or 7; n is an integer from 2 to 4; m is an integer from 1 to 3; k is an integer from 1 to 3.
EFFECT: high efficiency and simple technique of producing flexible polymer solar cells.
8 cl, 7 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for metrological determination of the internal quantum efficiency of a semiconductor photodiode based on the current-voltage characteristic thereof. The oxide biasing method is the known method of calibrating photodiodes. The efficiency of collecting charges for photocurrent generated in a p+ region needs to be determined in order to describe silicon p+nn+photodiodes. The primary reason for losses in the frontal region is the high rate of electron-hole recombination. This effect is intensified by the presence of positively charged ions which result in a surface electric field. The oxide biasing method is widely used to determine the extent of this effect on the internal quantum efficiency of a diode. The advantage of this method is direct measurement of saturation photocurrent and calculating internal quantum efficiency therefrom. However, this method has a shortcoming which lies in the degradation of the working surface of the semiconductor under the effect of a high negative voltage applied to the surface. The aim of this invention is to provide a method of determining quantum efficiency of a photodiode, which is based on comparing experimentally measured current-voltage characteristics thereof with theoretically calculated characteristics. This aim is achieved by recording to current-voltage characteristics of a photodiode at two different power values of incident laser radiation for which only the ratio is known. Said characteristics are then compared using a developed calculation procedure.
EFFECT: simple calibration procedure while maintaining accuracy characteristics of the photodiode.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optoelectronic devices. The semiconductor photoelectric generator has a transparent protective coating on a working surface on which radiation is incident and photoconverter sections optically connected by a transparent sealant with the protective coating. The photoconverter sections are inclined towards the working surface at an angle φ=5-50°. Flat mirror reflectors are mounted between the photoconverter sections with an angle of inclination towards the working surface of the generator of ψ=5-50°. The mirror reflectors and the photoconverter sections are in form of a periodic saw-tooth corner structure. The photoconverter sections have a double-sided working surface and the mirror reflectors have a double-sided reflecting surface.
EFFECT: high illumination and electric power per unit surface area of the photoconverters.
6 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: hybrid photosensitive circuit includes a diamond matrix photodetector, indium columns and a silicon multiplexer with sensitive sites arranged thereon in a staggered manner in form of a rectangular matrix and the number of which is equal to the number of indium columns. The matrix photodetector includes a diamond plate and an upper flat electrode lying thereon, as well as lower electrodes of sensitive elements of the matrix photodetector, the number of which is equal to the number of indium columns lying under the diamond plate. On the lower side of the diamond plate there are boron-doped sites arranged in a staggered manner; upper contact surfaces of odd or even lower electrodes are galvanically connected to the lower surface of the diamond plate, and the upper contact surfaces of the odd or even lower electrodes are galvanically connected the boron-doped sites. Lower contact surfaces of lower electrodes are galvanically connected through indium columns to sensitive elements of the silicon multiplexer.
EFFECT: expanding the detected radiation range 75-fold owing to simultaneous recording of the image in the ultraviolet and infrared spectrum.
SUBSTANCE: method for analogue-to-digital conversion of optical radiation involves converting the radiation into photocurrent; integrating the photocurrent over the exposure time into an electric charge which changes the initial charge input before exposure; converting the resultant charge into signal voltage; comparing the signal voltage with a reference voltage and switching the comparator as the comparison result; generating binary signals, modulated on the time of switching relative the initial time; generating digital codes based thereon; storing the digital codes and successively sending said codes to outputs, wherein the initial charge is input into the switched conductivity diode by applying a voltage corresponding to the initial charge in the forward direction at the rate of change which causes injection of minority carriers, which does not exceed the level of triggering the switching diode into the conducting state, and the reference voltage applied is the corresponding sampling voltage at a variation rate sufficiently high to cause injection of minority carriers, needed for triggering thereof upon reaching voltage corresponding to the resultant charge, with given accuracy. The device which realises this method has one or more photosensitive cells connected to address and signal lines, each cell having series-connected photodetector, initial charge input circuit, charge converter for converting the charge generated by the photodetector signal, in addition to the initial charge, into output voltage of the photodetector, a comparator which converts the difference between the output voltage of the photodetector and a reference voltage into a digital cell signal, a circuit for reading the digital cell signal through address and signal lines, a circuit for generating cell signal codes, random access memory for storing digital codes, a circuit for reading cell signal digital codes on one or more outputs of the photodetector. In a cell, the photodetector, the initial charge input circuit, the charge converter and comparator are in form of a tunnel switching electrode in a MIS (metal, insulator, semiconductor) structure, one of the leads of which is connected to the address line and the other to the signal line.
EFFECT: high spatial resolution with high equivalent quantum efficiency.
9 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: light-emitting module has a semiconductor light-emitting device and a thermal switch which is designed to protect the light-emitting device from overheating. At high temperature the junction of the device may reach a critical level causing catastrophic breakdown of the device. According to the invention, the thermal switch is designed to shunt the semiconductor light-emitting device. This is especially advantageous since the thermal protection offered by the switch correlates directly to the temperature of the device in operating conditions.
EFFECT: light-emitting module provides thermal protection which is controlled and adapted to junction temperature of the semiconductor light-emitting device.
8 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: electronic engineering; semiconductor lasers for data recording, reading, and processing.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method designed to generate coherent electromagnetic radiation and width of its spectral line for mentioned lasers includes introduction of metal or superconductor nanoparticles in its system of hyperfine semiconductor layers and excitation of electrical dipole vibrations using electrons of mentioned nanoparticles.
EFFECT: greatly reduced dimensions of lasers.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: computer vision engineering; photodetectors, thermal imagers, infrared radiometers, and various sensors of computerized control devices.
SUBSTANCE: novelty in proposed device is that resistive photosensors are made of heteroepitaxial layers of different forbidden gap. Circuit set up of compensating charge capacitor connected to its potential recovery switch is connected to each integrating capacitor and through series-connected compensation addressing switch and feedback switch, to circuit transferring charge portion from charge compensating capacitor to integrating capacitor. Connected to each amplifier integrating capacitor is comparator whose output is connected to gate electrode of feedback switch and to complementing input of counter-register each of whose bits is connected to array of memory locations controlled by circuit affording exchange of addresses between counters and memory, data write and read buses of data on their transfer from counter to memory and vice versa. Memory locations are connected to counter-register bits. Device has memory readout addressing circuit and multiplexed readout buses for transferring digital data to digital outputs.
EFFECT: enhanced sensitivity and dynamic range.
17 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed invention is concerned with devices and apparatuses incorporating functional components forming planar set wherein functional components are addressing through first electrode grid with flat strip electrodes contacting one end of functional components and through second electrode grid they are contacting similar electrodes positioned perpendicular to electrodes of first electrode grid and brought in contact with opposite end of functional component. In this way, so-called matrix-addressed device is formed. Proposed optoelectronic device has functional medium in the form of active material possessing optoelectronic properties and inserted in the form of solid layer between first and second electrode grids EG1 and EG2, each incorporating parallel strip electrodes 1 and 2. Electrodes 2 of second electrode grid EG2 are positioned at certain angle to electrodes 1 of first electrode grid EG1; functional components 5 are formed in three-dimensional areas of active material 3 corresponding to relative superposition of electrodes 1 of first electrode grid EG1 and electrodes 2 of second electrode grid EG2 contacting active material 3 to organize set of matrix-addressed functional components. These functional components correspond to optically active pixels 5 of display or pixels 5 of photodetector. Electrodes 1 and 2 are disposed in each of electrode grids EG1 and EG2 in the form of dense parallel configuration and are insulated from each other by means of thin film 6 whose thickness amounts only to a fraction of electrode width. As a result, either display characterized in high surface brightness and high resolving power or photodetector of high-sensitivity and high-resolving power can be produced.
EFFECT: enhanced volumetric efficiency of pixels in active material amounting to that close to unity and, hence, enhanced resolving power.
9 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: said utility invention relates to thermal photoreceivers for the detection of monochromatic radiation in the far infrared (IR) range and determining the angle of arrival of that radiation. The development may be used in spectrometric and astronomical instruments, special purpose equipment, and communication equipment. The metallic bolometer contains a non-transparent metallic film on an optical heat-insulating substrate placed in a vacuum container with a transparent window. A dielectric layer of a certain thickness is applied on the film surface. The film surface facing the window has a corrugated section illuminated with the radiation being detected; the section length is equal to the propagation length of the surface electromagnetic wave excited in the film. The corrugation period is calculated using a certain formula.
EFFECT: invention provides increase of device selectivity and increase of long-wavelength limit of operating range.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to optoelectronics and interferometry and intended for measurement of spatial distribution of light intensity in interference field formed by counter luminous fluxes. Quadrature photo-receiving device contains photodetector including four interferentially sensitive photoelectric element, two of which are reference ones. Difference of optical distances from the first photoelectric element to the plane that is perpendicular to measured luminous flux and that limits optically distant surface of photodetector for the first photoelectric element and from i-photoelectric element to this plane is calculated from the proposed formula, signals from odd photoelectric elements of photodetector being supplied to appropriate inlets of the first differential amplifier, and signals from even photoelectric elements of photodetector to appropriate inlets of the second differential amplifier.
EFFECT: increase in ratio signal/noise of quadrature photodetector, reduction of interference caused by permanent component of luminous flux (rather than by interferential component), reduction of interference caused by interferential component of luminous flux on lengths of waves that are different from length of registered radiation wave.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to remote transfer and conversion of super-high-frequency energy into DC electrical power. The proposed method consists in fitting an aluminium foil enclosure on over the entire surface of the vehicle airframe skin. The super-high-frequency converter is made in a material representing a mix of two chemical solid-state components with grain size not over 30 to 50 microns, taken in equal proportion but different atomic numbers, and forming, when combined, a dipole solid-state matrix. Note that the said bi-component mix is applied uniformly onto the said skin enclosure, the like poles of the dipole matrix being combined and connected to appropriate terminals of the vehicle flight control components.
EFFECT: higher efficiency power supply.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to remote transfer and conversion of super-high-frequency energy into DC electrical power. The device incorporates an aluminium foil enclosure on over the entire surface of the vehicle airframe dielectric skin. The super-high-frequency converter is made in a material representing a mix of two chemical solid-state components with grain size not over 30 to 50 microns, taken in equal proportion but different atomic numbers, and forming, when combined, a dipole solid-state matrix. Note that the said bi-component mix is applied uniformly onto the said skin enclosure, the like poles of the dipole matrix being combined and connected to appropriate terminals of the vehicle flight control components.
EFFECT: higher efficiency power supply.
FIELD: physics, semiconductors.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of semiconductor equipment and electronics. Method for measurement of photoferromagnetic effect in magnetic semiconductors consists in measurement of electromotive force that occurs in the secondary winding of transformer, which is wound on adjacent section of core from magnetic semiconductor in the form of doubled ring. The primary winding of transformer represents two coils wound on nonadjacent sides of doubled ring symmetrically relative to plane of symmetry that separates core in two rings. As a result of unbalance, in sinusoidal signals of magnetic flows directed and same in value that penetrate the secondary winding that are serially and antiphase-connected to outlet of generator, due to illumination of strictly half of core on one side from mentioned plane of symmetry, in this winding electromotive force occurs that is proportional to variation of magnetic permeability under light effect.
EFFECT: provision of possibility to perform measurements of photoferromagnetic effect amplitude in more sensitive scales of metering instruments.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to energy converters of electromagnetic waves and can be used to obtain electrical energy. Converter of electromagnetic emissions contains N>1, where N - is an integer, regions with similar conductivity and one region with opposite conductivity with the formation of N of separate p-n junctions. The first electrode fits closely to each of the N regions with similar conductivity, and the second electrode - to the specified region with opposite conductivity. Converter according to the invention is capable to convert not only the usual frequency bands of electromagnetic waves (optical range), but also the wider operational frequencies bands of electromagnetic waves with operational provisions of the converter any time of the day. Converter on the invention is also characterised by high power and efficiency with simultaneous guarantee of high accuracy and stability of the output characteristic, capable of working even in conditions of significant temperature falls.
EFFECT: obtaining a converter with high power and efficiency with simultaneous guarantee of high accuracy and stability of the output characteristic, capable of working even in conditions of significant temperature falls.
17 cl, 21 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: receiver generates the electric signal proportional to energy of an electromagnetic wave, and is intended for registration of electromagnetic emission, and also can be used for electric power generation. The receiver consists of a working environment with free charged particles and where the standing electromagnetic wave actuates, and also the electrodes located definitely in the working environment or on its surface. Such construction of the receiver allows to reduce noise and to eliminate restrictions on length of a wave of registered emanation, to expand a high bound of a temperature range of operation, and also to expand an arsenal of the means intended for registration of electromagnetic emission.
EFFECT: possibility to reduce noise and to eliminate restrictions on length of a wave of registered emission, to expand high bound of a temperature range of operation, and also to expand an arsenal of the means intended for registration of electromagnetic emission.