Multi-junction semiconductor solar cell

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: solar cell comprises a substrate on which there are at least two double-layer components with p-n junctions between the layers, interfaced with each other by at least two intermediate layers. The layers of the double-layer components and intermediate layers are made of a quaternary solid solution of AlInGaN. The intermediate layers and the interfaced fragments of the solar cell have the same band-gap. The double-layer components with p-n junctions between the layers and the intermediate layers interfaced therewith have the same lattice constant. The lattice constant is different in the intermediate layers. In the layers of the double-layer components with p-n junctions, the band-gap is different with a fixed value of the lattice constant.

EFFECT: invention improves the efficiency of converting solar radiation.

4 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to semiconductor devices, light-sensitive, designed to convert light into electrical energy, in particular to mnogoprohodnym solar elements.

Known mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell (Patent RU №2376679 "Semiconductor mnogoprokhodnyj solar cell", Appl. 16.09.2008, publ. 20.12.2009, IPC: H01L 31/042) comprising a substrate made of AlN, which contains at least two conjugate with each other is made of solid solutions of metals of the third group (in particular, In1-xGaxN) two-layer components, with p-n junctions between layers. Two-layer components are paired with each other intermediate layers, in particular tunneling transitions. The width of the forbidden zone dual-layer component increases in the direction towards the source of solar energy. Mnogoprokhodnyj solar cell further comprises a two-layer component made of In1-x-yGaxAlyN p-n-p junction between layers, placed at the source of solar energy, coupled with adjacent double-layer component of In1-xGaxN tunneling through junction or ohmic contact.

Known solar cell provides the possibility of expanding the range of use of the ultraviolet end of the spectrum, blah�of odara which significantly increases the efficiency of the solar cell as a whole.

However, such a solar cell has a poor morphology of the layers caused by the difference of the parameters of their crystal lattice, which is accompanied by a high level of threading dislocation density in the layers. The mismatch in the lattice constant is a consequence of the use in combination with AlN substrate IngaN ternary compounds, which leads to the formation of defects and limits the efficiency of the solar cell.

Also known semiconductor mnogoprokhodnyj a solar cell comprising a substrate, containing at least two double-layered component with p-n junctions between layers made from solid solutions of nitrides of metals of the third group, coupled between an intermediate layer, with the width of the forbidden zone of the component increases in the direction towards the surface that is intended for irradiation of solar energy (US Patent No. 7217882 "Broad spectrum solar cell", filled: May 27, 2003, published May 15, 2007, IPC: H01L 31/00) - prototype.

Known solar cell provides a consistent conversion of solar radiation. Part of the radiation with photon energies equal to or exceeding the width of the forbidden zone, is absorbed and generates electron-hole pair. Radiation with a photon energy less than the bandgap width passes freely through the upper layers of the component and conversion�ized into electrical energy in components located farther from the source of solar energy. The variation of the band gap is achieved by varying the composition of the epitaxial layer In1-xGaxN.

In known solar cell structure of layers of two-layer components with p-n transition between the layers is selected based on the need to ensure the conversion of the entire spectrum of solar radiation. The composition of each layer is selected so as to provide the necessary width of the forbidden zone, while not taken into account that the variation of the composition of the layers changes the value of the constant of the crystal lattice, while the misalignment of permanent gratings epitaxial layers causes the layers of the defects, and, consequently, reduce the efficiency of the solar cell.

In the cases above, the width of the forbidden zone within each bilayer component remains fixed, resulting in decreased efficiency of conversion of solar radiation into electric current, effectively absorbed because only photons with energy corresponding to the band gap of a two-layer component. The photons with energy exceeding the gap width of a two-layer component, give rise to carriers with excess kinetic energy in the conduction band. Due to�of tolknoveniya with the atoms of the crystal lattice, the electrons quickly lose that energy and "sink to the bottom of the conduction band". This process is called thermalization of carriers, in which all the excess energy of the carriers is lost in heating of the crystal lattice and does not give contribution to the produced solar cell energy. Losses associated with this process are among the main factors limiting the efficiency of solar energy conversion.

The present invention is to improve the efficiency of conversion of solar radiation into electrical energy.

The problem is solved due to the fact that in mnogoprohodnym semiconductor solar cell comprising a substrate, containing at least two double-layered component with p-n junctions between layers made from solid solutions of nitrides of metals of the third group, coupled between the intermediate layers, the width of the forbidden zone of the component increases in the direction towards the surface intended for exposure to solar energy, the layers of two-layer components and the intermediate layers are made of Quaternary solid solution AlInGaN, between the substrate and the two-layer component with p-n-p junction between layers and each pair of two-layer components with p-n transitions between layers are placed, at least two intermediate layers, the intermediate layers and associated fragments solar cells back�HN with the same value of the width of the forbidden zone, two-layer components with p-n junctions between layers and associated intermediate layers formed with the same value of the lattice constant, conjugate between layers two-layer components with p-n transitions between layers are made with different values of the band gap, and coupled between the intermediate layers with different values of the lattice constant.

The substrate mnogovershinnoe semiconductor solar cell may be formed from a conductive material, in particular silicon carbide.

It is also advisable to intermediate layers between two-layer components were made in the form of tunnelling.

Losses associated with thermalization in the proposed technical solution, is almost completely eliminated due to the fact that the width of the forbidden zone within each bilayer component gradually increases toward the radiation source, which ensures the absorption of radiation in a wide range of wavelengths (energies). In addition, when the gradient variation of the band gap lattice constant does not change inside a two-layered component. This leads to a significant reduction of defect formation in the heterostructure solar cell of the proposed design compared with the same het�restructure solar cells, in which the lattice constant inside the bilayer of the components is not fixed. In the proposed heterostructure solar cell in each of the intermediate layers, combining a two-layer components, the lattice constant is changed, because it is necessary to perform in a nearby absorbing transition conditions of the gradient change in the width of the forbidden zone at a fixed value of the lattice constant. Thus in the intermediate layer provides a smooth change of the lattice constant to reduce defect formation in epitaxial layers of the solar cell.

The proposed mnogoprohodnym solar cell layers two-layer components and the intermediate layers are made of four-component solid solution of AlxInyGa1-x-yN (x≥0, y≥0, x+y≤1), since only the use of layers of solid solution helps to ensure the variation of the band gap at a fixed value of the lattice constant and the change in lattice constant with a fixed value for the width of the forbidden zone. In the case of any ternary solid solution of nitrides of metals of the third group, the variation of the band gap is inevitably accompanied by a change in the lattice constant and the change in lattice constant by changing the width of the forbidden zone.

Execution �tlojki of conductive material provides the possibility of placing one of the contacts from the side of the substrate, and another on the top layer. This placement of the contacts improves the current spreading throughout the structure of the solar cell that also has a positive impact on the efficiency of conversion of solar energy into electrical energy.

Compared to other conductive materials that can be used as the substrate material, silicon carbide is characterized by properties similar to the properties of nitride materials.

The implementation of intermediate layers located between a two-layer components in the form of tunnelling provides a better pairing two-layer components according to electrical parameters. It was established experimentally that the sequence characteristics of the layers inherent in the present invention, can best be realized in the case of performing the intermediate layer in the form of tunnelling.

The invention is illustrated by drawings - Mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell.

According to the invention mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell includes a substrate 1, on which is placed a two-layer components 2, 3 and 4 with p-n junctions 5, 6 and 7 between the layers. The substrate with the adjacent two-layer component are paired with each other by two intermediate layers 10 and the two-layer components interfaced between �Wallpaper of intermediate layers, forming a tunneling transitions 8 and 9.

Mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell was made entirely within a single epitaxial process.

Mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell made in accordance with the present invention, operates as follows:

Irradiation mnogovershinnoe semiconductor solar cell from the side of the substrate 1.

The two-layer surface component 2 incident solar radiation. Part of the photons with energy Eg>the 2.48 eV is absorbed by a double layer 2 component and causes the generation of electron-hole pairs. The separation of electrons and holes is achieved by the electric field of the p-n junction between layers of the component 2. Photons with an energy of 1.9 eV≤Eg≤2,48 eV is absorbed by a two-layer component 3, and photons with energy Eg≤1.9 eV - bilayer component 4, while in a two-layer components 3 and 4, as well as in a two-layer component 2, the generation of electron-hole pairs and the separation of electrons and holes. The relationship between transitions with different values of the band gap tunnel is provided with passages 8, 9. The connection between the substrate and the adjacent two-layered component secured intermediate layers 10.

When the solar cell is practically absent p�Teri, associated with thermalization process, since for a photon with a given energy in a solar cell has a sublayer having the same energy as the photon, the result of which will lead to the absorption of a photon without releasing excess energy.

Samples of solar cells made in accordance with the present invention, were manufactured using chloride-hydride epitaxy (HVPE).

Table 1 presents the structure of samples of solar cells (the compositions of the layers and thickness of layers).

Table 1
The structure of a solar cell
Layers of the solar cellThe material of the layerBandgap and lattice constant of the layerThe thickness of the layer
Two-layer component with p-n-transitionAlInGaN1,5≤Eg<1.9 eV, a=a 3.7 Å200 nm + 200 nm
Intermediate layers forming the tunnel junctionAlInGaN3,5≤a≤a 3.7 Å, Eg=1.9 eV30 nm + 30 nm
Two�Loen component with p-n-transition AlInGaN1,9≤Eg≤2,48 eV, a=3.5 Å200 nm + 200 nm
Intermediate layers forming the tunnel junctionAlInGaN3,26≤a≤3.5 Å, Eg=2,48 eV30 nm + 30 nm
Two-layer component with p-n-transitionAlInGaN2,48≤Eg≤3,2 eV, a=3,26 Å200 nm + 200 nm
Intermediate layersAlInGaN3,18≤a≤3,26 Å, Eg=3.2 eV100 nm + 100 nm
SubstrateSicSic400 µm

Eg- bandgap (eV) and lattice constant (Å).

The range of changes in the composition (x, y) for each layer of AlxInyGa1-x-yN is determined from the following relationships:

Eg=x·Eg(AlN)+y·Eg(InN)+(1-x-y)·Eg(GaN)-xy-C12-x(1-x-y)·C13-y(1-x-y)·C23where Eg(AlN), Eg(InN), Eg(GaN) - parameters of the band gap of AlN, InN, GaN, respectively, C12, C13, C23- parameters sagging bandgap (eV) for solid solutions AlIn 1-xAlxGa1-xN, InxGa1-xN respectively.

a=a(AlN)·x+a(InN)·y+a(GaN)·(1-x-y) where a(AlN), a(InN), a(GaN) - parameters of the crystal lattice of AlN, InN, GaN, respectively.

Evaluation of the efficiency of experimental samples of the solar cells was carried out using the measuring parameters of solar cells ST-1000 company TELECOM-STV (Russia).

Table 2 presents the main characteristics of the installation for measurement of samples of solar cells.

Table 2
Characteristics of the installation to change parameters of the samples of the solar cells
The type and brand of the deviceMain features
Measuring the parameters of solar cells ST-1000 company TELECOM-STV (Russia)1. Field uniform illumination and non-uniformity of ±1%: 150×150 mm
2. Range of illumination: AM 1.5, class B (IEC 904-9)
3. The range of measured voltages: -2,4 ÷ +2,4 V
4. Measurement error voltages for the range of values of idling: 0.5 to 1.0 V±1%
5. The measurement resolution voltage: 0.3 mV
6. Current measuring range: -8,0 - +8.0 A
7. The uncertainty of current measurement for the range of values of short circuit: 4÷8±1%
8. The pulse duration of illumination: less than 10 MS
9. The measurement resolution temperature: 0.2°C

Measurements were conducted of the parameters of the experimental samples under standard measuring conditions (ambient temperature 16÷26°C, relative humidity not more than 85%, atmospheric pressure of 750±50 mm Hg.St.).

The efficiency of specimens with concentrators of solar radiation of AM 1.5 Global was 50%±5%.

1. Mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell comprising a substrate, containing at least two double-layered component with p-n junctions between layers made from solid solutions of nitrides of metals of the third group, coupled between an intermediate layer, with the width of the forbidden zone of the component increases in the direction towards the surface that is intended for irradiation by solar energy, characterized in that the layers of two-layer components and the intermediate layers are made of Quaternary solid solution AlInGaN, between the substrate and the two-layer component with p-n-p junction between layers and each pair of two-layer components p-n junctions between layers placed, at least two intermediate layers, the intermediate layers and associated fragments of a solar cell formed with the same width of the forbidden zone, dual-layer components with p-n junctions between layers and associated intermediate layers formed with the same value of the lattice constant, conjugate between layers two-layer components with p-n transitions between layers are made with different values of the band gap, and coupled between the intermediate layers with different values of the lattice constant.

2. Mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the substrate is made of conductive material.

3. Mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell according to claim.1 and 2, characterized in that the substrate is made of silicon carbide.

4. Mnogoprokhodnyj semiconductor solar cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the intermediate layers located between two layered components, made in the form of tunnelling.



 

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FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: receiver generates the electric signal proportional to energy of an electromagnetic wave, and is intended for registration of electromagnetic emission, and also can be used for electric power generation. The receiver consists of a working environment with free charged particles and where the standing electromagnetic wave actuates, and also the electrodes located definitely in the working environment or on its surface. Such construction of the receiver allows to reduce noise and to eliminate restrictions on length of a wave of registered emanation, to expand a high bound of a temperature range of operation, and also to expand an arsenal of the means intended for registration of electromagnetic emission.

EFFECT: possibility to reduce noise and to eliminate restrictions on length of a wave of registered emission, to expand high bound of a temperature range of operation, and also to expand an arsenal of the means intended for registration of electromagnetic emission.

3 dwg

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