Method of producing light guides based on deuterium-alloyed quartz glass
SUBSTANCE: dry, deuterium-containing gases, for example dimethylsulphoxide D6 vapours, are introduced into a tube of a fibrous light guide workpiece. Alloying of precipitable layers of a glass core and envelope with small additions of deuterium is carried out both in the process of the layer precipitation and at high-temperature tube compression.
EFFECT: reduction of the light guide optical loss and mass loss of workpieces, reduction of thereof production process duration.
2 cl, 1 tbl
The invention relates to fiber optics, in particular to the manufacture of optical fibers (SU) modified chemical vapor deposition (modified chemical vapor deposition - MCVD). Optical fiber produced by this method, different additional optical losses in the spectral region of transparency of quartz glass (1300-1550 nm) due to the radiation absorption of the impurity hydroxyl groups in which hydrogen atoms are contained in the form is widely distributed in nature isotopes - protium (H).
The core of the sun, produced by MCVD method, surrounded by reflective synthetic sheath that isolates the core from impurities reference material quartz tubes industrial production. The admixture of hydrogen creates major problems in the technology of the sun, as it has the highest diffusion mobility in comparison with other impurities. When protium penetrates germanosilicate the core, the reaction occurs recovery GeO2:
It results in additional optical losses throughout the spectral region of transparency of the glass, especially at a wavelength of 1.38 μm, corresponding to the position of the peak of the main absorption overtone vibrations of the associated atoms of protium and oxygen (A. Iino, M. Kuwabara, K. Kokura Mechanism of hydrogen-induced loss in silica-based optical fibers. - Journal of lighwave technology. 1990, v. 8, No. 11, p. 1675-1679).
Treatment with deuterium source quartz tubes used in the MCVD process for the manufacture of sun, resolves in optical fibers, the absorption at the wavelength of 1.38 μm, thus shifting the absorption band in the region of 1.9 μm due to the isotopic exchange of protium by deuterium (Shang N. T., Stone J., Burrus, S. A. Low - HE MCVD fibers without a barrier layer using the OH-OD exchange substrate tubes. - Electronics letters. 1983, v 19, No. 3, p. 95-96). However, the additional optical loss due to the recovery of GeO2not removed: deuterium and protium, at high temperature diffuses into germanosilicate glass core and restores dioxide Germany.
Closest to the proposed technical solution "Method of making fibers based on quartz glass with low optical losses," RF patent for the invention №2462737, published on 03.03.2011 by index IPC G02B 6/024; SV 37/18, taken as a prototype. This way made the sun MCVD method based on silica glass, optionally doped by small additions of deuterium oxide during the high-temperature compression of the tube. This eliminates optical losses due to the recovery of GeO2. Deuterium is introduced to the grid of the glass according to the reaction:
Formed according to reaction (2) OD group rip regular Si-O glass connection, lowering its viscosity, and slip the reaction� (1) to the left side, thereby reducing the degree of recovery GeO2and additional optical losses.
The use of this solution for MCVD method of manufacturing the sun has a major drawback:
- recommended this patent supplements of deuterium oxide can be used only during the high-temperature compression of the tube, thereby providing the desired effect only for singlemode sun with a small core diameter. The introduction of deuterium oxide in the gas-vapor mixture (ASG) during the deposition of the doped layers of the shell and the core is not feasible, since the reagents interact with D2O at room temperature and block line feed calibration gas solid products of hydrolysis.
The object of the present invention is to improve the manufacturing technology of quartz fiber sun doped with deuterium, which allows the fabrication of multimode and single-mode optical fibers with low optical losses, increase productivity for manufacturing workpieces with the increase of their diameter.
The technical result is achieved in that the deuterium is introduced into the glass during the deposition of the layers, and compression of the tube. As a result:
- decreases the viscosity of the glass core and cladding for multimode and singlemode sun, resulting in a reduction of optical losses on adjusting�Fairplay scattering;
- by reducing the duration of high-temperature compression improves the performance of the manufacturing process of the workpiece and increases the diameter of the blanks due to the reduction of massonica glass.
The problem is solved by a new method of manufacturing the armed forces on the basis of quartz glass doped with deuterium, including the processes of manufacture of the optical fiber MCVD method with doping of deposited layers of glass with deuterium and follow the sun hood, which, unlike the prototype, the deuterium is introduced in the deposition process of the layers of the shell and the core, and at high temperature compression tube, and as lateristriga reagents used dry (dew point less than -50°C) lateristriga gases or vapors of volatile substances, such as dimethyl sulfoxide D6 (C2D6SO), the content of oxygen lower explosive limit of the mixture.
Improvement of manufacturing technology SA is that the introduction of such additives provides the solution to these problems, allowing you to alloy deuterium both singlemode and multimode fibers. Formed in the deposited glass OD group reduce its viscosity, thereby reducing optical losses by Rayleigh scattering and reduction in the duration of high-temperature compression process tube.Limit of moisture content in lateristriga substances (to a dew point of less than -50°C) due to which when administered in ASG halides (SiCl4, GeCl4, POCl3, BCl3interact with moisture at room temperature and block line of reagent solid products of hydrolysis (SiO2, GeO2, R2O5and In2O3).
The sum total of the characteristics and analysis of the differences from the prototype on the existing level of technology allows to make a conclusion about the "novelty" and "inventive step" of the new method.
The proposed new solution is implemented experimentally in the following examples, the method of manufacture of the aircraft.
Example No. 1. The known MCVD technology manufactured multimode sun during heating source rotating tube the oxygen-hydrogen torch, reciprocating movement. On the inner surface of the meter tube of quartz glass with an outer diameter of 22 mm, a wall thickness of 2.1 mm MCVD method was applied 10 layers of protective membranes (0,963 SiO2-0,03 P2O5-0,007 (F), 4 layers of insulating sheathing (0,973 SiO2to -0.02 GeO2-0,007 (F) and layer 2 core (0,948 SiO2to -0.05 GeO2-0,002 (F). In the process of deposition of glass layers and the compression tube in the line of reagent was injected bypass oxygen after bubbling through the liquid dimethyl sulfoxide D6 (D6 LCA) at 25°C. the content of oxygen in the calibration gas during the deposition of all layers was about 0.05. %, and in the process� compression - about 0.1. %. High-temperature compression of a tube in a rod-made in two passes of the burner at temperatures of 2000°C and 2150°C. In the second pass of the burner in the opposite direction of its motion and the velocity of 10 mm/min inner channel was shut. Received round blank with an outer diameter equal to 12.5 mm and a diameter of germanosilicate core ≈0.7 mm. the refractive Index (PP) all shells matched to claims of quartz glass supporting the quartz tube. The difference between PP core and an insulating sheath, measured on the Refractometer R-101, equal 0,0065.
From the thus obtained preform is pulled singlemode VS No. 1 with a diameter of 125 μm and a length of 1 km when the billet heating up to 2000°C in a furnace with a graphite heater. In the process of pulling the fiber is covered with a layer of soft and hard epoxyacrylate polymer, cured by ultraviolet irradiation. The diameter of the sun in the double coating was 250 μm. Wavelength cutoff of the highest fashion ≈1,38 mm.
Example No. 2. Similarly, the fabricated sample VS No. 2, differs from the previous method in that for receiving multimode sun was precipitated from 2 to 20 layers of the core. Return speed of the burner due to the collapse of the inner channel was 11 mm/min. Obtained round blank with an outer diameter equal to 12.8 mm and the same PP value of the core and about�lock with a core diameter of ≈2.2 mm.
From the thus obtained preform is pulled mnogomodovyj sun No. 2 with a diameter of 125 μm and a length of 2 km. In the process of pulling the fiber is covered with a layer of soft and hard epoxyacrylate polymer, cured by ultraviolet irradiation. The diameter of the optical fiber in a double coating was 250 µm.
Example No. 3. Similarly made a control sample of single-mode SA No. 3 differs from example 1 by the fact that LCA D6 not used in the manufacturing process of the workpiece. During high-temperature compression tube was flushed with oxygen that passed through the catalytic combustion of hydrogen-containing impurities and dried on a molecular sieve. The concentration of hydrogen impurities in oxygen, subjected to this treatment did not exceed 10-4mol. %. The travel speed of the torch during the collapse of the inner channel in this way was 40% lower (6 instead of 10 mm/min) than in example No. 1. This is due to the increased viscosity of the core material and the shell due to the lack of OD groups in the glass. The outer diameter of the workpiece is equal to 11.9 mm, 0.6 mm less than in example 1 due to increased evaporation of the glass by increasing the duration of high-temperature compression of the tube.
From billet extended single-mode SA No. 3 with a diameter of 125 μm and a length of 1 km. In the process of pulling the fiber is covered with a layer of soft chiffon.� and hard epoxyacrylate polymer, cured by ultraviolet irradiation. The diameter of the sun in the double coating was 250 μm. Wavelength cutoff of the highest fashion ≈1,45 mm.
Example No. 4. Similarly, control sample made multimode VS No. 4 kilometer length, which differs from example No. 2 the fact that LCA D6 not used in the manufacturing process of the workpiece. During high-temperature compression tube was flushed with oxygen, the concentration of hydrogen-containing impurities in which not more than 10-4mol. %. The travel speed of the torch during the collapse of the inner channel in this method was 36% lower (7 instead of 11 mm/min) than in example No. 2. This is due to the increased viscosity of the precipitated glass due to the lack of OD groups in it. Received round blank with outer diameter equal to 12.3 mm and the core diameter ≈2.2 mm under the same values of PP cores and shells.
The table is mapped to the optical loss at the wavelength of 1.55 µm for MO, obtained at different concentrations of D6 LCA in the gas phase at high-temperature compression of the workpiece.
With increasing content of deuterium in the gas phase inside the support tube of the optical losses of the armed forces are reduced due to the lower viscosity of the glass and, consequently, decreasing the magnitude of Rayleigh scattering. Reduced the mass of the evaporated glass read more�tirovaca 4-5%.
The above data confirm the obvious industrial applicability of the proposed method of manufacture of the aircraft for use in communication systems and fiber optic sensors.
1. The method of manufacture of optical fibers based on silica glass doped with deuterium, including the processes of manufacture of the optical fiber preform by modified chemical vapor deposition of doped quartz glass with a doping of deposited layers of glass with deuterium and follow the sun hood, characterized in that the deuterium is introduced in the deposition process of the layers of the shell and the core, and at high temperature compression tube, and use dry with a dew point of less than -50°C lateristriga gases, the content of oxygen less than the lower explosive limit of the mixture.
2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that as lateristriga gas used pair of dimethyl sulfoxide D6 (C2D6SO).
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to single-mode optical fibres having a low attenuation coefficient. The optical waveguide fibre includes a core and a cladding. The core includes an alpha-profile, where alpha (α) is greater than 2.5 and less than 3.0. The core and cladding provide the fibre with an attenuation coefficient of less than 0.331 dB/km at wavelength of 1310 nm, attenuation coefficient of less than 0.328 dB/km at wavelength of 1383 nm, attenuation coefficient of less than 0.270 dB/km at wavelength of 1410 nm and attenuation coefficient of less than 0.190 dB/km at wavelength of 1550 nm. Also provided is a method of producing the optical fibre.
EFFECT: reduced attenuation coefficient and bending loss.
5 cl, 8 dwg, 5 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to lighting devices. In a light-emitting device a light source has narrow or limited distribution of light intensity. The device is designed so that light from a source is emitted with a wider spatial distribution of light intensity through a peripheral surface at the light emission section designed as a funnel.
EFFECT: light-emitting device in addition contains a mixing section for the light radiated from the source.
13 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to a lighting facility with waveguide. The device comprises a waveguide element with the first and second outer surfaces and waveguide boundary. LED-based radiation source with optional collimating optical element is intended for radiation entry to the waveguide element through waveguide boundary. The first outer surface comprises structures for output of radiation from the waveguide element through the second outer surface. The device comprises a cavity with reflector in order to reflect radiation in the cavity in sideway direction from the second outer surface.
EFFECT: development of compact-size and thin lighting facility, which may be suspended to the ceiling, ensuring lighting from the ceiling by means of lighting in upward direction and lighting of the specific are by means of lighting in downward direction.
15 cl, 27 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for removal of a cover of an optic fibre. In device (11) for removal of the cover of the optic fibre for drawing of glass fibre (1a) from coating (1b) by cutting coating (1b) in part (31) for removal of the cover and movement of part (13) for retention of the optic fibre to the side from the main unit (12) of the device for removal of the cover in a heated state, part (31) for removal of the cover is provided with supporting element (43) of a heater, on which heater (42) is installed, supporting element (43) of the heater is arranged in a recessed receiving part formed in housing (12a), heat-insulating gap (55) is formed between recessed receiving part (51) and supporting element (43) of the heater, the side surface of supporting element (43) of the heater and the inner surface of side wall (51b) of recessed receiving part (51) come into contact with each other by means of side rib (61) made on supporting element (43) of the heater.
EFFECT: providing a possibility of removal of a coating without any water penetration and with lower traction force, which is required for removal of the coating.
4 cl, 15 dwg
SUBSTANCE: cartridge for an apparatus for welding optical fibres comprises a base in the form of a plate with a rectangular shape in plain view which is positioned on a working surface, on the front surface of said plate of which on the edges of the same oppositely lying sides there are upward protruding prism-shaped blocks with sockets for mounting rod electrodes which are inserted coaxially with pointed ends opposite each other over the central part of the plate between the blocks. The rod electrodes at the other ends have nodes for connecting to a power supply for arc welding. In the central part of the plate there is a working area with sockets in form of coaxial channels lying along an axis perpendicular to an axis which passes through the rod electrodes while crossing the latter in the arc welding area for positioning ends of the optical fibres to be welded in the arc welding area. The working area has two spaced-apart guides on which V-shaped channels are formed, which are laid in reciprocal grooves on the back side of the plate in the prism shape of the blocks with through-openings for inserting the rod electrodes, provided with units for movement thereof along said openings for adjusting the position of the pointed ends thereof relative to each other, passing through coaxial cavities. In each prism shape of the block there is a through-opening for holding a cup-shaped element with a fastening element for a rod electrode.
EFFECT: simple design, high efficiency and easy usage.
SUBSTANCE: fibre-optic guide is obtained by chemical deposition of quartz glass from a mixture of starting gaseous reagents. The optic guide has a core of undoped quartz glass with low content of chlorine in the glass of the core due to considerable excess of oxygen O2 relative to silicon tetrachloride SiCl4 during manufacture.
EFFECT: providing high radiation resistance of an optic guide in the near infrared range by suppressing radiation-induced light absorption.
32 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: optical fibre includes the central area of the glass core with the maximum gain Δ1max of the index of refraction in percents. The first internal annular field surrounds a core and has the gain Δ2 of the index of refraction in percentage. The annular field with depression surrounds the internal annular field and has the gain Δ3. The third internal annular field surrounds the annular field with depression and has the gain Δ4 of the index of refraction in percentage. Meanwhile Δ1max>Δ4>Δ2>Δ3. The difference between Δ4 and Δ2 exceeds 0.01, and the volume |V3| of the profile amounts, at least, 60%Δ mcm2.
EFFECT: low flexural losses.
20 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to collimators which can be used to illuminate liquid crystal screens. The collimator is in the form of a wedge-like optical waveguide having a first end and a second end opposite to the first end. The first end is thinner than the second end. The collimator also has a visible surface passing at least in part between the first end and the second end, and a back surface opposite the visible surface. The visible surface has a first critical angle, and the back surface is configured to be reflective below the first critical angle. Furthermore, an end reflector, having a polyhedral (faceted) lens, is placed at the second end of the optical waveguide.
EFFECT: reduced overall dimensions of the collimator.
15 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of laser technologies, in particular to devices for laser radiation transmission. The device contains a hollow light waveguide, the core of which is filled with water or water solution with an index of refraction, large index of refraction of the shell. On the ends of the light waveguide the transparent windows are located, and the internal surface of the shell of the light waveguide has the coating containing carbon nanotubes.
EFFECT: ensuring of transmission of powerful laser radiation.
7 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: protected document contains an opaque substrate, optical wave guide located on the substrate and/or in it and a coupler for light conducting into or out of the wave guide. Meanwhile the coupler has a hole passing through a wave guide and through the whole opaque substrate.
EFFECT: enhanced protection against document forgery.
15 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: radiation monitoring.
SUBSTANCE: detector has X-ray registration unit made in form of set of fiber-optic scintillators and fiber-optics communication transmitting unit (both made in form of single fiber-optic module, photoreceiver provided with signals electronic processing unit made in form of pixels optical system. Integral fiber-optic module is made in form of one-piece fibers on the base of argentums halogenides AgCl-AgBr-AgI. Registering part has active admixture and transmitting part has no active admixtures.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of registration.
FIELD: fiber-optic technology; laser processing of materials.
SUBSTANCE: optical fiber is substituted with target when adjusting. Target is positioned at plane of entrance edge of optical fiber. Mark is applied onto surface of target by means of single laser pulse passed through focusing unit. Observing unit is installed. Plane of target is observed through eye-piece and focusing unit. Center of mark at target is put in coincidence with center -f cross-point of eye-piece due to tilting of observing unit by means of adjusting aid. Target is removed and fiber optic is placed instead of it. Focusing unit is tightly connected with optical fiber.
EFFECT: simplified design; improved reliability, improved precision; widened range of laser radiation wavelength into optical fiber.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: shaping and processing radio signals.
SUBSTANCE: in order to enhance identity of copy generation while retaining ability of controlling input radio signal replication process, proposed device is provided with newly introduced (N -1) fiber-optic four-terminal networks, each of them incorporating Y-type internal adding and separating fiber-optic directional couplers.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of optical fiber.
1 cl, 27 dwg
FIELD: preparation of the optical fiber transducer as a sensitive element with preset characteristics, assembly of the transducer components, connection of the optical fiber ends respectively to a light source and to a photodetector.
SUBSTANCE: for bending the fiber to a preset angle and fastening of it on the first dielectric base of an optically transparent material the optical fiber is first laid on a flexible transparent dielectric base in the form of an arbitrary line with observance of the preset radius of curvature over the entire surface of the transducer base with the use of a stencil. Then the fiber is fixed on this base with the aid of polymer adhesive. The second dielectric base in the form of a polymeric laminated film is laid over the fixed fiber, after that the obtained assembly is connected in the conditions of thermocompression welding.
EFFECT: provided use of the transducer for reliable and precise registration of the fact and point of built-fragment injury of the object surface under control.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: single-mode optical fiber has light-conducting part (4) of core, internal part (3) of envelope which surrounds part 4 of core and area of coating which surrounds the internal part (3) of envelope. Refractivity factor of core part 4 excesses refractivity factors of area 1 and 3 of envelope which are almost equal. Internal part (3) of envelope is made of SiO2 which includes doping fluoride in amount of 0,1-8,5 mass percent which results to compressing axial force of part 4 of core along its whole cross-section. Internal part 3 of envelope is additionally provided with doping additives to increase refraction and to get refractivity factor being practically equal to refractivity factor of area 1 of coating. Tube base is made of silicon dioxide and the base functions as area of coating. Internal part of envelope and area of core are formed by means of one or several reaction-capable gases. After they are formed the tube of base is subject to shrinkage and elongation to single-mode optical fiber. Single-mode optical fiber produced has low hydrogen-induced attenuation at 1500 nm wavelength.
EFFECT: lower hydrogen-induced attenuation.
15 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of optical materials and polymer compounds.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fluorated diene CF2=CF(CF2)nC(CF3)ROCF=CF2, where R is atom or fluorine or trifluoromethyl group and "n" is integer from 1 to 3 is produced by dehalogenation of various compounds. Specification gives description of polymer whose monomer is fluorated diene referred to above. Proposed optical transmitting device contained above-mentioned polymer and optical plastic fiber also containing above-mentioned polymer.
EFFECT: production of polymer suitable for optics and possessing high glass transition temperature.
10 cl, 21 ex
FIELD: optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: dispersion-compensated fiber when being reeled upon small spool does not result to losses and it has stable temperature characteristic. For fibers with compensation of dispersion within wave range of 1,53 50 1,63 micrometers, bend losses with diameter of reeling of 20 mm are equal to 5dB/m and less. Chromatic dispersion equals to -120 ps/nmxkm, cut-off wavelength does not exceed 1,53 micrometers. External diameter of envelope equals to 80-100 micrometers, external diameter of coating equals to 160-200 micrometers. Adhesion property of surface of coating gum does not exceed 10gs/mm. Volumetric relation is reduced at least twice comparing to traditional module of dispersion-compensated fiber.
EFFECT: stable temperature characteristics; low losses; low dispersion of polarized mode in dispersion-compensated fiber.
29 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: fiber-optic converter of movements comprises axially aligned nontransparent shield with opening and cords of input and output optical fibers. The distance between the input optical fibers and shield and the distance between the input and output optical fibers are determined from the equations presented. The receiving face of the cord of output fibers receives the section of fiber that is coaxial to the input optical fiber and opening in the shield. The receiving faces of the output optical fibers are arranged around the fiber section.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurements and simplified structure.
FIELD: laser engineering and fiber optics.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fiber optic conductor designed for intensifying radiation at wavelength ranging between 1000 and 1700 nm has oxide glass core and oxide glass shell. Core incorporates bismuth oxide as well as elements of group including silicon, germanium, phosphor, aluminum, and gallium. Fiber optic conductor affords luminescence in range of 1000 to 1700 nm when excited by beams with wavelengths ranging between 750 and 1200 nm, luminescence bandwidth being at half of height over 120 nm. Proposed method for manufacturing fiber optic conductor includes production of optical conductor blank and core. Oxygen and pair of chlorides of elements chosen from above-mentioned group are passed through quartz glass tube. The latter is compressed to produce blank in the form of solid bar. Pairs of bismuth chlorides are also passed through tube together with chlorides. Proposed fiber laser has fiber optic conductor, pumping source, device for beam entry in fiber optic conductor, resonator, and device for removing generated beam from resonator.
EFFECT: enhanced intensifying bandwidth and its efficiency, reduced concentration of unwanted impurities ensured by proposed method, enlarged laser tuning wavelength range.
20 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: method for processing optical fiber.
SUBSTANCE: method includes placement of optical fiber inside processing chamber; injection of deuterium-containing gas into processing chamber; and at stage of deuterium processing - subjection of optical fiber to effect of deuterium-containing gas environment. At the stage of deuterium processing, concentration D of deuterium in processing chamber is computed during deuterium processing on basis of original value A of deuterium concentration in deuterium-containing gas inside the processing chamber, concentration B of oxygen in environment of processing chamber and concentration C of oxygen in deuterium-containing gas inside the processing chamber. Deuterium concentration in the processing chamber is regulated on basis of computed deuterium concentration D. in accordance to the invention, other gases may be used, such as hydrogen-containing gas and nitrogen-containing gas.
EFFECT: precise adjustment of deuterium concentration even in case when the gas, serving as carrier of deuterium-containing gas, is other that air, and percentage composition of the gas, serving as carrier, fluctuates.