Insulating material im-ecodor

FIELD: ecology.

SUBSTANCE: proposed insulating material comprises clay, calcitic material, oil sludge, and drill cuttings with the following component content, parts by weight: clay 1.0; calcitic material 0.5-5.0; drill cuttings 0.5-3.0; oil sludge 0.5-7.0.

EFFECT: reduction of consumption of natural clays, reduction of wastes of production in construction of motor roads and solid domestic waste landfills, improves the quality of final product.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 8 tbl

 

The invention relates to insulating materials, and new production technology can be used for the dumping of toxic industrial waste 3 and 4th class of danger, including municipal solid waste (MSW). This versatile material can also be used in the construction of foundations for roads, landfills.

In Russia as an insulating material for MSW, as well as material in the construction of foundations for roads widely used natural clay. (Guidelines on design, operation and rehabilitation of landfills. The Ministry of construction of Russia: Academy of municipal economy named after. K. D. Panfilov, M.: 1966).

A significant drawback of clays is their high filtration coefficient (KF=0,08-0,15) m/day.

Known insulating material, patent RF №2 469 806, which includes clay and further comprises a powdered composition from waste "dust of ferrous metals metallurgical production and dolomite powder", mixed in the ratio 1:3. Additives increase the filtration coefficient of the main component is clay, as well as increase the permeability from the lower horizons to the upper roadway.

The closest in technical essence to the invention as a low permeable material is an insulating material to THEM, p�the awning of the Russian Federation No. 2271882.

Known contains the natural soil is clay, lime wastes of thermal power plants (precipitate of hydrated lime or a chemical water treatment sludge) and sludge (float bottom) or contaminated with oil products soil with the following ratio of components, wt.%:

Oil sludge25-50
The spent lime material15-40
Clay10-60

Insulating material THEY are produced commercially under THE 5717-001-48855-219-2004. THEY must comply with the requirements of technical specifications:

1. The filtration coefficient (KF) not more than 0,864 m/day.

2. The coefficient of consolidation, not less than 0,98 g/cm3

3. The coefficient frost resistance not less than 0.65.

The filtration rate is the main indicator for landfills, since the layer (1.0-1.5 m) of MSW is placed a layer of THEM with a height of 0.3 to 0.5, then poured a layer of TBO height of 1.0-1.5, etc.

Low compaction ratios and frost THEM as an intermediate layer in MSW immaterial.

During the construction of the foundations of roads using THEM with low coefficients seal and frost is unacceptable.

THEY are preparing polygons on the way� mixing components a mill or a bulldozer. Production technology from waste controlled by the Federal service of Rosprirodnadzor, while doing a large amount of preparatory work, and is as follows:

1. Prepare a decision by the administration for the allotment of land for landfill;

2. Produce land acquisition;

3. Produce engineering hydrological survey polygon;

4. Performs design of the landfill;

5. Co-ordinates the project with the Supervisory authorities (Fire safety Federal state - Federal state healthcare institution "Centre of epidemiology and hygiene);

6. Conduct environmental study;

7. Get permission for the construction of the landfill;

8. Produce the construction of the landfill;

9. Carry out the acceptance of the state;

10. Register at companies house;

11. Get licensed to carry out environmental works;

12. Get the limits for waste disposal at the landfill.

Execution of works on PP.1-12 occurs within 3 years, as a result, the efficiency and productivity environmental work is declining.

The object of the invention is to improve the quality, expand the range of efficiency for the purpose of using THEM in the construction of roads with a new name IM ACTOR, as well as reduced time to manufacture�ing at a mobile a mobile unit.

The invention solves the technical problem of improving the quality of the insulating material IM ACTOR, reducing permeability, increasing the rate of compaction and frost resistance, reduction of harmful emissions into the atmosphere at the expense of manufacturing THEM-ECODOR on mobile a mobile unit.

This problem is solved by the fact that IM ACTOR includes natural soil, calcareous material, drill cuttings and oil sludge at the following content of components, wt.parts.

I. Natural ground1,0
II. Calcareous material0,5-5,0
III. Drill cuttings0,5-3,0
IV. Oil sludge0,5-7,0

I. as a natural soil IM ACTOR contains clay, thus there were four groups. Fig.1 shows the dependence of the permeability of clays on the ratio of silicon oxide SiO2the aluminum oxide Al2O3. In the clay with the increase of oxides of silicon increases the filtration rate.

II. As the calcareous material IM ACTOR contains one of the following components or mixtures thereof.

1. Technological waste heat power plants (CHP) precipitate of hydrated lime (green coke), which is formed during the manufacture of milk of lime. For this purpose, quick-slacking lime calcium content of the active substance Cao 65-85%.

The precipitate of hydrated lime (green coke) is a light-gray mixture of particles of different size with the inclusion of dark sharp-edged particles of calcium carbonate, the so-called "nadapal" lime. Granulometric composition of the sample of nadapal selected from the sludge reservoir of the CHP, are listed in table.1. Mineralogical composition: CaO+MgO - 75,3; SO3- 2,0; NH3- 1,36; PO4- 0,76; Na2CO3~ 2,97; NaOH - 2,24; NaCl - 0,53; SiO2- 3,45;

The content of active calcium oxide and magnesium is 75,3%.

2. The chemical water treatment sludge (HVO) is formed during liming of natural water. The process of liming is produced in the apparatus of the clarifiers, where served warmed water and reagents - lime water CA(Oh)2, coagulants and flocculants: Na2CO3, Na3PO4the anions which form with cations of CA+2and Mg+2insoluble compounds: CACO3, Mg(OH)2CA3(PO4)2, Mg3(PO4)2separated from softened water, first in the form of sludge in the clarifiers, and then in astetically filters.

The amount of the produced sludge HVO depends on river water quality and varies from 0.1 to 0.5 cgna cubic meter of purified water. The amount of accumulation of sludge HVO in Ufa is in kt: CHP 2 - 80,0; CHP 3 - 88,0; CHP 4 - 120,0; Pritiska CHP - 5,7.

Sludge HVO is a paste of reddish-brown color with a high specific surface (up to 800 m2/g). Chemical and granulometric compositions of the HVO are shown in tables 2 and 3.

Phase composition of the HVO from the clarifier is represented mainly by carbonate - large endothermic effect at 780-920°C - and magnesium hydroxide - endothermic effect of its dehydration when 390-445°C.

Thus, in the sludge HVO mainly contains calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide.

3. Ash burning coals.

Ash on a large GRES contains silt particles of 0.2 mm fraction and less - 82,0%. In the ashes there are no fractions of 1 mm and above. The mineralogical composition of the ash from the combustion of bituminous coal is: SiO2from 50 to 65%; Al2O320,0-31,0%; Fe2O33-12%; CaO and 0.4-2.5%; MgO 0.1 to 0.5%; the amount of oxides of other elements of 0.5-3.0%. The main components of the ash are oxides of silicon and aluminum, and their ratio is equal to 2.5 to 2.1. Ash GRES according to Fig.1 the filtration coefficient is equivalent to the clays of the first group.

4. Dispersed natural marl is an intermediate in the formation of limestone. Marl on the nature of education is equivalent to the peat, which takes place stage:

vegetation → peat → stone at�ol.

The mineralogical composition of the marl: SiO2- 16,5%; MgO+CaO - 60,0%; Al2O3- 17,0%; Fe2O3+FeO - 3,5%.

Huge reserves of marl are found in the Republic of Bashkortostan in the foothills of the Urals. The solubility of marl in water is several times higher than that of limestone, which contributes to the formation of numerous karst both above ground and underground.

Calcareous materials (sludge lime sludge HVO, ash burning bituminous coals, dispersed natural marl) due to their high dispersion and specific surface promote the adsorption of petroleum products and neutralization of compounds of calcium and magnesium.

III. Drilling mud is a suspension coming out of the barrel construction of the underpass for pipelines across rivers and lakes. The density of the drilling mud is 1.12-1.17 g/cm3. The composition of the drill cuttings are shown in table.4.

The composition of clay minerals include montmorillonite (high quality clay 1st group), kaolinite, etc. In the composition of the sand - pyrite, quartz, limestone, etc. Dehydrated drilling mud is a powder with sand inclusions dirty-brown color.

IV. Oil sludge is a major component of it-ACTOR. When storing the sludge stratified into three layers: floating, emulsion and bottom.

Floating sludge is the topmost layer of waste, with�argasi to 92% of petroleum products 6,5% water and 1.5% solids. Floating sludge on the composition close to that collected at the treatment facilities of oil products, the so-called drip oil, and contains fractions to -350°C in an amount of up to 60%.

Emulsion sludge usually found at a depth of 0.8 m-2.0 m contains water to 50%, 5-10% solids and 40-50% oil content fractions 100-350°C in an amount of up to 40%.

Upper emulsion and the oil sludge is not suitable for THEM-actor due to high fire risk. In refineries subjected to centrifugation and returned for reprocessing.

Bottom oil sludge (DNS) is the lowest layer and is characterized by a significant content of mechanical impurities (20-60%), water (30-50%) and up to 25% heavy oil.

The class of toxicity of bottom sludge is low hazard to the environment (4th class of danger) and therefore may be involved in road construction.

The composition of bottom sludge from the pond-sedimentation tank the size of 300-700 m and a depth of 5 m (two ponds), OJSC Ufaneftekhim presented in table.5, the amount of savings is 2000000 cubic meters. the table shows the fraction (diesel) up to 360°With significantly smaller and less flammable.

All types of bottom sludge after selection of pond are dark-colored pasta with the smell of oil.

In table.6 shows your physical�TWA investigated types DNS.

DNS 15 has plastic properties, and DNS 10 and DNS 3 physical properties do not differ from ordinary clay soils.

The different content of the oil fraction in DNS affects its physical properties such as soil. If the composition DNS contains 10% or less petroleum fractions, its physical properties are close to clay with a plasticity number 19-24%.

In the production of the insulating material is also used contaminated with oil products soil, in which components can be varied within a wide range: oil part up to 10%, mechanical impurities 50-80%, water 20%.

The construction of roads lead according to SNiP 2.05.02.85; 3.06.03.85; 2.02.02.85, etc., but these documents do not contain information about the effect of water resistance on the road surface. From experience we know that roads located in wetland areas, the water penetrates by capillarity from the bottom up and destroys the fabric due to the reduction of coefficient of consolidation.

In table.7 shows the quality of components to make THEM-ACTOR. For compactibility (1,45-1,67 g/cm3) clay correspond to the first class roads, but the rate of filtration (0,08-0,152 m/day) is insufficient for roads in wetlands. Green coke, marl have good compactibility (1,85-of 1.91 g/cm3at high filter water (5-10 m/day). Burov�th sludge with a low coefficient of filtration (0,00003 m/day) manages to condense to 1.24 g/cm 3, bottom sludge compacted to 0.74-1.26 g/cm3.

Selecting the optimal composition of the components, it is possible to obtain THEM-ACTOR. Examples of cooking THEM-ACTOR in laboratory conditions are given in table.8. Insulating material to THEM-prototype (POS.1 and 2) containing clay 1 h (41,6%), bottom sludge of 0.8 hours (33,2%), calcareous material of 0.6 hours (25,0%), has the following characteristics:

• the filtration rate is 0.0015 in. to 0.002 m/day;

• compacting factor of 1.20 and 1.27 g/cm3;

• cold-resistance coefficient of 0.68;

• limit the compressive strength of water-saturated samples of 4.2 MPa.

Prototypes of THEM (POS.3-10) on quality as THEY far exceed THEM the prototype. Laboratory samples 3-6, 8-10 correspond to THEM-Ecodorm and can be used as a commercial product for MSW and in road construction. Insulating material (POS.7) not suitable for road construction because of the low bulk factor of 1.05 g/cm3. THEY (POS.11) containing 5 weight.parts of soil contaminated with petroleum product, has the lowest coefficient of consolidation of 0.95 g/cm3. This is because in the soil of a large content of organic matter, such as humus, which is virtually impossible to seal.

Prototypes (POS.3-10) have frost resistance. The reason for this resistance to cyclic freezing - thawing lies in hydrof�the competitiveness of oil components to THEM-Eldora and their ability to form persistent water emulsions, that fill the pore volume of an undirected way, impede permeability in wetlands from the bottom up, while maintaining the density of the soil in its original form.

Compacted at the optimum moisture content to maximum density IM ACTOR (POS.10) is slabovodopronitsaemyh the soil salinity degree 10.

Analysis of the filtrate after passing through the sample of tap water at pressure gradient of 50 showed the presence of soluble salts is not more than 0.3 g/l, which corresponds to the degree of salinity of soil no more than 7% of the studied samples (Fig.3-9), compacted at optimum moisture content to maximum density, are non-saline. When the penetration of moisture is virtually eliminated leaching of water soluble compounds into surrounding soil layers.

Involvement in the construction of landfills and roads waste production will reduce their volume, and significantly reduce the consumption of natural clay materials, it is doubly beneficial to the environment.

Insulating material IM ACTOR according to the invention receive in enterprises-storage owners waste. Company-owners are licensed waste for waste storage and deliver the necessary components to produce THEM-ACTOR.

In a mixing drum, e.g.� concrete mixer truck on KAMAZ chassis download natural soil, bottom sludge, lime material, drilling mud, lead the drum into rotational movement within a standard time.

Obtained in the mixer truck product, the insulating material IM ACTOR, not controlled by the Rosprirodnadzor. The finished product is transported to the consumer.

To implement THEM-ACTOR according to the invention it is necessary to perform significantly less work:

- Coordinate the production technology of the insulating material in the mixer truck with fire, and the Federal Centre of epidemiology and hygiene;

- Conduct environmental review technologies;

- Obtain a license to operate a hazardous waste

decreasing the period of the preparatory environmental works from 3 years to 1 year.

Table 1
Granulometric composition of nadapal
Particle size, mmThe content of particles, %
<10
10-5
5-2
2-1
1-0,5
0,5-0,25
0,25-0,1
>0,1
34,5
13,8
15,7
12,9
5,7
8,6
6,2
1,9

The chemical composition of the sludge HVO
Table 2
p. p. p.CaOMgOSiO2Al2O3Fe2O3SO3Na2O3
Ls.Asset.
36,4528,042,1526,582,411,781,780,183,46

Table 3
Granulometric and microaggregates the composition of the sludge HVO
The particle size in mm, Qty, %
>0,10,0050,05-0,010,01-0,0050,005-0,0010,001
0,4-1,00,4-2,013-44,06,0-5,0

Table 4
The composition of the drill cuttings
ComponentsThe content of components, %
Water90,00
Bentonite (clay)7,00
Sand1,57
Na-purified carboxymethylcellulose (CMC HV, CMC LV)0,60
Polyacrylamide partially gidralizovanny (IXTAB L(S))0,20
Bactericide (ICBC-0, ICBC 11 L, IBIOTIC)0,02
Drilling detergent (ICD)0,10
Sodium hydroxide0,05
Sodium carbonate0,05
Ekologicheskie clean lubricant additive (CLUB)0,40
Antifoam (INDEFOR) 0,01

Table 5
The composition of bottom sludge
Name of the componentComponent content, % depth
3 m5 m
Oil2515
Water3525
Mechanical impurities4060
The hydrocarbon composition of the oil part, %
Paraffin-naphthene
Aromatic
Resin
Asphaltenes
31,0
21,6
34,0
13,4
28,2
25,0
37,0
9,8
Fractional composition of petroleum
To 360°C boils over, % of the mass.15,07,8

Table 6
Indicator nameThe value of the index
DNS 15DNS 10DNS 3
Oil content, %
Humidity, %
Specific gravity, g/cm3
The number of plasticity
Porosity, %
Name ground according to GOST 25100-95
15
46,3
1,25
-
44
10
40,5
1,95
18,6
57
clay makoplasty
3
26,0
2,00
24,0
37
solid

Table 7
Key indicators of the components to manufacture THEM-ACTOR
The name of the componentIndicators
KF, m/dPdmax, g/cm3Wopt, %
1. Natural soil:
- 1 oz., clay
- 2 oz., clay
- 3 oz., clay (loam)
- gr 4, clay(loam)
0,08
0,087
0,095
0,152
1,45
1,53
1,60
1,67
36
30
26
24
2. Lime material:
- green coke
- marl
- HVO
- ash
5
10
0,015
0,0082
1,85
1,91
1,14
0,94
15
20,0
35,0
70,0
3. Drill cuttings0,000031,247,0
4. Bottom sludge with a content of:
- 3% of oil product
- 10% of oil product
- 15% of oil product
0,009
0,020
0,09
1,26
0,92
0,74
26,0
40,0
50,0
KF - filtration ratio, m/day
Pd is the density of the soil after compaction (bulk factor), g/cm3
Wopt is the optimum moisture content at which the maximum coefficient of compaction, % wt.
Note: With increasing moisture content (W) above optimal (Opt) components are transformed into the muck.

1. Insulating material including clay, calcareous material, oil sludge, characterized in that it further comprises drill cuttings, with the following ratio of components, wt.h.:

clay1,0
calcareous material0,5-5,0
oil sludge0,5-7,0
drill cuttings0,5-3,0

2. The insulating material according to claim 1, characterized in that the material contains lime process wastes of thermal power plants - the rest of hydrated lime or a chemical water treatment sludge, or ash from the combustion of coal or dispersed natural marl.

3. The insulating material according to claim 1, characterized in that the oil sludge contains bottom oil sludge or contaminated with oil products soil.



 

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Concrete mix // 2544035

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: concrete mix includes Portland blast-furnace cement, ground blast-furnace slag with size of 0-5 mm and soda ash at the following ratio of ingredients, wt %: Portland blast-furnace cement 20-25; ground blast-furnace slag with size of 0-560-72; soda ash - balance.

EFFECT: reduced migration activity of heavy metals when used in medium with higher acidity, with preservation of strength, frost resistance of concrete products.

2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composition for silicate brick manufacturing. Composition for manufacturing silicate brick contains lime, sand, water and at least one plasticiser, where at least one plasticiser represents crest polymer in accordance with given structural formula. Method of manufacturing silicate brick includes stages of said composition provision, supply of said composition to at least one pressing device and its pressing, and composition hardening. Hardened composition, obtained by method described above. Application of composition described above. Invention is developed in dependent items of the formula.

EFFECT: improvement of composition processability and increase quality of products.

8 cl, 5 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: crude mixture for making brick includes, pts.wt: quartz sand 2-2.5; portland cement 2-2.5; lime paste 1-1.5; marble powder 1-1.5.

EFFECT: high strength.

1 tbl

Concrete mixture // 2543822

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: concrete mixture contains, wt %: portland cement 22.0-24.0; haydite with grain size of 20-40 mm 22.0-27.5; haydite sand 6.0-8.0; grade 6 asbestos 1.0-2.0; rock flour from limestone or marble 20.0-24.0; water 18.0-20.0.

EFFECT: high water-resistance.

1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology and is intended for recuperation and disposal of industrial wastes and ill-conditioned wastes (straw, sawdust, chemical weed-killers and/or pest-killers) effluents, soluble, poorly soluble and insoluble organic matters. Device consists of cylindrical case-anode divided by the web into electrolysis and phase-separation chambers. Cylindrical straight-flow cathode is arranged coaxially inside said case with holes on side surface to connect cathode cavity with substance dispersant cavity. Electrolysis gaseous product decontamination system is arranged inside phase-separation chamber.

EFFECT: high efficiency, lower costs, simple servicing and ecological safety.

6 cl, 1 tbl, 3 dwg

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