Charge and method for manufacture of fuel briquettes

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a charge containing bituminous coal and binding additives; bituminous coal contains an unburnt ash-slag mixture as a result of coal combustion in boiler houses, at thermal power plants, in domestic stoves, coal benefication wastes, and the following is used as activators: coal-tar resin, resinous wastes of coke-chemical and chemical industry, waste machine oils; aluminium powder in the amount of 1-3 vol % is used as a high-calorific additive, and lime in the amount of 13-18 vol % is used as a binding agent. The invention also relates to a manufacturing method of fuel briquettes from a charge, which involves crushing and mixing of charge components; after mixing is completed, water separation, mixture extrusion, and briquette drying and packaging is performed.

EFFECT: improvement of ecology, economical efficiency of bituminous coal processing, reduction of quantity of wastes and increase of heat amount at coal combustion.

2 cl, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to light industry, namely to the treatment of waste produced by burning coal in the furnaces of boilers, thermal power plants, home furnaces (ash waste), waste beneficiation of coal and rocks contained in the coal (mineral admixtures).

Known method of preparing a coal-water slurry (patent SU 1467987, IPC C10L 1/32, publ. part on 20.05.2003) comprising dosed supply of coal, water and reagent plasticizer for wet grinding to the size of the coal particles is not more than 250 μm and their mixture. To stabilize the properties of coal-water mixture continuously measure the moisture content and ash content of coal.

The disadvantage of this method is that the coal-water slurry is not suitable for making fuel briquettes.

The known method of obtaining coal-water fuel from bituminous coal (patent RU 2439131, IPC C10L 1/32, VS 19/00, VS 19/18, publ. 10.01.2012), which can be used for burning in boilers, furnaces and other installations of engineering.

The disadvantage of this method lies in the fact that the incomplete burning of coal with a content of up to 40-43% in the waste of ash and slag.

These methods do not solve the problem of complete combustion of coal to produce ash and slag wastes in quantities of up to 40-50% of the total weight, containing up to 0-43% of coal.

Closest to the invention is a composition for producing fuel briquettes (patent RU 2298028, IPC C10L 5/10, C10L 5/28, publ. 27.04.2007) comprising a binder (8-9%) by weight of the solid fuel, coke breeze 50-80%, thermoanalytical trifle 20-50%. Is used as a binder lignosulfonate, a modified 3-5% of petroleum or petroleum products. The briquetting mixture is carried out under a pressure of 25 MPa.

The disadvantage of this method is that using high quality and expensive raw materials: coke breeze, thermoanthracite, oil and oil products. Solid feedstock is subjected to further processing (grinding), which complicates the technology and increases the cost of production, and the combustion of the briquettes waste - bottom ash mixture containing 20-40% unburned carbon.

The object of the invention is the recycling of the energy industry, containing 25-30% of carbon, ash and slag mixture formed during combustion of coal in boilers and containing up to 43% carbon, and waste beneficiation of coal with a content of up to 85% carbon.

The solution of this problem is achieved in that coal adds unburned ash-slag mixture from the combustion of coal in boiler plants, thermal power plants, home furnaces, waste coal, as an act�of Vtorov use: coal tar, resinous waste coke and chemical industries, waste engine oil, as a high calorie Supplement - aluminum powder 1-3% vol., and as binder, limestone 13-18%.

After grinding and mixing the components of the charge to produce the separation of water, extruding the mixture, drying, packing briquettes.

The essence of the charge composition and method of manufacture of fuel briquettes is as follows.

In the prior art for producing fuel briquettes are used high quality raw materials: coke breeze 50-80%, thermoanthracite 20-50%, oil and oil products 3-5%. The binder used lignosulfonate, wherein the solid feedstock is subjected to grinding, and briquetting the mixture is carried out under a pressure of 25 MPa. All of the components of raw materials are scarce and have a high cost, and grinding of raw material is expensive, not allows you to organize large-scale production.

These briquettes are burned for known technologies in boilers, stoves, fireplaces. The burning of briquettes by known techniques leads to the fact that after burning the waste (ash and slag mixture) remains to 43% of unburned carbon and ash wastes are not used and are stored in dumps.

In the present invention waste from the combustion of coal briquettes are made which remains after burning no more than 0.3-1.3% of carbon, in the charge which is added aluminum powder 1-3%, and is used as a binder limestone 13-18%, the rest is coal, waste coal and boiler slag that allows you to get more heat in comparison with known methods.

As activators used coal tar, resinous and chemical waste by-product coke industry, kerosene, diesel fuel, refined engine oil.

Solid components of the invention are milled to a particle size less than 0.16 mm, and then activate the charge by any of the components by wetting and solid combustible components are covered with a layer of activator. As a result the combustion increases the temperature of combustion of carbon and the completeness of combustion.

Aluminum powder is a highly active chemical reagent, and its combustion produces high temperatures, which contributes to more complete combustion of carbon. At the same time observed the reaction of interaction of aluminum with mineral impurities of coal with the formation of cementitious minerals SA [Larin Z. M., Nikitina L. V., Gerasin R. V. Phase composition, microstructure and strength of cement stone and concrete. - M.: Stroiizdat, 1977].

Calcium aluminate during hydration (in the manufacture of concrete) forms a series of high-quality binding materials:

<> SAO6With4NA11, 3CaO·Al2O3·3CaSO4·31H2O, 3CaO·Al2O3·CaSO4·12H2O, CaO·Al2O3·CaCO3·11H2O, SAO10,

With2NA8, C2FHX, C2(AF)HY.

Thus, the use of aluminum powder can increase the temperature of the coal burning process, increase the completeness of combustion of coal, to receive additional amounts of heat and to obtain mineral material with astringent properties [Larin Z. M., Nikitina L. V., Gerasin R. V. Phase composition, microstructure and strength of cement stone and concrete. - M.: Stroiizdat, 1977. - P. 81-143].

To improve the quality of the briquettes in the charge add limestone at high temperatures of 1,100-1,300°C decomposes with the formation of CO2and Cao. Calcium oxide at these temperatures reacts with mineral impurities of coal with the formation of cementitious minerals.

For the manufacture of fuel briquettes is meant the process - extrusion. For applied extrusion machine special design extruder.

Example. For the experiment used boiler slag Novokuznetsk, coal mine "coke" (Prokopyevsk).

In experiments 1-7 (table) in ash-slag mixture was added 10% coal dust, 5% waste coal, the mixture was milled prior to�upnote less than 0.16 mm.

As an activator solid materials used coke resin. The content of aluminum powder in all experiments was 1.5%. From the resulting mixtures produced in the laboratory, the briquettes are dried at 115°C and subjected to combustion.

The carbon content in all experiments ranged from 0.3 to 1.3%. Received bottom ash mixture was mixed with dihydrate gypsum, milled to a particle size of 350 m2/kg, received an astringent.

In the proposed method is formed of ash and slag mixture with a low content of carbon, which is a high-quality building material suitable for the manufacture of cement, concrete, mortar, dry mortar.

The technical result is complete combustion of the waste, improving the environment, increasing the economic efficiency of coal processing, waste is reduced, increasing the amount of heat from coal combustion. The production of high quality building materials based on cement, obtained by burning fuel briquettes.

Sources of information

1. The invention application. A method for preparing a coal-water slurry. The authors of Kostovetsky S. P. et al. Published part on 20.05.2003. Application 4258657/04, 23.04.1987.

2. Application 2010128963/09, 13.07.2010. Published on 10.01.2012. Method of obtaining coal-water fuel�and. Authors: Skvortsov L. S., etc.

3. Patent RU 2298028 C1, IPC C10L 5/10, C10L 5/28 (2006.01).

4. Larin Z. M., Nikitina L. V., Gerasin R. V. Phase composition, microstructure and strength of cement stone and concrete. // Stroiizdat, 1977, p. 272.

1. The mixture containing coal and binder additives, characterized in that the coal is composed of unburned ash-slag mixture from the combustion of coal in boiler plants, thermal power plants, home furnaces, waste coal, as activators use: coal tar, resinous waste coke and chemical industries, waste engine oil, as a high calorie Supplement - aluminum powder 1-3% vol., and as binder, limestone 13-18%.

2. A method of manufacturing fuel briquettes from the mixture according to claim 1, comprising grinding and mixing of the mixture components, characterized in that after mixing produce separation of water, extruding the mixture, drying, packing briquettes.



 

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4 cl, 2 tbl

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