Connection of first component with second component with inclined orientation of connection ledges and assembly of two said components
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of assembly obtained by connection of first structural element (1) with second structural element. First structural component (1) is configured by making of the set of long ledges (3) on its connection surface (2). Every ledge (3) has axial line, end and base. Axial line at the end of every ledge (3) is directed at the angle to perpendicular to connection surface (2) nearby the ledge base while angular orientation of axial lines extending through said ends varies with said set of ledges (3). Then, first structural element and multiple setting elastic laminate plies are bonded to input ledges (3) in at least several setting elastic laminate plies to solidify said plies to get second structural component.
EFFECT: higher hardness of the assembly of structural elements.
13 cl, 5 dwg
The technical field to which the invention relates
The present invention relates to a method for the connection of one component with another component and the node, which is obtained in this way.
The level of technology
The connection between metal or thermoplastic and composite components currently produced in various ways, each of which has its limitations.
The use of fasteners is widespread, however, it leads to delamination of the material around the holes for the fasteners. Holes for fasteners are often difficult to drill in composite materials, and thus may require substantial reinforcement around the holes for the fasteners that causes weight gain. Fasteners are particularly weak in the draw direction (i.e., in the direction of the axial load on the fastener.) So fasteners are not suitable for many applications in aerospace engineering.
Adhesive joints are widely used for joining metal components with composite multi-layer materials, however, they have low characteristics of lifting, stretching and splitting, and also tend to break down with very weak preduprediteln�bubbled signs or without any. These low characteristics of exfoliation and stretching also introduce restrictions on the use of adhesive joints in traditional aerospace structures. Attempts to compensate for low characteristics flaking or stretching lead to the need for a large surface area bonding, which is associated with weight gain.
WO 2004/028731 A1 describes a method, according to which the surface elements are formed by the energy beam, particularly an electron beam, in order to attach the surface material to a metal component forming the protrusions to increase the surface area of the connection and increasing the strength of the connection with the introduction into the matrix and jointly cured laminate.
WO 2008/110835 A1 describes a method whereby the protruding surface features are "built up" on the surface of the connection component of successive layers using the additive manufacturing process.
The profile and shape of the surface topography can be easily controlled so as to optimize the mechanical characteristics of the site, in particular the tensile and delamination. Each protruding element of the surface may have a pointy end to the element surface can be easily implemented in a number of layers of plastic applied consistently �and the surface connection. The protruding element surface may be asymmetrical to improve the properties of a node in a certain direction of the load.
However, the drawback of the above methods is that at least some of the projecting elements of the surface in the manufacture of a node can break through the layers of the multilayer material, which reduces the strength of the assembled host. This drawback is particularly critical if the component is an angular bracket or the like, when the layers of the multilayer material you want to put on the corner.
Disclosure of the invention
The first aspect of the invention provides a method of connection of the first component with the second component, wherein said method includes preparing the first component by forming groups of elongated protrusions on the connecting surface of the component, wherein each protrusion has an axial line, end and base, and the centerline at the end of each protrusion is oriented at an angle relative to the perpendicular to the connecting surface at the base of the ledge, and the angular orientation of the axial lines passing through the ends of the projections varies within the group of protrusions, the connection of the first component and the flexible layer so as to enter the recesses in the flexible layer, and curing the flexible layer to obtain a second component�and after the introduction into it of the group of tabs.
The second aspect of the invention provides a node, obtained by the method according to the first aspect.
The protrusions can be increased on the bonding surface in a sequence of layers, with each layer increasing by directing energy and/or material on the connecting surface. Suitable additive manufacturing technology can enable the process "powder layer" (in which a number of layers of the powder precipitated in the joint and certain sections of each layer is melted by using the energy of the beam) or the process of "powder feeder" (when the powder is deposited in certain areas of the connections pane, and then melted using an energy beam, in particular laser or electron beam). Alternative to this, the protrusions can be obtained by attaching a method of friction welding of a group of ledges to the connecting surface. In addition, the protrusions can be obtained by a method of overlaying (according to which the molten material is forced through the nozzle). Alternative to this, the protrusions can be obtained by the method described in WO 2004/028731 A1, wherein the protrusions are produced by sequential removal of material with the bonding surface. These methods of obtaining are given as examples and, in fact, can be used any method.
The orientation of each centerline, �rhodesa through the end of the ledge, preferably determined based on one or more of the following factors: the profile of the connecting surface; a pre-defined initial orientation of the first component and the flexible layer immediately prior to connection; and a pre-defined initial point of contact between the first component and the flexible layer during the connection.
The protrusions preferably are oriented so that the flexible layer and the first component was connected, with each ledge penetrated into the layer, while the axial line of the local ledge to store small or even zero angle relative to the perpendicular to the local surface layer. Thus, with the introduction of the projections to layer the effect of rupture of the flexible layer is reduced.
The connecting surface may be flat, convex or even concave. The projections may be symmetrical (e.g., cylindrical or conical and pass at a right angle to the component), or at least one of the projections may be asymmetrical (e.g., one or more protrusions can lean one way and/or can have non-circular cross-section). The centreline of the protrusions may be straight or curved. The protrusions are preferably elongated and have a ratio of height to width equal to two or more.
The first component, and a layer of flexible� preferably connected by means of applying a flexible layer to the component. Such an application can be done manually or with the help of letoladomou machine with computer control. For the adequate insertion of the projections in the layer may have a soft cushion. The first component can be installed on the mandrel, over which is applied a flexible layer. Alternative to this first component, with projections that can be rolled or moved otherwise by a flexible layer to enter the recesses in the layer.
One or more flexible layers can be similarly attached to the first component over a specified flexible layer by connecting the first component and each of the next flexible layer. The tabs can be entered in at least some of the following flexible layers during the connection.
The flexible layer may be one or more layers, fiber-reinforced. The layer may be formed as a layer of dry fibres, which is impregnated with resin after the protrusions are inserted in the layer. Alternative this layer may be a fibrous layer, pre-impregnated with resin, so-called "prepreg", which entered the protrusions. After the introduction of the projections in the layer forming method, vacuum bag and resin impregnation if necessary, you may need curing composite layer reinforced with fiber. Composite layer can before�add a, for example, plastic, reinforced with carbon fiber (carbon fibre reinforced plastic, CFRP), plastic, glass-fibre reinforced (glass fibre reinforced plastic, GFRP) or aramid, in particular Kevlar. Alternative to this, the flexible layer may be a thermoplastic material, in particular peek (polyetheretherketone, PEEK). This may require softening of thermoplastic material by heating in order to make it flexible enough before the introduction of the projections. thermoplastic material may be block is hardened by cooling after the introduction of tabs.
Flexible layer preferably undergoes curing joint with the first component after the introduction of the projections in the flexible layer, in order to obtain the second component of the flexible layer. If the first component is connected a plurality of flexible layers, each of these layers may be block is hardened separately on the first component or the curing may be performed after application of a group of layers or all layers on the first component.
The protrusions can be made of the same material as the first component, or of another material.
The specified connection can be used for connecting structural components, e.g. in the aerospace industry. In particular, such a connection can be used to attach the reinforcing layer�; the base of the movable rib or stringer to the panel, for example in the wing or fuselage, or the connecting brackets to the Aileron. An alternative connection can be used to connect adjacent layers in a multilayer structure.
Brief description of the drawings
Following is a description of embodiments of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
figure 1 - bracket, having a group of protrusions with different orientation;
figure 2 is a group of protrusions;
figure 3A - bracket of figure 1 mounted in the slot of the mandrel;
figure 3b - the process of stacking, in which the sequence of layers is applied to the bracket and the mandrel;
figure 3C - completion of laying before curing;
figure 3d - ready hybrid detail after curing and removal from the mandrel;
figure 4 - schematic representation of the system of manufacturing by a powder layer;
figure 5 - schematic illustration of the fabrication system a method of supplying powder.
The implementation of the invention
Metal corner bracket 1 shown in figure 1, includes an outer connecting surface 2. The group of surface elements or protrusions 3 out of joint surfaces 2. As can be seen in figure 1, the protrusions 3 a single of a number of groups are distributed essentially evenly match�individual surface, thus, only a small area in the region of maximum curvature near the top remains free from protrusions 3. Each of the protrusions 3 has an end, the base and the centerline.
As shown in figure 2, the projections 3 are arranged on the bonding surface 2 in the group in two-dimensional plane x-y. Figure 2 shows only a portion of the connecting surface 2 having edge length Lx in the x direction and the edge length Ly in the y direction. Figure 2 shows only the outlines of the bases of the projections 3 on the bonding surface 2. The base of the protrusions are removed from the edge of the bracket on the distance EDx in the x direction and the distance EDy in the y direction. The base of the protrusions are arranged with a pitch px in the x direction and with a pitch PY in the y direction.
Below the process connection of the bracket 1 with a multilayer composite component 30 to produce hybrid parts 40 described with reference to figures 3A-3d. The bracket 1 is mounted on the mandrel 20 having a contoured surface with a socket, which is placed in the bracket, as shown in figure 3A.
After installing the bracket 1 on the mandrel is causing the package composite layers on the bracket 1 and the mandrel 20. Package composite layer contains a number of layers 31-35 unidirectional carbon fiber pre-impregnated with uncured epoxy resin. Such layers are known as "prepregs". As p�shown in figure 3b, the protrusions 3 pass through the first prepreg 31, when the prepreg 31 is applied to the connecting surface 2. The orientation of the protrusions 3 is illustrated in detail below. The following layers 32-35 sequentially applied to the connecting surface 2 to obtain a composite package of layers. For the full introduction of the projections 3 can be used swiping a soft cushion on the prepregs 31-35. Rolling soft cushion can be applied after each layer, after applying a layer group or after applying the last layer.
Figure 3C shows the complete package of layers of the second component 30 of the bracket 1 and the mandrel 20, ready for compaction and curing prepregs, so-called, by way of a vacuum bag. This package is served with a vacuum membrane (and possibly various other rubbers, in particular a porous plate or the outer plate); vacuum membrane pump out in order to make the pressure seal and to remove moisture and volatile substance, wherein the package is heated (possibly in an autoclave for curing of epoxy matrix. When the matrix epoxy resin is melted before curing, it flows into intimate contact with the protrusions 3. The protrusions 3 are mechanically interlock with the matrix, increasing the surface area of the connection.
As a result of the curing process, metal Cresta� 1 (first component) and a multilayer composite component 30 (the second component) are connected, forming a hybrid item 40, which is then removed from the mandrel 20. Hybrid detail 40 shown in figure 3d and can be mounted with various other components.
The centerline of each protrusion 3 is thus to make possible the application of composite layer to the ledge and to secure the passage of the projection through the layer, retaining a small, ideally zero, the angle between the perpendicular to the local surface layer and the centerline of the ledge. This reduces the tendency to form side gaps with the passage of the protrusion 3 through the layer during application. Ideally, the hole formed in the layer, has a size large enough only for the passage of the ledge 3.
To the centerline of the projections provided achieving this ideal goal, it is necessary to know the orientation of the component 1 and the layer at the point where the layer for the first time comes into contact with the component. It is defined as "the starting point of application. In the example shown in figure 1, the initial point of application is point 4, located near the apex of the bracket 1, where the simulated layer 10 in the first point comes in contact with the projections 3 on both sides from the top. This simulation is used to calculate the appropriate geometry of the group of protrusions 3 on the bonding surface 2.
"Contact point" is defined to�to the point in which base layer 10 stops in contact with the component 1 and remains tangential to the local gradient of the connecting surface 2. "Contact point" at the beginning coincides with the starting point of application, however, it moves along the surface 2 as the application layer. Remove the contact point from the starting point of application can be seen in figure 1, when the layer 10 is moved between the positions A and D.
The centerline of the projections 3 in the ideal case are arranged so that at the point of intersection between the surface tangent from the "contact point", and the centerline of the ledge locally complied with the condition of perpendicularity. This gives the elements that are perpendicular to the local surface at their base and are bent as the distance from the surface with different local curvature to the profile of the connecting surface 2. The centerline of the projections 11 form concentric circles, as shown, in particular, in the example in figure 1, with the starting point 4 of the drawing in the center.
In that case, if it is theoretically possible to have more than one initial point of application, the starting point of the application is usually chosen so that you can get the tabs with a minimum inclination angle to the connecting surface.
Obtaining the ideal centerlines of the ridges is often a burden�Uo depending on the way used to produce the connecting surface 2 of the component 1 by forming protrusions 3. From this point of view, many advantages of the present invention may be apparent even if there is no strict compliance with the local conditions of perpendicularity as designated above.
For example, while the centerline 11 of the projections 3 shown in figure 1 are the curvature, the shape of the protrusions is approaching rectilinear projections under different angles relative to the connecting surface. Alternative to this you can use the tabs having a curved centerline, which does not provide precise local conditions perpendicularity, since the centerline is not strictly perpendicular to the connecting surface at the base of the ledge. Thus, the smaller the radius of curvature of the protrusions may be suitable, which can simplify the manufacturing process, while providing the perfect orientation at the end of each ledge.
It is important that the centerline at the end of each ledge was oriented at an angle relative to the perpendicular to the connecting surface at the base of the ledge, the angular orientation of the axial lines passing through the ends of the projections varies within the group of protrusions. It should be noted that the situation in which �soedinitelnaya the surface is flat, regarded as trivial and not included in the scope of the present invention, because the resulting component has a protrusion that is perpendicular to the connecting surface, and the condition of perpendicularity can be performed by simply location a flat connecting surface parallel to the flexible layer to enter the recesses in the flexible layer.
Each ledge 3 grown in the sequence of layers by additive manufacturing: a powder layer, as shown in figure 4, or a method of supplying powder, as shown in figure 5.
In the powder layer shown in figure 4, the group of protrusions is formed by lateral scanning of the laser head powder layer and the direction of the laser on certain portions of the layer of powder. More specifically, the system includes two supply container 30, 31 containing a powdered metal material, in particular powdery titanium. Roller 32 entrains powder from one of the supply containers (in the example in figure 4 the roller 32 entrains powder from the right of the supply container), and unrolls a continuous layer of powder on the substrate 33. Then the laser head 34 moves over the powder layer, and the laser beam from the head is switched on and off to melt the powder to the desired areas. After that, the substrate 33 is lowered on smal�large distance (typically of the order of 0.1 mm) for to prepare the capacity of the next layer. After exposure required for curing the melted powder, the roller 32 rolls another layer of powder on the substrate 33, prepared for sintering. So as you progress through the process is formed of sintered plot 35, which is based on sections 36 are not sintered powder. After the fabrication phase is removed from the substrate 33 and not sintered powder 36 is checked before it is returned to the supply containers 30, 31.
The system layer of the powder, shown in figure 4, can be used to get the entire bracket 1, including the protrusions 3. Move the laser head 34 and the modulation of the laser beam are determined by the model that is created with the help of computer-aided design (Computer Aided Design, CAD) and which has the required profile and the layout of the site.
The system of manufacture by a method of supplying powder, shown in figure 5, can be used to obtain the projections 3 on the pre-fabricated bracket 1. For this purpose, the bracket 1, with pre-fabricated flush set into the mechanism of the system of manufacture by a method of supplying powder.
Figure 5 shows the increase of the protrusion 3 on the bonding surface 2 one arm of the bracket 1. System manufacturing method of the powder feeder includes a head are 41, made with the possibility of displacement and annular channel 42 around the laser 41. Not sintered powder flows through the channel 42 in the focus of the laser beam 43. When the powder is deposited, it melts, forming a drop of 44, which is blended with the existing material.
System powder feeder can be used for serial or parallel expansion of the projections. More specifically, the protrusions can be increased in parallel according to the following sequence:
or sequentially according to the following sequence:
where P(X)L(Y) means that increasing the layer X of protrusion of the Y.
This varies from a powder layer, which allows only the simultaneous growth projections.
Unlike the system layer of the powder, shown in figure 4, the system powder feeder with figure 5 directs the powder only on selected areas of the joint and fuses the powder delivered. Thus, the feeder powder creates patterns that do not rely on the powder, so the site may require the installation of supports (not shown), is made as a single unit, which later mechanically removed, in particular, in the case where the projections have a large overhanging parts.
The head 40 may be a single�public component, moving during the process, or the part can be rotated at the time of manufacture. In other words, the head 40 directs the powder to the selected portions of the coupling area when the part is in the first orientation relative to the head 40, and then the workpiece is rotated and moves, therefore, in the second orientation relative to the head 40 and the head directs the material to the selected portions of the coupling area, while the part is in the second orientation. This allows the manufacture of complex shapes without the use of removable substrates. For example, the hanging elements can be obtained by rotating the workpiece between the layers so that the generated element is constantly deflected from the vertical by not more than 30 degrees. Since the surface where the protrusions are formed is at a temperature substantially lower than the melting point of the material, it is only necessary that the surface retained the support angle in a short period of time after the termination of the laser energy for curing, sufficient to obtain a self-supporting structure. If the projections are receiving in parallel a sequence, you can change the orientation of the parts before applying each layer to ensure the formation of an unsupported overhanging elements.
The laser source in the system with�OYA powder or feed powder can be replaced by another source of energy beam, in particular electron beam source for supplying an electron beam.
The protrusion can have many different forms. So, for example, the protrusion may be a conical tooth. The protrusion may have an overhanging portion. The protrusion may have a circular symmetry about its centerline or may be asymmetrical. Axis may have a curvature in certain areas, or the entire length or may be straight. The protrusion may include a lateral protrusion or ridge. The protrusion may also include one or more of these elements, depending on the site that you want to receive.
The ratio of height to width of the projections may be relatively large to provide a strong mechanical grip and high surface area. If we define the ratio of height to width as H/W, where h is the height perpendicular to the bonding surface of the component, a W is the average width parallel to the connecting surfaces, the ratio of height to width varies between about 2 and 6. The ratio of height to width of the projections may be increased or decreased to obtain the desired properties, however, preferably it should be at least 2.
The flexible layer may be reinforced with glass or carbon fibers, or may be a thermoplastic layer without reinforcement, in particular, �ypolnennye from peek (polyetheretherketone, PEEK). The protrusions can be made of a metallic material (e.g., titanium or stainless steel) or of a thermoplastic material, in particular peek. The protrusions can be obtained from the same material as that of the first component or the flexible layer, or other material.
The first component can have essentially any shape and have a connecting surface, which is planar, convex or concave. The first component may include mounting elements, in particular holes for fastening elements, in order that the first component can be mounted with other components and to obtain a completed Assembly.
The invention is described above with reference to one or more preferred embodiments, however, it should be understood that various changes or modifications may be made without deviation from the scope of the invention defined by the attached claims.
1. The connection method of the first constructive component with the second structural component including:
the preparation of the first constructive component by forming groups of elongated protrusions on the connecting surface of the component, wherein each protrusion has an axial line, end and base, and the axial line at the end of each protrusion is oriented at an angle� relative to the perpendicular to the connecting surface at the base of the ledge, moreover, the angular orientation of the axial lines passing through the ends of the projections varies within the group of protrusions;
the connection of the first constructive component and a plurality of curable flexible laminate layers in such a way as to enter the recesses in at least some curable flexible laminate layers, and
curing many curable flexible laminate layers to constructive receipt of the second component after insertion of the group of protrusions in the specified at least some of the curable flexible laminated layers.
2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the protrusions are increasing on the bonding surface in a sequence of layers, with each layer increasing by directing energy and/or material on the connecting surface.
3. A method according to claim 2, characterized in that each layer increasing with the use of additive technologies.
4. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the orientation of each axial line passing through the end of the ledge, determined on the basis of the profile of the connecting surface.
5. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the orientation of each axial line passing through the end of the ledge, determined on the basis of a predetermined initial orientation of the first constructive component and at least the first of many g-curable�bcih laminate layers immediately before the connection.
6. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the orientation of each axial line passing through the end of the ledge, determined on the basis of a predetermined initial point of contact between the first structural component and at least the first of many curable flexible laminate layers during the connection.
7. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the first constructive component and at least the first of many curable flexible laminate layers connected by coating at least the specified first curable flexible laminate layer on the first constructive component.
8. A method according to claim 7, characterized in that the first constructive component is installed in the mandrel, over which is applied on at least the first curable flexible laminate layer.
9. The connection node of the first constructive component constructive and second component, the first constructive component has a connecting surface and formed on the bonding surface group of elongated protrusions, each of which has a centerline and the end and the base, with the centreline at the end of each protrusion is oriented at an angle relative to the perpendicular to the connecting surface at the base of the ledge, and the angular orientation of the axial lines passing h�cut the ends of the projections, changes within the group of protrusions, and the second constructive component contains many of the cured flexible laminate layers, and the projections introduced in at least some of the cured flexible laminate of layers of the second constructive component.
10. An Assembly according to claim 9, characterized in that the protrusions have a ratio of height to width, H/W, where H is the height perpendicular to the connecting surfaces of the constructive component, and W is the average width parallel to the connecting surface, at least equal to 2.
11. An Assembly according to claim 9, characterized in that the centerline of at least some of the protrusions is curved over the entire length or part length.
12. An Assembly according to claim 9, characterized in that the first constructive component is a metal.
13. An Assembly according to claim 9, characterized in that the second constructive component is a composite component, fiber reinforced.
SUBSTANCE: assembly of parts connection comprises ledges made on coupled sides of parts, having bulb-shaped expansions at the ends and necks at their bases, and slots that respond to the ledges, representing bulb-shaped grooves that match bulb-shaped expansions of ledges changing into bores corresponding to journals of ledges. Surfaces of ends of ledges and coupled surfaces of slots bottom have conical shape, and tops of surfaces of ledges ends and slots bottom are located at different sides relative to connected parts. Side surfaces of ledges and coupled side surfaces of slots are formed by movement of a straight line along a guide that represents a line of crossing of a spherical surface with a cylindrical surface, formed by movement of a straight line along an S-shaped guide. Side surfaces of ledges and side surfaces of slots are smoothly coupled, accordingly, with surfaces of ends of ledges and surfaces of slots bottom.
EFFECT: development of an assembly of parts connection limited by surfaces of curvilinear shape.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method can be used in production of connector 6 on metal party surface 4 in the form 3D structure 1 raised above the surface. Welding 7 is carried pout using at least one fused extra material 2. In welding cycle 8 of welding process 8 electric arc 3 is initiated between extra material 2 fed into welding torch 5 and part 4. Heat feed in welding process 7 is adjusted by setting of welding conditions. 3D structure 1 is composed stepwise of several separate elements 6. Every said separate element 6 is produced in one welding cycle 8 while after every welding cycle 8 break is performed in welding. Every welding cycle is started by arc initiation and terminated before the break 9. Electric arc 3 is quenched by adjustment of welding parameters. Separated element made in previous welding cycle is connected with separate element produced in the next welding cycle 8.
EFFECT: production of whatever connectors using whatever extra materials.
7 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. aircraft structural component comprises sheets with recessed areas and strips along inner surfaces of the latter, structural elements, means for jointing sheets with structural elements. Joint comprises internal and external members to make a dovetail and a lock. One of said members is arranged along strips of said sheets while another one is arranged at sections of structural elements aligned with said strips. Said lock prevents relative sliding between internal members and external members of said dovetail joint. Said internal members are furnished with ledges and recesses arranged in turns in every side edge. Said external members are furnished with ledges and recesses arranged in turns in every side edge. Number, position and sizes of said recesses and ledges are selected to make reliable joint there between. Said ledges and recesses as-assembled are located opposite each other.
EFFECT: simplified assembly, decreased weight, sufficient stiffness.
10 cl, 17 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to jointing structural elements together, particularly, in aerospace engineering for butting reinforcing strap, floating support of rib or stringer with panel, for example, wing or fuselage panel. Alternatively, said joint may be used for connecting adjacent layers of laminar structure. Structure first component 55 is prepared by building up ordered set of ledges 56, 57 on its side in the area of joint with another component. Every said ledge is built up as sequence of layers using additive process. Building up of every layer is performed at selected areas of component joint by directing laser beam fro laser head to applied layer of material or by feeding powder material to be fixed thereon thermally by laser beam, or by feeding hot material via nozzle. Components are jointed together by embedding ordered set of ledges of the first component into second one.
EFFECT: higher strength and fatigue resistance.
28 cl, 18 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed appliance comprises hook and lock made up of spring-loaded handle arranged to turn on end axle and having main and two lateral surfaces articulated with lock clamp that may turn on main and intermediate axles. Lock is furnished with hollow case secured to one of elements to be connected. Vertical walls of said case has bores made to receive end, main and intermediate axles. Handle is provided with spring-loaded clevis. Clamp has "П"-shape brace and cam mechanism made up of two cams fitted on main axle and rigidly jointed by extra axle and drive with rod. Hook is articulated with cams.
EFFECT: higher reliability.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: mechanical device consists of unit of multitude of interconnected parts requiring accurate relative arrangement. At least one part includes two lugs forming a chevron shape. At least another part includes two grooves forming a chevron shape. Lugs and grooves have conjugating shapes and corresponding dimensions. On the unit the said parts are positioned relative one to another by beans of mutual engagement with the said lugs and grooves forming a chevron mutually engaging configuration. Both parts have corresponding orifices between chevrons. At parts levelling the orifice forms a channel for insertion of a bolt during assembly of the parts.
EFFECT: simple mechanical structure for accurate assembly of parts, easily, accurately and reliably repeated at assembling or disassembling.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: personal demand items.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to household appliance. Household appliance, specifically juicer, has at least one first section of body with fixator and at least one second section of body with counterfixator. Fixator and counterfixator are intended for connection of body sections. Stop element is provided for fixator and counterfixator, which does not let fixator separate from counterfixator in locked position of stop element. Stop element has the first end, which rests on one of body sections, and the second end, which sticks to fixator in locked position. Stop element is fixed on body section with the possibility of displacement from released position into locked position. One of two elements - fixator and counterfixator - is moulded to body section intended to it in the form of springy stop hook, and the second of two elements - fixator and counterfixator - is arranged with the possibility to adhere to it and is formed as stop groove or stop tooth on body section intended for it.
EFFECT: simplified assembly and disassembly of body sections.
12 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device consists of enveloping component (301) and enveloping component (302), allowing at least at section of its length wedge-shaped catching sections (303; 304) in form like dovetail, gradually decreasing cross-section, and in which enveloping component and enveloped component can be placed on front-face area or on the verge of structural components (307; 308), so that at travelling of structural components relative to each other activate linking by compression way of enveloped and enveloping components. Enveloped component of equipment is outfitted by staples, implemented with ability of rest into corresponding border sections and keeping by them on wedge-shaped catching section of enveloping component, at wider end of catching section of enveloping component for prevention of maximal penetration of enveloped component by compression way into enveloping component.
EFFECT: excluding reciprocal deformation of enveloped and enveloping components or tension of its material at penetration.
6 cl, 37 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: unit has projections and grooves on the mating sides of the members. The projections are provided with bulb-shaped thickenings at the ends and pins at the bases. The groves are made of bulb-shaped hollows that correspond to the bulb-shaped thickenings of the projections. The hollows go into the bores that correspond to the pins of the projections. The surfaces of the ends of the projections and mating surfaces of the bottom of the grooves are conical. The top of the conical surfaces of the ends of the projections and the bottom of the hollows are arranged on opposite sides with respect to the members to be joined.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protection of steam turbine blades against erosion. Proposed process comprises application of protective coating on the blade. Coating is applied by laser surfacing. Laser head is displaced at the rate of linear interpolation Vi not over 0.05 m/s at laser radiation power making 800-1200 W.
EFFECT: hardened ply of 1/3 length of the blade root at sufficient aerodynamics.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to repair of turbine blades. Proposed process comprises preparation of blade surface. Coating is applied with the help of laser radiation with simultaneous feed of additive powder to melt belt. At hard-facing, radiation power P is varied from 300 to 2500 W, and/or as radiation source feed rate V from 0.1-0.01 m/s, and/or amount of powder fed from 3 to 15 g/min.
EFFECT: accelerated process, higher hard-facing quality.
SUBSTANCE: powder composition mixture for laser build-up on the metal base includes powders of titanium and silicone carbide with particles size 20-100 mcm at the following ratio of components, parts by weight: titanium - 5-7; silicon carbide - 3-6. Titanium powder particles can be in form of spheres.
EFFECT: assurance of uniform distribution of hard inclusions over volume of coating due to synthesis of the titanium carbide, resulting in improvement of the coating quality, namely its hardness and wear resistance.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: processed surface is prepared by cleaning, washing and abrasive flow machining. That is followed by laser clad deposit of a powder material in an inert gas medium. The powder material is presented by titanium and silicon carbide particles 20-100 mcm in size in mass ratio 6:4 or 6:5. The deposit process is performed at laser power 4÷5 kWt, laser beam travel speed 500÷700 mm/min and power consumption 9.6÷11.9 g/min.
EFFECT: invention enables the defect-free wear-resistance coating with high adhesion to the substrate and minimum effect thereon.
2 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser-plasma nano-structuring of metal surfaces. Proposed method comprises the formation of near-surface laser plasma at continuous optical discharge in metal vapour and feed of ions of active chemical elements from self-contained plasma energy source. Laser radiation and laser plasma interact with processed surface to fuse said near-surface ply. Chemical elements from laser plasma are adsorbed by the surface liquid phase to diffuse into fused layer depth. At cooling of fused ply, atoms of chemically active elements act as artificial crystallisation centres. Control over energy and time parameters of laser plasma, laser radiation by chemical composition of laser plasma and parameters of laser-plasma surface processing allow a purposeful fabrication of nanostructures in near-surface ply.
EFFECT: better surface roughness of at least conserved surface quality.
12 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser material processing, particularly a method for laser fusion using an ablation coating. The method involves determining the surface region of a fusible substance where fusion is to be carried out and depositing a layer of ablation material thereon; laser irradiation of said ablation layer until fusion of the substance and complete removal of said ablation layer; the laser radiation power, irradiation mode and thickness of the ablation layer are selected depending on the radiation absorption coefficient of the fusible substance during transition thereof to a liquid phase; further depositing new portions of ablation material on the irradiated area during irradiation with removal of the irradiated ablation material until the onset of fusion of said substance.
EFFECT: fusing a material with laser radiation with an arbitrary wavelength independent of whether said wavelength belongs to the absorption region of the fused material.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser surfacing of metal hardened in one direction. Powder is fed onto substrate surface (4) of structural element (1, 120, 130) made of hardened metal with dendrites (31) oriented in one direction (32). Beam scanning rate, laser power, beam diameter, powder stream focus and/or powder flow rate are set to ensure local orientation of temperature gradient (28) at crystallisation front (19) less than 45° towards substrate dendrite direction (32) for dendrite (31) in substrate (4).
EFFECT: monocrystalline growth of dendrites, ruled out cracking.
24 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to steel surface processing. Steel surface is cleaned of scale and processed by laser beam. Surface laser processing is executed by pulse laser radiation with wavelength of 0.8-1.2 mcm, power of 105-107 W/cm2, pulse frequency of 28-35 kHz and surface scanning rate of 8-12 cm/s. To form iron oxide layer on steel surface to preserve composition and properties of deeper metal plies, laser processing is performed to depth of 10-40 nm.
EFFECT: higher rust resistance.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser welding of billets (9) from high-refractory super alloys. Heat laser source (3) creates generates zones (11) of heat feed to billet surface (10). Welding filler (13) is fed by device (5) to heat feed zone (11) and driven by transfer device (15) between heat source (3) and feed device (5) on one side and, on opposite side, and billet surface (10). Welding filler is fed at weight rate ≤350 mg/min.
EFFECT: set is one of the following laser welding parameters: laser power of 100 W to 300 W, laser beam diameter of 500 mcm to 800 mcm, welding rate of at least 250 mm/min.
18 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reconditioning of parts from titanium alloys by laser buildup and can be used in machine building for repair of worn-out parts. Titanium-based powder material layer 4 is applied on flaw 1 of part 2 via nozzle 3. Flow particles of said powder 5 I fed directly in zone 6 of laser beam effects 7. Protective gas 8 is used to protect against oxidation. Said powder I fed to article coaxially with laser beam 7. Material particles 5 delivered to article feature high temperature resulted from interaction with laser beam 7 to remelt article material and powder to eliminate aid flaw. Buildup is made by 4800-500 W laser beam at radiation rate of 800-100 mm/min and powder flow rate of 45-51 g/min. Under these conditions article material melting is minimum but in amount sufficient for strong adhesion between powder and article material. Structural-phase transitions occurred in buildup zone allow an optimum distribution of compression stresses in fused zone and that of thermal effects.
EFFECT: higher strength.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves the direction of an electron beam to a welded joint on its face side. The electron beam is diverted during welding towards the material with a negative thermoelectric potential at an acute angle φ(0) to the joint. A provision is made for the diversion from the joint of a beam axis on the reverse side of the welded part under an action of magnetic fields of thermoelectric currents at an angle equal to the above angle φ(0). The value of the angle φ(0) is determined depending on a charge and mass of an electron accelerating voltage, magnetic induction on the joint surface, thickness of the welded part and a coefficient considering parameters of the joint and heating temperature for each pair of heterogeneous materials.
EFFECT: invention allows improving the quality of weld joints from heterogeneous metals and alloys of large thickness with no lacks of penetration throughout the joint thickness.