Bioenergy complex for production of biogas and granular biofuel
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of biogas production using the method of anaerobic methane fermentation. The bioenergy complex for production of biogas and granular biofuel is offered. The complex includes a biopond and the unit for production of gaseous biofuel, with the series-connected branch pipes for biomass supply by chipper, homogenizer and bioreactor. The bioreactor consists of, at least, one methane tank, the gas output of which through gas-holder and compressor is connected with the power unit. The tanks made from composite elastomers with polyurethane or polyvinylchloride two-sided coating are used as pressure-tight methane tanks that are equipped with the piping heating system. The tanks are connected through branch pipes with the hydromixing system. The chipper has a receiving bin, and the output for the used bioreactor biomass is provisioned with the receiving vessel. The complex is supplemented with the unit for pellet fabrication, with the possibility of its work in a mode of fabrication of pellets from green vegetative mass, planted in the biopond, or in the mode of fabrication of pellets from biomass processed in the reactor. The unit for fabrication of pellets consists of the pressing-out unit, and the liquid discharge branch pipe of the pressing-out unit is connected with the possibility of adjustment with the homogenizer of the unit for production of gaseous biofuel or with the biopond. The solid fraction output of the pressing-out unit is connected with granulator, the output of which is connected with the packaging line for two kinds of pellets.
EFFECT: invention allows to perform deep degassing of organic mass, to increase the output of biogas, profitability of biogas units for electrical power generation in a low power range from 10 kW/h up to 500 kW/h, expand functionalities, ensure mobility and work capacity of the complex in any climatic conditions.
9 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to the field of bioenergy, namely to devices and systems for the production of biogas by anaerobic methane fermentation of organic vegetable raw materials for further use of biogas - methane for energy production (heat, electricity), as the primary raw material used by the plant eichornia.
In the prior art the use of organic vegetable raw materials for biofuel production, such as waste wood, rapeseed oil, biomass sorghum, Galega, other plant waste products. The main disadvantage of this raw material is the need for significant areas of high quality soils for growing plants and climatic factor.
It is known to use water hyacinth - eichornia as the main element for biofuel production coupled with wastewater from various pollutants: petroleum products, phenol, phosphates, sulfates, amines, surfactants, fats, etc. This plant has an extremely high ability to reproduce. One hectare of water surface, placing eichornia, saves up to 8-10 ha of land.
Known various devices for producing biogas, which can be used to generate electricity.
For example, bioe�ergetically installation according to the patent of Russian Federation №2284967 (publ. 10.10.2006) for the processing of organic agricultural waste in anaerobic conditions. Bioenergy plant comprises a digester with a water jacket, insulation, stirring, loading and unloading pipes, the pipes feeding the biogas and the gas tank. The unit is equipped Helio collector, electric water heater and a Stirling engine in the form of thermomechanical generator located from the bottom of the engine biogas burner, which is connected with the pipeline for supplying biogas from the gas holder. In the Stirling engine heat combusted in the biogas burner, biogas is converted into electrical energy and used to heat the digester in the fermentation of biomass to the desired temperature and to ensure continuous system operation in the absence of the receipt of solar radiation. The invention provides an Autonomous power supply to local consumers in rural areas with the combined use of solar energy and biomass energy.
In this patent provides for the burning of gas for converting thermal energy into electrical energy, which is used for heating the coolant in the digester. Comes triple energy conversion: combustion of biogas to heat the working fluid DWI�Atelier Stirling conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy, torque shaft, which, in turn, spins the rotor of the generator, generating electricity. This chain of transformations leads to loss of efficiency. Currently produce Stirling engines do not have much power, because they have no effective technical solution, in addition, effective application of Helio collector is only possible in areas with sufficient solar activity.
Known biogas plant according to the patent of Russian Federation №2404240 (publ. 20.11.2010). The installation includes a reactor, which contains three concentrically arranged cylindrical sections: the outer for holding mesophilic stage anaerobic digestion of biomass, medium for intermediate stage and Central to thermophilic stage of anaerobic digestion, the pipe feeding the source of biomass in the outer section, an outlet conduit received fertilizer from the bottom of the Central section and the selection system of biogas from sections. The outer and middle sections are reported in the lower part and middle and Central - at the top. The center section is provided with a heat exchanger for heating the fermentation mass. The outer section contains a mixing device in the form of the impeller. Design of a biogas plant provides a high degree of decomposition of bi�waste and logical enough performance for biogas.
The disadvantages of the known solutions are: lack of heating system in the outdoor section that will not allow to keep the fermentation at mesophilic stage, i.e. to achieve a stable temperature +39°C-(+42)°C., with functional unnecessary role of the middle section, because process has no intermediate stages. Installation of mixing device in only one (outer) of the three sections will lead to delamination of the substrate in the Central section due to the heating up to +55°C (thermophilic mode) and intensive crusting on the surface of the substrate, which will lead to a sharp decrease in the yield of biogas and reduce the flow rate of the process of methane fermentation. In addition, the known design of metal-intensive and not suitable for processing large daily (from 10 tons a day and higher) amounts of organic materials.
Known bioreactor according to the patent of Russian Federation№2430153 (publ. 27.09.2011) for enzymatic recycling of plant and animal origin, plant stems, animal manure and poultry wastewater to produce biogas and the production of organic environmentally friendly fertilizer. The bioreactor comprises a housing with branch pipes for supplying the processed biomass (the primary substrate), discharge of finished fertilizers, biogas, placed in the center of the body circulation pipe located underneath the p�Vomero perforated tube in the form of a vertical spiral, wherein the coils form a cone facing the base up. The diameter of the top loop of the spiral equal to the inner diameter of the circulation pipe and located at the level of the lower edge of the pipe. Circulation pipe is made of a cylindrical vessel consisting of two pipes of different diameter, the space between which is filled with heated water to heat the biomass. The nozzles for supplying the biomass and discharge of finished fertilizers are placed on opposite sides of the housing, and a feed pipe located in the upper part of the housing, and a discharge pipe at the bottom. The invention allows to increase the intensity, stability and completeness of biochemical processes in the bioreactor due to the uniform mixing of biomass and temperature distribution throughout the volume of the bioreactor.
The disadvantages of this solution include a complex system of mixing metal inefficient design. Moreover, the principle of the design of pipe-in-pipe, the space between which is filled with the coolant to heat the biomass will not ensure temperature uniformity across the surface, and especially in the depth of the reactor. While the temperature stabilnost the process of methane fermentation is one of the most important factors in biogas production.
The closest, according to the applicant, tha� bioenergy complex "BIOCHEM" according to the patent of Russian Federation №95567 (publ. 10.07.2010), which implies not only the biological processing of waste, but also the simultaneous production of electricity and thermal energy, sufficient not only for Autonomous work, but also its transmission to an external customer, using eichornia regardless of the climate zone and the ambient temperature. Known complex includes a training module for waste water treatment facilities for hydro-Botanic recycling aquatic vegetation, including wastewater and/or sludge deposits), the module receiving gaseous biofuels (biogas)? which are serially connected compressor, tank and unit. The treatment facilities module contains at least one settling tank and at least one bioprod, whose surface is populated by free-floating neocoregames higher aquatic plants macrophytes (VVR), such as water hyacinth (Eichornia). To create hothouse conditions for intensive development and growth of the mass of eichornia, renderers waste, in particular bioprod placed indoors, along with the digester module to produce biogas, which are heated in the process of methane production very to a temperature of 78-80°C, which is sufficient for heating of space and create the desired temperature. The collected biomass ahorny� is fed into the grinder, later in the homogenizer, which also enters the activated sludge from the settling tanks. After stirring in a homogenizer sludge and other waste with shredded biomass eichornia, preferably in a weight ratio of 1:1, the mixture enters the digester module to produce biogas - methane. In the digesters due to the unique properties eichornia as the symbiont bacteria of methane production very intense process of formation and accumulation of methane, which is accompanied by a spontaneous self-heating of the mixture of waste and shredded mass eichornia to a temperature of from 70 to 90°C. methane Produced by the compressor is pumped into the tank where it accumulates with subsequent receipt of the input of gas turbine power plant. This generated electricity provides the internal power consumption of the complex, including the work of a grinder, homogenizer, lighting and ventilation, etc., sufficient to supply external electrical installations. Thus, despite the fact that as the main source of heat to create hothouse conditions of the digester complex is used as a backup heat supply, for example, with a significant decrease in the ambient temperature or at high latitudes with a harsh climate can also use thermal energy from the output of gasturb�the TES thermal power plant.
One of the disadvantages of the known solutions is the combination of functions performed by eichornia for wastewater treatment and biogas production. When declared "omnivorous" eichornia there are limitations in the concentration of individual chemical compounds in the environment, the plants, the excess of which leads to inhibition of growth or death of the last. The use of eichornia in purification of industrial wastewater from heavy metal ions and other toxic elements and their accumulation in plants is a positive factor from the point of view of technology of purification of effluent data, but the use of the green mass in biogas plants is not possible, because these recycled items are inhibitors of the anaerobic methane fermentation
Bioenergy complex "BIOCHEM", in particular, provides for the use as feedstock mixture in a ratio of 1:1 sludge treatment facilities, and/or manure and/or sewage water with eichornia, but this combination is not rational, and in some embodiments will not work. Each organics has its own time period of fermentation (for example, cow dung is 25 days, and corn silage 40 days). The use of such combinations is not possible to efficiently use the bio-digester. Certain types of organic (poultry manure, pig manure, etc.) applied for�I am in the process of anaerobic methane fermentation require pre-treatment, otherwise, the concentration and availability of the individual components (e.g., ammonia) in the initial state make it impossible for the activity of methane-forming bacteria. In addition, wastewater treatment plants are oil inclusions and household items, which also negatively affects the process of methane production very.
Therefore, the claimed solution does not provide for simultaneous wastewater treatment, and permits the use of a mixture with only "related" organic matter. For example, the combination of eichornia weight with green greenhouses (cucumbers, tomatoes, etc.).
In addition, the authors of the complex "Biochem States that metanoobrazovanie in the reactor is accompanied by spontaneous heating of the mixture of waste and shredded eichornia to 70-90°C, while heat is used to heat the interior space. Indeed, a large number of easily processed substrate, which is herbal weight leads to irreversible oxidation reactions with the corresponding release of heat. But the self-heating of the substrate contributes to the reduction of costs for heating and maintain a stable temperature directly in the bioreactor, but can not simultaneously be a source of thermal energy for heating and other environments: air and water in the greenhouse. Furthermore, the claim that complex Bi�check" capable of operating when the reactor temperature 78-80°C because it uses methanobacteria who are able to live and work in this temperature regime (extreme thermophile), and still use a dedicated heat for external heating is contrary to theory and practice of the process of methane production very, because we know that any "classic" mode of anaerobic digestion: mesophilic(+39°(-+42)°C), thermophilic(+53°-(+55)°C) other modes have strict temperature limits for the process of methane production very. Failure to comply with thermal stabilization operation leads to the disruption of the process of methane production very and destruction of methane-forming bacteria of the species. That suggests that described in the patent decision, in particular the selection of heat from the surface of the reactor and its use for heating the interior space of the greenhouse, pond for growing eichornia, and the temperature is not compatible with the functioning of the bioreactor and of the complex as a whole.
The technical result, which directed the claimed technical solution is a deeper degassing of organic matter, which increases the yield of biogas, helping to improve the profitability of biogas plants for electricity production in the range of low power 10 kWh to 500 kWh, and expanding the functionality of the complex as a result�those producing granulated biofuel and marketable products from waste biomass, when mobility and guaranteed health complex in any climatic conditions.
This technical result is achieved in that in the bio-energy complex, including bioprod and the module receiving the gaseous biofuels, in which the nozzles of the feed biomass sequentially connected to the pulper, homogenizer and the bioreactor, consisting of at least one digester, a gas outlet through which gas tank and a compressor connected to the power unit, the output of waste biomass of the bioreactor is provided with the receiving tank, wherein the complex is completed with a module of pellet production, with the possibility of working in the mode of production of pellets from grown in bioprod green mass, such as eichornia, or mode of manufacture pellet from the waste in the reactor biomass, consisting of an extraction unit, with the possibility of regulated alternate input connection with the output of the chopper or the output of the receiving tank waste biomass, wherein the nozzle outlet of the liquid extraction unit is connected to the adjustable fluid supply with a homogenizer module for gaseous biofuels or bioprogram, and the output of the solid fraction is connected to the granulator, the output of which is connected with line packing two types of pellets intended for storing,in the mode of production of pellets from grown in bioprod green mass yield of pellet mill also can be connected with the hopper of the shredder module receiving gaseous biofuels.
Thus, the pre-crushed pellets can be used, and as necessary additives to plant green mass, and as the main raw material, for example, in the winter, when it is impossible the cultivation of green vegetable matter in the indoor or outdoor bioprobe. Which allows the use of a bio-complex in any climatic conditions, and the easy transportation of the pellets allows them to be used as biofuel in bioenergy systems from other manufacturers.
In addition, this module implements an additional function of the complex, ensuring the disposal of wastewater in the bioreactor plant mass. Because waste green organics retains the properties of high-quality organic fertilizer or feed additives, pellets from waste organic matter can be used in agriculture, in livestock and poultry. In addition, these pellets can be used as fuel cells for solid fuel boilers.
The technical result - the deep degassing of organic matter is achieved by using a complex the inventive design of the bioreactor, where the digester is connected by branch pipes with hydroperiodide, with the possibility of circulation of organic matter, provide a mixing pump, si�theme hydroperiodide has a gas outlet, connected through the gas separator with the gas tank, wherein the sealed digester tanks used tanks with soft pipe heating system, which can significantly reduce construction costs for installation of biogas plant, transport increases the mobility of delivery, reduces the time of commissioning. The proposed solution provides intense involuntary emission of biogas from organic matter, because along with the release of gas from the top of the bubble accumulated in the digester gas, with the passage of the gas separator of organic mass additionally intensely "knocked out" of the gas component, which also enters the gas tank. Wherein the outlet of the bioreactor is connected with the receiving tank waste biomass, the accumulation is applied to the power extraction module of pellet production, disposing of waste biocomplex, for example, in fertilizers, food additives, etc.
The essence of the proposed solution is illustrated a functional diagram of the device shown in Fig.1., where the various lines show the path of motion of different products. Where 1 indoor pool (greenhouse) or 2 - open bioprod for growing biomass, which is fed to the processing in the acquisition module of the biogas fuel is 20. Additional module manufacturing pellets - 21 contains Blo� spin - 3, granulator - 4, a packing line - 5 and a warehouse Packed pellet - 6.
The module receiving gaseous biofuels 20 includes a hopper for energy pellets - 7, chopper/cavitator - 8, homogenizer - 9, bioreactor - 10 with the receiving tank waste biomass system 11 and hydroperiodide comprising a gas separator 13 and the tank 14, provided with a gas ignition system 15. Further, the gas can either be supplied to a gas boiler 16 of the consumer, either through the compressor 17 to the power generating device 18 (power unit).
Fig.2 shows a diagram of the bioreactor 10 with hydroperiodide 12, comprising a gas separator 13, with the gas entering the tank 14 and pipe heating system 22. Where 23 is the inlet flow of biomass from the homogenizer - 9; 24 and 25 is adjustable with plugs input and output connections of the bioreactor system and hydroperiodide, 28 - mixing pump, 27 - the pressure sensor 26 is a temperature sensor; 29 - out of spent biomass from the reactor into the receptacle 11.
Biogas plant operates as follows.
Mainly water hyacinth (Eichornia) as one of the most effective of neocoregames aquatic plants (macrophytes grown in the greenhouse (1) or in open water (2). Pools are shallow tank depth up to 0.5 m. Open�s pools (2) apply seasonal, greenhouse (1) are intended for year-round, if climate allows, operation and equipped with water heating systems, artificial lighting, climate control, flow of the nutrient solution. Bioprod 1 and 2 is also equipped with a system of collection and transportation of green biomass.
The amount of green biomass per day, ensuring smooth operation of the biogas reactor is determined by the productive capacity of a particular complex. For intensive growth of plants requires certain conditions: the water temperature is 24-28°C, air temperature 24-28°C, humidity 90%, light intensity, balanced diet and a number of other parameters. When you create these conditions with one square meter of water surface, planted with water hyacinth, you can gain 10-12 kg of green mass per day. In open water the amount of biomass produced depends on climatic conditions and nutrient medium. In the conditions of Central and southern strip from one hectare of water surface per season (four months) you can get a 2.0-3.0 thousand tons of fresh green mass. These data allow the calculation of the useful surface for greenhouses. Water hyacinth kept perfectly and does not lose its nutritional qualities in dry form and in fresh condition in the form of dense rolls, wrapped in p�lietilena film. This allows you to grow, storing excess grown green biomass, compensating for the decline in the rate of growth in winter, and also to grow water hyacinth in artificial and natural waters in spring-summer-autumn period in the amount sufficient to ensure year-round operation of biogas plants.
Assembled in the greenhouse (1) or open water (2) water hyacinth is fed to the grinding device/cavitator (8), which is an Electromechanical device that provides shredding of green mass to a predetermined fraction. In the known method of producing biogas is required to download the bioreactor, the biomass is collected, crushed and delivered by a pump (19) in a homogenizer (9). In the proposed solution creates the possibility of planning the smooth operation of the complex, taking into account the production capacity of each individual complex, climate and other growing conditions of the green mass, the properties of eichornia, when excessively grown a lot of plants can be maintained with the possibility of its use at any time. What is claimed complex provides for the submission of green mass after grinding on the block is pressed, for example, a press or a centrifuge (3) module manufacturing pellets (21), �de is an intensive removal of moisture from plants. The aqueous solution obtained at this stage, is sent to the homogenizer (9) to bring homogenisierung environment to a desired humidity and excess moisture is directed into pools for the cultivation of plants (1, 2). The solid fraction is fed to the granulator (4), which is used to produce pellets of a given size and density. Pellets or are supplied to the packaging line for packing pellets (5), which are stored in the warehouse (6), or in the required amount is received in a hopper (7), are equipped with automatic feed them into the shredder/cavitator (8) for further use in the process of anaerobic digestion in the module (20). Module manufacturing pellets (21) is also used for recycling and waste biomass. By switching to the relevant provisions of the valves (Fig. not shown) installed on the inlet to the unit is pressed, overlaps the feed line from the breaker (8) and opens the flow from the receiving tank (11). Further, the process of manufacturing pellets proceeds similarly to that described above, with the only difference that the obtained products are delivered to the warehouse and not re-used in the process of biogas production. The choice of modes of processing - or chopped fresh mass, or waste biomass, sequence and duration of each process on�shall be determined by regulations of the biocomplex.
Chopped-living biomass or pellets (depending on the settings of this complex to specific raw materials) from the chopper (8) is fed to the homogenizer(9), which is an open capacity with water (liquid), preheating and intensive mixing. For the process of methane fermentation of moisture supplied to the reactor, the raw materials should be 85-95%. Depending on the used raw material (fresh weight or pellets) in a homogenizer metered water. When the desired humidity, turn on the mixer, beat intensely water-vegetable weight, reducing it to a homogeneous condition. Homogenisierung mass is heated to the working temperature and periodically, in small portions, is fed into the bioreactor (10). The digester of the bioreactor (10) is made in the form of soft tank representing a hermetic shell mounding form of composite elastomers with polyurethane or PVC double-sided coating. These materials are characterized by high operational reliability, high barrier properties for gases and vapors, resistant to solar radiation and chemical agents. Outside soft tank is equipped with tubular heating system 22 to maintain the desired temperature of the organic mass in the reactor. To reduce Diplopoda�ü the tank can be insulated, and also have an additional outer protective shell, as a variant from the same material as the reactor, but can be other materials that meet the protective function.
In the bioreactor (10), in an oxygen-free environment, in a selected temperature range is prepared by fermentation of biomass. Formed methanobacteria are in the process of life produce biogas. To intensify the process of fermentation and maintain the state of the uniformity of the environment system hydroperiodide (12). Pump biomass is taken in one part of the reactor and fed to another, ensuring uniform and thorough mixing. Mixing devices (12) can be several, depending on the volume of the bioreactor, to ensure the quality of mixing of the entire mass of organic matter. Periodic mixing of organic matter also promotes the release of biogas from the organic medium. Because biogas is a product of the disintegration of the life of methanobacteria, for more intense removal and ensure the most favourable conditions for the development of methanobacteria system hydraulic stirring 12 included the gas separation device (13), which is a mechanical device, the passage through which organic matter is shaken up, which leads to coercive�enforcement Department gas. Thus, in the proposed solution, the gas enters the gas tank (14) from the top of the reactor (10) and the gas separation device (13). Perhaps the use of soft tank type used in gas industry.
In order to ensure security in the situation of exceeding the volume of incoming biogas is the gas tank may be equipped with an automatic ignition burning torch (15), which prevents the emission of methane into the atmosphere.
A further possible use of biogas as a gas in gas burners and boilers (16), to generate thermal energy for own needs and for third-party consumers, but also as raw material for the production of electricity, the supply of biogas through a compressor (17) that creates the required pressure, the power generating device (18) (microturbines, electrogenerator, etc.).
This complex involves work in the mode of periodic operation. Periodic action daily download bioreactor fresh organic mass and the daily discharge of waste organic matter in a volume equal loading.
Wastewater organic matter is supplied into the receptacle (11) for temporary storage. The extent of filling of the receiving tank (11) wastewater organics latter is pumped to the press/cent�igugu (3), then on the granulator (4), packaging line(5) and the warehouse (6). Waste green organics may be implemented as a high-quality organic fertilizer, feed additive in the diet of livestock and poultry or as fuel pellets for solid fuel boilers. Depending on the volume of production, the complex is equipped with filling and packing equipment of appropriate capacity.
Ie included in the biocomplex module manufacturing pellets (21) has a dual use in different phases of production, while capable of operation of the bioreactor as with fresh raw material and pellets/granules from water hyacinth.
Biogas plant equipped with a control system (Fig. not shown) for operation of devices and actuators, as well as the state of the media: organic matter and biogas. The complex is equipped with a single remote process control, but has the option for manual programming and management of Executive devices. The gas part of the complex also includes the installation of gas dehydration system, fire protection system and other devices for safe operation.
Thus, the claimed system provides
- cost-effective production with high yield of biogas, with the aim of getting� - electrical and thermal energy;
- production of fertilizers, feed additives, fuel pellets/briquettes for solid fuel boilers and fireplaces from wastewater after anaerobic digestion, organic matter;
- while technically it is not tied to wastewater treatment plants with position location and habitat/growing water hyacinth.
- economic feasibility (low cost of transportation of pellets or pellets) one module (21) can serve several biogas plants.
- pellets of water hyacinth comfortable and compact to transport, which allows economically feasible to grow water hyacinth in the areas with the most favorable climatic conditions, reducing production costs.
- complete utilization of waste biogas production provides high environmental safety biocomplex.
1. Bioenergetic complex biogas production and pelletized biofuel, including bioprod and the module receiving the gaseous biofuels with series connected tubes of the biomass feed with a grinder, homogenizer and a bioreactor comprising at least one digester, a gas outlet through which gas tank and a compressor connected to the power unit, whereinas the tight reservoir mutante�Cove are equipped with tubular heating system tanks, made of a composite elastomer with a polyurethane or PVC double-sided coating, connected by pipes with hydroperiodide, with the possibility of circulation of organic matter in the digester is provided with a mixing pumpwhen the gas separation,the shredder is equipped with the hopper, and the output of waste biomass of the bioreactor is provided with the receiving tank, wherein the complex is completed with a module of pellet production with the possibility of working in the mode of production of pellets from grown in bioprod green vegetable matter or in the mode of production of pellets from biomass waste in the reactor, consisting of a block of pressed, with the possibility of regulated alternate input connection with the output of the chopper or the output of the receiving tank waste biomass, wherein the outlet nozzle block fluid extraction coupled with the ability to adjust the homogenizer module for gaseous biofuels or bioprogram, and the output of the solid fraction extraction unit is connected to the granulator, the output of which is connected with line packing two types of pellets intended for storage.
2. Bioenergetic complex according to claim 1, incharacterized in that in the mode of manufacturing pellets grown in bioprod green crop output granulate�RA is connected to the hopper of the shredder module receiving gaseous biofuels.
3. Bioenergetic complex according to claim 1, incharacterized in that as grown in bioprod green vegetable matter used eichornia.
4. Bioenergetic complex according to claim 1, incharacterized in that the block extraction press is used.
5. Bioenergetic complex according to claim 1, incharacterized in that the block spin centrifuge is used.
6. Bioenergetic complex according to claim 1, incharacterized in that the digester tanks to reduce heat loss made insulated.
7. Bioenergetic complex according to claim 1, incharacterized in that the digester tanks have an additional outer protective sheath of material of the tank.
8. Bioenergetic complex according to claim 1, incharacterized in that the gas tank is soft type.
9. Bioenergetic complex according to claim 1, incharacterized in that the gas tank is equipped with an automatic ignition burning torch.
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to field of biotechnology, namely to method and system for obtaining one or more products, including alcohols and/or acids, by means of microbiological fermentation. Discontinuous or inconstant flow(s) of CO-containing flue gas or offgas is received from production process into storage reservoir. Substantially continuous flow(s) of gas from storage reservoir is (are) directed into bioreactor, which contains culture of one or more carboxidotrophic bacterium in nutritional medium. Said culture is fermented with obtaining one or more products, including alcohols and/or acids. System for obtaining one or more products, including alcohols and/or acids, contains input for reception of discontinuous or inconstant flow(s) of CO-containing flue gas or offgas, storage reservoir for reception of said gas flow, made with possibility of directing said gas flow in substantially continuous mode into bioreactor. System is made with possibility of directing at least a portion of said gas into bioreactor.
EFFECT: inventions make is possible to use inconstant in its nature flows of gaseous substrate and ensures achievement of such substrate flow continuity when it is supplied into bioreactor.
7 cl, 17 dwg, 5 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: vortex bioreactor includes cylindrical vessel1 with lid 2 provided with a device for medium mixing. Mixing device consists of bladed wheel 7, horizontally fixed on vertical shaft in upper part of vessel 1 and horizontal annular partition 9, installed in vessel 1 with a gap relative to its cylindrical walls, rod 10 vertically installed along axis. Horizontal annular partition 9 is located with possibility of rotation on vertical rod 10 and has retention mechanism of horizontal annular partition 9, installed on rod 10. Bioreactor is provided with pipe 19 or telescopic pipe 20, mated to axial hole 13 of horizontal annular partition 9, attached to the bottom of the last one and located around rod 10. On upper surface 11 of horizontal annular partition 9 there made are radial channels 12, located from axial hole 13 to the edge of annular partition 9 inclined downwards to the bottom of vessel 1. Horizontal annular partition 9 is designed floating, for example, from polypropylene. Inner diameter of pipe 19 or telescopic pipe 20 corresponds to diameter of axial hole 13 of horizontal annular partition 9. Area of axial hole 13 of horizontal annular partition 9 equals to cross sectional area at inlet 14 to radial channels 12 and total cross sectional area at outlet 15 from these radial channels 12.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of mixing and speeding up biochemical processes upon their carrying out using fluid mediums of various viscosity.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: bioreactor contains cylindrical casing, detachable cover, bottom, gas distributor. Gas distributor has carrying pipe for gas feeding routed along the central axis of the casing, between the carrying pipe for gas feeding and casing along the radial lines the uniformly spaced vertical comb-shaped planks with slots are installed in equal number. In slots of the comb-shaped planks the gas-tight tube membranes are located creating spiral coils with s pace equal to distance between the slots of the comb-shaped planks.
EFFECT: invention increases capacity of the bioreactor by 1,5 times upon simultaneous design simplification.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to biochemistry. Claimed is a device for surface growing of a microorganism on a liquid culture medium. The device includes a dish with a drain pan for growing of the microorganism, provided with a transport net freely dropped on its bottom. The transport net is made from a neutral material and is fastened by its ends to drive drums, which ensure lifting of the transport net from the dish bottom. The device also contains a reception device with a valve for the connection to a mixer-doser and supply of the liquid culture medium mixture with mother culture into the dish, rotary flaps, placed on butt ends of the dish for the regulation of air exchange in the dish, a drain device for pouring out the culture liquid, a pipe branch for the supply of a drying agent under the net, a sampling instrument and removable colour filters on lamps for the regulation of illumination, placed on side walls of the dish, a lid, which hermetically closes the dish, made with a possibility of its opening and/or removal, equipped with injectors for spraying the SAS solution above the surface of biomass growing in the dish and washing heads for the realisation of sanitary processing of the device. Also claimed is a method of surface growing of a microorganism on a liquid culture medium with the application of the claimed device.
EFFECT: claimed inventions ensure growing of microorganisms on the liquid culture medium with the minimal application of manual labour.
7 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to biotechnology. Claimed is method of obtaining cellulose-containing product by means of cellulose-producing bacteria. Method includes preparation of membrane, passing nutrient solution and not passing bacteria. Also prepared is nutrient solution on the first side of membrane to be supplied through membrane to the second side. After that, prepared are: gas mixture on the second side of membrane, cellulose-producing bacteria on the second side of membrane for bacteria to obtain nutrient solution, penetrating through membrane. Also claimed is cellulose-containing product, obtained y claimed method.
EFFECT: absence of formation of granules in nutrient solution and absence of cellulose deposits in feeding and discharging channels, as well as obtaining cellulose-containing product, possessing homogeneous structure and density.
33 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to biotechnology. Claimed is a method of growing colonies of microbial cells on a surface of a porous plate. The method includes supply of a nutrient solution from bottom to top through the porous plate into zones of growth of colonies of the microbial cells on its upper surface, supply of a suspension of the microbial cells onto the upper surface of the porous plate, creation of controlled conditions for the colony growth, performing observation of the colony growth, separation of the grown colonies of the microbial cells from the zones of growth and their transfer into external means of identification. The nutrient solution is supplied into the zones of growth of the colonies of the microbial cells by creation of a pressure difference between the hole input and output. Holes are made in the plate from an anode aluminium oxide orthogonally to its large plane and are topologically coded. The said zones of growth are formed in them in the form of porous membranes. The porous membranes are located at the same level as the upper surface of the plate or with formation of a hollow and do not pass the microbial cells. After supply of the nutritional solution, the suspension of the microbial cells of a specified concentration is supplied onto the upper surface of the plate until their homogenous distribution is achieved. Between the zones of growth on the surface of the plate a film, preventing attachment of the microbial cells, is formed. Separation of the grown microcolonies from the zones of growth is performed by hydroblow. A hydroblow is directed from the side of the input of cylindrical holes of the plate and spreads along them and farther through the pores of the porous membranes with force, which does not destroy the microcolonies but is sufficient for their separation from the growth zones. Also claimed is a device for growing the colonies of the microbial cells by the claimed method.
EFFECT: providing conditions of automation of processes of the nutrient solution supply and processes of separation and transfer of the grown colonies, possibility of integration into miniature portable devices, and application in laboratories on a chip and provision of the device portability.
6 cl, 14 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: photobioreactor includes elastic working capacity (2) with the first and the second external side surfaces (20, 20'). Capacity (2) is made from elastic transparent material non-permeable for fluid medium and is installed in frame (3). Frame (3) has elongated and essentially vertical support components (32). Components (32) are located at least in one horizontal row; besides, they are installed so that they are in series adjacent to the first and the second external side surfaces (20, 20') of working capacity (2) with the possibility of their support.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency and quality of a cultivation process of microalgae at simultaneous reduction of costs.
15 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microbiological industry, yeast and alcohol production and is intended for treatment of liquid organic wastes, mainly, manure or excrements to produce pollution-free organic fertilisers and combustible biogas. Proposed biological reactor comprises body with partitions. Reactor body represents a vertical sealed and heat-isolated tank with walls connected by dome or stiff roof to create a space between biomass surface and roof for pre-accumulation of biogas. Tank inner space is divided by partitions in, at least, two sections. Said partitions are installed vertically at the tank center and over bioreactor height and connected with the tank walls. Biomass overflow openings are made in every partition between first section, between midsections and between last section, at lower peripheral part. Bottom of every said section is inclined both from the center to periphery and toward the next section. Every section if equipped with manifold for makeup feed, heat exchanger, mixer, pH and eH gages and temperature gage. First section loading assy is composed of the manifold with shutoff valves for biomass loading while discharge assembly represents the manifold with shutoff valves for discharge of risen biomass. Biomass level gages are arranged at top lateral part of the last section.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, lower costs.
11 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an anaerobic recycling of agricultural wastes and activated sludge of industrial sewage works and public owned treatment works to obtain biogas and organic fertiliser. The bioreactor comprises a housing which is a nonrigid container with pipes to supply process material, an overflow of slime, a branch of the produced biogas. Over the housing the plant of heating and mixing of the substrate is mounted. The nonrigid container is made with the ability to place it in a pit on a layer of sand and a multilayer layer, comprising gas-proof covering, such as a polymer film, of woven synthetic material such as polyester fabric with PVC coating and heat-insulating layer, for example, a porous polymeric material.
EFFECT: invention provides increased reliability in operation and efficiency of performance while simplifying simultaneously work on production and mounting of the bioreactor and reduction of costs of the bioreactor.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: bioreactor has a vessel (1) with a cover (2) and a device for mixing and aerating microorganisms, having pipes (3 and 4) on the cover for inlet of aerating gas and outlet of gaseous medium, respectively. The vessel (1) is fitted with multiple coaxially arranged and spaced apart annular partitions (12 and 13) with floats (14 and 15) which are open at the bottom, on a vertical hollow shaft (11) with possibility of rotation and back-and-forth movement thereon with formation of a gap between the wall of the vessel (1) and the annular partitions (12 and 13). The vessel (1) and the cover (2) of the reactor are made from transparent materials. The bioreactor has a meant (19) of holding the reactor afloat in a liquid medium and sources (20 and 21) of artificial light, which are mounted inside the floats (14 and 15) of the annular partitions (12 and 13). The latter are made from optically transparent material. The vessel is in form of a disposable or reusable dismountable envelope (22) and has means (23 and 24) of fastening it to the cover (2) and the bottom (17) of the vessel, respectively. The method of culturing photosynthesising microorganisms involves creating biochemical and physical conditions for growth of the microorganisms in a culture medium and maintaining culturing temperature conditions. The latter is carried out in the bioreactor, which is immersed and held afloat in a natural or manmade water body at water temperature which is favourable for growth of photosynthesising microorganisms in said water body, wherein the culture medium used is the filtered water from the water body in which the bioreactor is located.
EFFECT: high output of biomass of photosynthesising microorganisms, while reducing power consumption and simplifying maintenance.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, food processing industry, as well as to public municipal services. The invention is intended for disinfection and sequential phase, anaerobic decomposition of crushed biological wastes of products of farm animals, birds, human and production wastes of food processing industry with obtaining of biogas and disinfected (from pathogenic microflora, helminth, their eggs and seeds of plants) mineralised organic fertilisers, as well as bio-fodder additives. The device comprises a cylindrical shaped reservoir divided inside with partitions alternately not reaching the top and bottom of the reservoir into the flow chambers of fermentation to produce over each of their pair of separate gas sections, loading and discharge pipes, heaters of substrate and a gas pipeline connected to the gas sections. The cylindrical shaped reservoir has the height equal to its diameter and its volume is divided by coaxial partitions into five coaxial chambers, the volumes of which are respectively equal to 3, 3, 5, 74, 15% of the device volume, and the loading chamber is located in the centre of the device, and the discharge is at the periphery.
EFFECT: invention provides reduction in heat loss, deep temperature pasteurisation of raw material and its hydrolysis at the beginning of the process, the uniform supply of raw material from one chamber to another, minimising dead spots, elimination of the temperature gradients in the volume and, consequently, obtaining biogas and fertilisers of higher quality with identical periods of disposal of raw materials.
5 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of biological purification of sewage water with active silt is realised with application of biologically active substance, which is represented by powder-like substance UWDM-1, containing rotaxane molecules and binuclear copper complex, in amount, providing its concentration in bioreactor, equal 10-6-1·10-10 mg/dm3. Device for method realisation consists of hermetic case (1) with branch pipes of input (2) of sewage water, discharge (3) of purified water, discharge of biogas (4), coaxially located in case hollow central tube (5) with branch pipes of supply (6) and discharge (7) of heat-carrier, means for supply of biologically active substance. Means for supply of biologically active substance is made in form of mixer with drive (8), provided with dosing devices (9) in upper part, and in lower part connected by means of pipeline (1) with upper part of case (1). Central tube (5) is separated by not less than two transverse nets (11), covered with porous material (12). Holes (13) of nets (11) are located with displacement relative to each other.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of purification.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: biogas unit contains heat insulated methane tank, consisting of an extruder mixer, electric biomass mixers, pumps, chambers of hydrolytic, acid and methane fermentation, each is fitted with a heat exchanger. To the outlet of the methane tank, to the methane fermentation chamber the gas-holder and the fermented mass separator are connected. The biogas unit is fitted with the unit of sources of renewable and other currently excessive energies in networks. The unit of sources of renewable and other excessive energies comprises the thermal accumulator fitted with heat exchangers, fire-bar elements and a generator; this thermal accumulator is connected to sources of renewable energy and mains. Meanwhile the heat accumulator inlet for make-up water is connected to the line, and hot water outlets of the heataccumulator are connected to an extruder mixer and fermentation chambers. Heat accumulator's fire-bar element by means of electric energy switches is connected to electric mixers, pumps and the extruder mixer or to the generator with a possibility of operation of the latter from the sources of renewable energy or in case of their absence - from the mains during the time period of low tariffs for payment of the electric power.
EFFECT: increase in biogas production due to providing the optimum modes of continuous fermentation of biomass in zones of cold climate with the long heating period.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bio-energy and can be used as a universal digestion tank for processing of manure of animals, poultry, domestic and agricultural waste into methane and organic fertiliser. The reactor of anaerobic digestion of biomass comprises a housing 1 in the form of a sealed container, comprising four sections: preparatory (acidic) 2, neutral 3, alkali 4 and of methane digestion 5, separated by vertical partitions 6, 7, 8. The reactor is additionally equipped with a diaphragm electrolytic cell 12, one output 18 of which with the analyte solution is connected to the acid fermentation section 2, and its other output 21 with the catholyte solution is connected to the sections of neutral 3 and alkaline fermentation 4. In the reactor housing 1 along its length the additional fixing units 11 of vertical partitions 6, 7, 8 are made, made with the ability of replacement with the change in the volumes of sections of fermentation.
EFFECT: invention enables to increase efficiency of the reactor of anaerobic digestion of biomass.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of biogas obtaining includes preliminary processing of an organic substrate by bringing it to 92% humidity with further crushing, introduction of a catalyst, fermentation in an anaerobic medium, and accumulation of biogas. As the catalyst used is a four-component mixture, which contains four classes of enzymes: protease, amylase, lipase and cellulase with their weight ratio of 3.2:0.3:15.6:1.0, the catalyst is introduced in a volume of 0.01 g/kg of weight of the dry organic substrate, and fermentation in the anaerobic medium is realised at a temperature from 17°C to 20°C. The application of the claimed method of biogas obtaining will make it possible to obtain a good methane output with comparatively low concentrations of the enzyme mixture.
EFFECT: intensification of the process of methane manure fermentation with an increase of the biogas output and increased content of methane in it.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions can be used for recycling sediments that are formed in the process of cleaning municipal and industrial sewage waters, with obtaining non-rotting sediment and electric energy. The method includes obtaining a fermented sediment with the application of main fermentation, obtaining the first water effluent flow and partially dehydrated, fermented sediment, by means of the first separation of liquid and solid components of the fermented sediment, obtaining partially dehydrated and hydrolysed fermented sediment with the application of thermohydrolysis of a partially dehydrated fermented sediment, fermentation of the partially dehydrated and hydrolysed sediment. The method also includes extraction of biogas, formed in fermentation and main fermentation, obtaining energy from biogas, including obtaining energy, required for realisation of thermohydrolysis, and obtaining additional energy, with the application of all biogas for obtaining electric energy. An installation includes a device for carrying out thermohydrolysis (16), a device for the first (10) and second (11) fermentation, for phase separation of liquid and solid components (17, 28), as well as a means for biogas extraction (20) and a device of obtaining electric energy (21).
EFFECT: inventions provide reliable and simple recycling of large quantity of sediments, which are poorly biodegraded, and in fact their complete conversion into biogas and further into electric energy.
13 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of producing biogas from animal waste includes pretreatment of an organic substrate by bringing moisture content thereof to 90%, followed by crushing the substrate to particle size of 0.5-0.7 cm. An organic catalyst is added, fermentation is carried out in an anaerobic medium and biogas is collected. The organic catalyst used is dairy wastes in amount of 5-10% of the mass of the organic substrate. Fermentation in an anaerobic medium is carried out at temperature of 17-22°C.
EFFECT: invention intensifies the process of methane fermentation of manure to increase output of biogas and increase content of methane therein.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical industry and can be used in processing organic material. The apparatus includes a raw material feeding system (1), an anaerobic bioreactor (2), a biomass heater, a biogas removal system (3), a biomass removal system (7) and a process control system (6). The raw material feeding system (1) includes a mechanism consisting of a receiving hopper, a grinding mechanism, a mixing mechanism and a heating system. The heating system includes working blades mounted on two hollow shafts which form two batteries with a different direction of rotation. The biomass heater is made in the hollow shafts of the two batteries through longitudinal end-to-end openings allowing the passage of a heat carrier. The apparatus has a device for cleaning gas, for generating electrical and heat energy, as well as a separator (8) for separating spent biomass into a solid and a liquid fraction.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of the process and enables operation in low temperature conditions.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of producing biogas in periodic or continuous mode includes preparation of a substrate, anaerobic fermentation in mesophilic conditions, continuous removal of biogas from the biogas apparatus and removing the fermented mass the methane tank. A buffer agent primarily containing calcium carbonate is added during preparation of the substrate.
EFFECT: invention increases biogas output, levels down the effect of above-normal souring of fermented substances, prevents delay and complete stoppage of the process of splitting organic substances, and prevents slow-down of the methane fermentation process.
12 cl, 2 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for biological cleaning of industrial effluents. Upward flow reactor (1) comprises tank (2), pipelines (31-34), distributor (3) of effluents, flotation separators (10, 20) of reactor (7) water, biomass (8) and biogas (9), collector (4), gas separator (6) for separation of biomass (8) and biogas (90). First flotation separator (10) comprises one or several caps (11) for gas with discharge holes connected with collector (4). Note here that cross-section area of discharge holes (13) is adjusted by movable shields (14). Reactor comprises actuators to drive said movable shields (14, 24). Note also that actuators are equipped with, preferably, hydraulic drives. Mind that reactor (1) incorporates an electronic control. At least one edge area (13) in discharge holes is limited by flexible shell shield connected with fluid pump.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of biological cleaning.
19 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture and municipal economy.
SUBSTANCE: the is intended for use in municipal economy and in agriculture for a sequential phase-by-phase anaerobic fermentation of different solid non-graded and non-ground fermentable organic waste materials of cities and settlements, waste products of agricultural enterprises, agricultural farms, bungalows and households with production out of them of the high-quality decontaminated from a pathogenic microflora, helminths, their eggs and seeds of weeds, liquid mineralized organic fertilizers with a good share of humus and a combustible biogas used for the power purposes. The methane-tank contains a horizontal basin separated by internal alternately not reaching up to the top and the bottom of the basin cross partitions for the gas sections with the gas collectors and the liquid flowing through communicating chambers with draw-off taps, a loading and an unloading connecting pipes, heaters of fermentable mass and a gas pipeline of a gasholder linked to the gas collectors of gas sections. The basin has a built-in chain-scraper type loading-unloading elevator with a drive, which horizontally located one over another working branches with a perforated fence between them and around of them are inserted from the direction of a loading connecting pipe inside the basin below the level of the fermentable liquid organic mass set in the basin. The gas collector of the first gas section is connected with a gas pipeline of drawing the biogas off from the section into an injector interacting with a discharge pump pumping out of a fermentable mass of the chamber and boosting it back into the chamber through a connected with it injector and a disperser of the gas-liquid mixture formed in the injector. The technical result: improvement of the methane-tank design, provision of an efficient splitting of the solid fermentable organic substances of the waste products and the greatest output of the high-quality liquid mineralized saturated with humus organic fertilizers and a combustible biogas of high calorific value.
EFFECT: the invention ensures upgrade of the methane-tank design and the greatest output of the high-quality liquid mineralized saturated with humus organic fertilizers and a combustible biogas of high calorific value.
4 cl, 5 dwg