Method of strengthening of saturated clayey soils
SUBSTANCE: method comprises well drilling, cracking by injection into the well of crack-forming material, plugging of hole mouth. Meanwhile the well cross-section is transformed from cylindrical into square, and then layer by layer the well is filled with quicklime with compaction and sealing of each layer. Into the formed cracks in a radial direction from angles of square cross-section well and by means of injector the strengthening solution is injected. The method allows to obtain stable cracks in a radial direction from angles of well square, that results in increase of strengthening volume. Due to wedging action of lime slaking and the stress concentrations the cleavage cracks are formed, the length of which amounts 2-3 lengths of the side of square well, and the width 5-15 mm. At the expense of increase of parameters of cracks in a radial direction from angles of square section well with the subsequent injection of strengthening solution the physico-mechanical properties of the ground are improved, as far as the infilling of all formed cracks results in ground strengthening, that improves bearing capacity of clay saturated soils. Besides the given method allows to work with small-sized and minimum quantity of machinery in any conditions of building.
EFFECT: increase of bearing capacity of clay water-saturated soils.
The invention relates to construction, namely to methods for the artificial improvement of the soil mass at the base, and can be used in the production of works to enhance waterlogged clay soils in the reconstruction and construction of buildings and structures, as well as to increase stability of the natural landslide slopes, faux slopes of dams and ditches.
Known method of fixing of collapsible loess soils, including the formation of wells, executing in its wall a longitudinal hub stress, the locking of the upper part of the borehole with the cutting off of the injection area, the introduction under pressure into the soil of the binder with the formation in the ground plane break through the injector, which has a tube, tip and cutter triangular cross-section shape with a height of 0.33 of the diameter of the tip (Aut. SVID. 1444473 "Method of fixing of collapsible loess soils and injector for fixing of collapsible loess soils", 1988).
The disadvantage of this solution is the creation of a stress concentrator triangular shape along the entire length of the borehole, plavanie it in plastic and water-saturated soils, the possibility of "scoring" in contact inclusions, poor locking of the injection zone due to the vibration, immersion of the locking part, and the formation of a vertical CRA�NY small width (1-3 mm) in a single pass.
Known a method of enhancing water-saturated soils by performing longitudinal hub stress within the injection area, which produces pressure fixing solution with a density of precluding plavanie of the borehole wall and provides stability and shape of the hub voltage, and as a secure solution using foamed cement-clay mortar, and cutting the hub is carried out in the borehole filled with the above solution (see the patent for the invention №2392382).
The disadvantage of this method is the complicated construction of the device for the formation of the ground plane gap, the necessity of producing large amounts of metal elements, the complicated technology of execution of works, which makes them more expensive, as well as the formation of vertical cracks of small width (1-3 mm) in a single pass.
The object of the invention is directed to the formation of a stable and sustainable cracks in a given direction, increasing the size of cracks in water-saturated clay soils in the radial direction from the corners of the square bore of square cross section.
The technical result - increasing the carrying capacity of water-saturated clay soils by increasing the amount of reinforcement.
The result is achieved in that in the method of enhancement� bearing capacity of water-saturated clay soils, including well drilling, cracking the introduction into the well reminoblesmege material, plugging the wellhead, according to the invention the cross section of the borehole convert from cylindrical to square, then the layers fill the hole quicklime with compaction and the compaction of each layer, formed in the radial direction from the corners of the bore of square cross section of the crack through the injector pump fixing solution.
The method is carried out in the following way: first, drilling a well, excavation, then convert the cross section of the bore of the cylindrical square, then produce a layer-by-layer filling of the well quicklime 1st or 2nd grade with subsequent compaction and the compaction of each layer, and in the end, plugging the wellhead at ground level. As a result of hydrated lime in the radial direction from the corners of the square hole cracks, through which the injector pump fixing solution.
During the laboratory tests it was found that the greatest length of cracks can be obtained using the angle of the cross section of the bore 90 deg. This is achieved by converting the cross section of the bore of the cylindrical square. With a larger angle, the number of cracks increases�tsya, and their length is reduced, and when a small value is plavanie the borehole walls.
This method allows to obtain a stable crack in the radial direction from the corners of the square well, which leads to the increase in reinforcement. Due to the wedging action when liming and stress concentration cracks of separation, the length of which is 2-3 the length of the side of square wells and the width of 5-15 mm. Due to the increase of parameters of cracks in the radial direction from the corners of the bore of square cross section, with the subsequent injection of the hardening solution, improve the physico-mechanical properties of soil, as when all of the generated fractures is the reinforcement of the soil, which increases the bearing capacity of water-saturated clay soils. In addition, this method allows to work with small and minimal amount of equipment in all conditions of construction.
Method of increasing the bearing capacity of water-saturated clay soils, including well drilling, cracking the introduction into the well reminoblesmege material, plugging the well bore, characterized in that the cross section of the borehole convert from cylindrical to square, then the layers fill the hole quicklime with compaction and the compaction of each layer, about�torn cracked in the radial direction from the corners of the bore of square cross section and through the injector pump fixing solution.
SUBSTANCE: when creating an anti-filtration screen of a hydraulic structure for storage of industrial wastes, for instance, a sludge reservoir, layers of the screen on the base of the sludge reservoir are formed using a suspension of industrial wastes, containing finely dispersed particles, with compaction of layers. The base of the sludge reservoir is made from clay or loam, compacted, the compacted layer is poured with a water suspension of finely dispersed dust of gas treatment from electrothermal production of silicon and/or siliceous ferroalloys with the solid to liquid ratio within 3÷10:1. The suspension is maintained until absorption into the layer of the sludge reservoir base. The clay or loam layer is laid on top and compacted. The water suspension is poured in the amount of 50-100 l/m2.
EFFECT: invention will make it possible to prevent contamination of soil layer adjacent to storages due to reduction of coefficient of filtration of insulating material, to recycle anthropogenic wastes in the form of a finely dispersed dust of gas treatment of electrically thermal production of silicon or siliceous ferroalloys.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention increases tensile and compression strength of priming coats, as well as water-resistance thereof while reducing binder consumption to 0.003-0.012 wt %. The effect is achieved by using cation-active imidazoline and polyacrylic acid in the composition, which form an insoluble polyelectrolyte interpolymer complex during chemical reaction.
EFFECT: invention relates to a method of producing a stable structural composition based on a priming mixture of clay and sand as natural filler and can be used for industrial purposes for producing moulding agents, accelerated hardening of priming coats and endowing priming coats with hydrophobic properties.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely, to strengthening of soils. In the method of soil strengthening in the area to be strengthened, a compacting agent is supplied from a loading reservoir into soil with a mixing facility located in a device for supply of the compacting agent. The device for supply of the compacting agent is located in connection with a transfer facility, and a facility for mixing for a compacting agent located on the device for supply of the compacting agent, is moved by the transfer facility at choice to any point in the zone, which must be strengthened, in vertical direction (y), horizontal direction (x) and/or in perpendicular to substantially perpendicular direction to the plane stretching via the specified vertical direction and horizontal direction. A support bridge included into the transfer facility is located for passage via the area, which must be strengthened, and in connection with the support bridge the first transfer elements are located for movement of the facility for mixing of the compacting agent in vertical direction (y) and/or horizontal direction (x), and the transfer facility comprises the second transfer elements and the support bridge, and the device for supply of the compacting agent with the facility for mixing is moved by the second transfer elements in perpendicular to substantially perpendicular direction to the plane passing via the specified vertical direction (y) and horizontal direction (x), and providing both ends of the support bridge by the second transfer facilities to maintain the support bridge on the material of the support and/or the soil of the base, as a result of which the distance (A) between the second transfer facilities is adjusted for compliance with the width of the area to be strengthened, in longitudinal direction of the support bridge.
EFFECT: increased stabilisation of soil strengthening, reduced labour intensiveness and material intensity in production of works for soil strengthening.
9 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining operation.
SUBSTANCE: method of protection of karst occurrence comprises drilling wells in the area of karst formation and injection of reinforcing material. While injecting the reinforcing material in the form of a polymer-mineral composition in the rock mass of the area of karst formation two layers are created: the lower insulating-stabilising layer which prevents access of water to the karst at the depth of occurrence of karst rocks and stabilising the situation at the stage of karst formation, located within the boundaries of the sliding wedge, and the upper bearing layer serving as a bearing local layer and corresponding to the width of the lower layer. Drilling wells is carried out sequentially - first inclined well is drilled to the upper transition zone of the geological horizon exposed to karst formation, the polymer-mineral composition with the capacity from 2 to 10 meters is pumped, which forms a lower insulating-stabilising layer, then the inclined well is drilled to contact with the upper boundary of groundwater, and the polymer-mineral composition with the capacity from 2 to 5 meters is pumped, which forms the upper bearing layer. Then the control vertical well is drilled to contact with the upper bearing and the lower insulating-stabilising layer. The core-sample is raised from each layer to check the presence of the polymer-mineral composition. Between the bearing and the insulating-stabilising layers in the rock mass the channel of flow of groundwater from the water collection area to the discharge area is formed, preserving the natural hydrogeological mode in the rock water-bearing mass of the karst formation area.
EFFECT: increase in protective properties of rocks with karst occurrence, improvement of physical and chemical and bearing properties of the soil, increase in the strength properties of the soil, reduction of the possibility of landslides occurrence.
SUBSTANCE: first, size and depth of a karst formation under a building foundation is determined; then, the first type of wells is formed along the building perimeter at least in one row; injectors are introduced to each of the above wells and a hardening solution is injected into well walls. Wells are formed so that at injection between adjacent wells in the row there can be formed intersecting zones of compacted soil; in the lower zone of loose soils of geomassif, which are located around a karst formation caving zone, there formed are at least two rows of wells of the second type, which are located in an arch periphery line, into which there also pumped is a hardening solution by means of injectors, so that wall-shaped structures are formed by means of the hardening solution throughout the height of the karst formation out of intersecting solid elements that are flat as to vertical direction. Then, in the lower zone of loose soils of geomassif, which are located above dome-shaped arch of the karst formation caving zone, there formed is the third type of wells located along the imagined surface of the dome-shaped arch of the karst formation and going beyond the perimeter of the zone enveloped with wells of the second type, to which there also pumped is the hardening solution by means of injectors, so that a dome-shaped massif of at least one layer of intersecting flat-parallel elements is formed above the karst formation with formation of compacted geomassif above the dome-shaped massif. After that, at least one well of the fourth type is formed with its opening to the cavity of the karst formation, which is filled with the hardening solution, with formation in the cavity of the karst formation of a volumetric elements; at availability of suffusion processes in the karst formation, to the karst formation cavity there added is at least one flexible envelope, to which the hardening solution is pumped, after hardening of which the soil is additionally compacted above layers of flat-parallel elements of the dome-shaped massif by pumping of the hardening solution in a downward or upward direction to cracks and cavities formed during formation of a dome-shaped arch out of flat-parallel elements. Cement mortar and/or raw mix containing a siliceous component, a gas-forming agent and a mixing agent is used as a hardening solution.
EFFECT: improving reliability of reinforced geomassif; reducing labour input and material consumption at its formation.
8 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes injection of a sealing substance, providing for damage of soil structure. Soil compaction is carried out by development of bodies in it with specified dimensions, shapes and properties from non-Newtonian liquid, which does not change the ratio of its components under load and preserves shape given to it with absence of external impact, which is injected by pressing into soil with impact loads applied to its surface. Soil is compacted by its displacement by external surface of developed bodies from spaces that they occupy. The device comprises a working element and a facility to apply impact load to it, made of a guide pipe, into which a rod is inserted as capable of movement along it and contact with the working element. The working element is made in the form of a rod with a conical point at the end and is inserted into the guide pipe as capable of limited longitudinal displacement in it. The conical point of the rod protrudes from the guide pipe. On the working element there is an assembly that excludes its drop-out from the guide pipe.
EFFECT: increased density of soil by introduction of non-Newtonian fluid into it in the mode of periodical impact loads and increased efficiency of a device due to elimination of the possibility to damage a well with a rod and deviation of the working element from the specified path.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: composition for sandy soil reinforcement, comprising a filler and a binder component, and the filler comprises sand milled to fine dispersion (74-136 nm), and the binder component is used as saponite-containing material milled to microdispersed state (265-451 nm) isolated from pulp of tailing dump of industrial ore dressing of diamond field deposit, with the following ratio of components, wt %: saponite-containing material 3-6, sand - the rest.
EFFECT: improving the strength characteristics of sandy soil.
2 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for mixing soil materials, in particular to a device for mixing additives directly with soil materials of the ground. The device comprises at least two mixing drums made with the ability to rotate around their axes of rotation which are located at a small distance from each other. Between the drums the fixing frame is located, on which the drop sleeve is fixedly mounted. At the upper end of the drop sleeve the attachment means are located for attachment to the lever for mounting the attached implement. The rotation axes of the mixing drums are inclined relative to the plane perpendicular to the vertical axis of the device, so that when the drop sleeve is in the upright position, the axes of rotation of the mixing drums are inclined downward toward the outer ends of the drums. Thus, the ends of the mixing drums, located closest to each other, are substantially closer to each other with their lower edges than with their upper edges.
EFFECT: device housing does not create a dead zone which would prevent the working movement.
8 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and utilisation of wastes of heat engineering, and namely to reinforced ground compositions (soil cements), which can be used for construction of structures, including in structures of bases of road pavements of automobile roads; in an earth bed of automobile roads and other structures; for backfilling, elimination and recultivation of developed soil banks and slurry ponds; for reinforcement of sides of roads, slopes and cavities. Composition for arrangement of bases of road pavements and structures, which includes cement, slurry of chemical water treatment of CHP, and when necessary, for assurance of required humidity (optimum for compacting), it additionally contains sand at the following component ratio, wt % (by solid phase): sand 57-82, cement 6-12, CHP chemical water treatment slurry (on a dry basis) 12-30. The invention is developed in a subclaim of the formula.
EFFECT: accelerating strength gain.
2 cl, 4 ex, 5 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of construction and may be used to determine quantity of cement in soil-cement material in creation of building structures by means of jet cementing. The method to determine quantity of cement in the soil-cement material of the structure in development of building structures by means of jet cementing consists in addition of a powdery indicator into the cement mortar injected into a well. Such powdery indicator may be powder graphite, fineness of grinding of which is not below fineness of cement grinding. Weight ratio of graphite powder makes 1-10% of cement weight. During realisation of the method they first measure electric conductivity of the injected cement mortar, then electric conductivity of the soil and cement pulp discharged from the well is measured, and the quantity of cement in the soil-cement material of the structure is determined as difference between the cement quantity in the cement mortar and the quantity of cement in the pulp. The quantity of cement in the pulp is calculated in accordance with the following formula:
EFFECT: higher efficiency of the method.
FIELD: road construction.
SUBSTANCE: device has towed device with platform, connected to moving gear, tank for reinforcing liquid, force pipes with bars with apertures in lower portion. Bars are made of conical shape with screw blades, mounted on a platform made in form of slides, and radiuses of bars effect overlap. In back portion of platform a screw is mounted. Tank for reinforcing liquid is placed in front portion of platform and by gear pump is connected to distributing comb, each force pipe, which through locking armature is connected to appropriate bar. Bars in amount no less than three are kinematically connected to each other, and to shaft for drawing power from moving gear, to screw and to gear pump for feeding reinforcing liquid.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: heat engineering constructions.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used as supports of different construction on permafrost. Proposed heated pile has reinforced concrete or metal shaft with inner or outer heated pipe in form of ribbed evaporator and condensers provided with metal strip ribbing arranged over ground surface with inclination to vertical part of shaft. Novelty is that heated pile is made T-shaped, and heated pipe in form of ribbed evaporator is made symmetrically double relative to axis of shaft with connection of some ends or its evaporators, other ends being connected with condensers. Evaporator ribbing is made in form of upward convex ring surfaces with central passes secured on inner surfaces of walls of heated pipe evaporators and uniformly distributed in height, and metal strip ribbing of condensers is element of horizontal part of T-shaped heated pile.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of heated pile, facilitated replacement of pile in case of failure.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: protection of ground and underground water pollution with toxic chemical substances, particularly forming antifiltering screens around waste disposal areas, dumps, for producing water reservoirs, building vessel coatings, mud reservoirs and store facilities for oil products and building materials.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming water-proofing mixture including polyethylene waste; laying thereof on store facility base and heat treating the mixture under temperature of mixture or upper store facility layer melting. The mixture includes waste polyethylene in amount of 70-99% and polypropylene in amount of 1-30%.
EFFECT: improved ecological safety and manufacturability, reduced cost for antifiltering screen forming, increased strength, reliability and extended trouble-free service life.
FIELD: building, particularly for reinforcing foundations and cast-in-place piles forming.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises percussion assembly including pneumatic drift and case surrounding thereof, as well as pipeline with pump. Case is rigidly secured to percussion assembly. Case comprises orifice made in front part thereof and adapted for receiving plug. Defined between the plug and the front part is cavity having cross-sectional area equal or more than that of pipeline located between percussion assembly and the case. Case has members for forming holes in ground located along longitudinal case axis and extending in radial direction thereof. The members have low rigidity and may be bent in radial direction. The members are provided with grooves formed in bending line thereof and rest brought into contact with case in extreme position.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
7 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for reinforcing soft and sagging ground at deep locations during building foundation construction and reconstruction, for protection of sliding natural slopes, as well as artificial dam, pit and trench slopes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming cylindrical cavity from ground surface; reinforcing cylindrical cavity walls by means of soil pipe and injecting hardening mix by pumping thereof into ground through injector. In the case of consolidating ground having high thickness cylindrical cavity is formed and reinforced with the use of soil pipe by vibratory driving thereof in ground. Soil pipe has auxiliary tube arranged coaxial to soil pipe and having outer diameter determined from a given relation. When soil pipe reaches upper boundary of soft ground layer to be consolidated the auxiliary tube is removed from soil pipe. Injector is deepened for the full soft ground layer thickness through the soil pipe and hardening mix is intermittently fed through the injector. After each hardening mix feeding operation injector is lifted for height corresponding to next gap to be filled with the mix. All injection operations in one consolidation point are performed during relaxation of ground compacted by soil pipe and injector driven in ground.
EFFECT: increased capacity, reduced time and labor inputs, improved technological effectiveness.
3 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: building, particularly to consolidate building or building structure foundation base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving injectors in ground; supplying high-pressure grout through ejectors; recording and measuring mortar pressure and forming grout body. Grout is injected simultaneously through at least three injectors installed along straight line and spaced equal distances one from another. The distances are equal to 5-10 injector diameters. Vertical grout body orientation is provided by driving injectors up to given mark reaching with following partial lifting thereof for height equal to 10-20 injector diameters and with their fixation at predetermined level before start of grout ejection process.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of ground base consolidation for ground of all types due to performing ground compaction along with forming vertical grout body of predetermined shape.
4 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: building, particularly to consolidate building or building structure foundation base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving injectors in ground; supplying high-pressure grout through ejectors; recording and measuring mortar pressure and forming grout body. Grout is injected simultaneously through three injectors installed in apexes of imaginary equilateral triangle with side dimensions equal to 5-10 injector diameters. Grout body forming is performed by driving and following lifting injectors for height equal to 1-3 injector diameters before start of grout supply to ejectors.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and increased efficiency of ground base consolidation due to providing of predetermined grout body shape in horizontal grout breaking plane.
3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: building, particularly technology and equipment for structurally unstable ground, for instance for industrial and civil building.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling well; forming longitudinal stress concentrator on wall thereof, locking upper well part along with injection zone separation; introducing binder under pressure in ground and forming plane of fracture in ground. Longitudinal concentrator is created by advancing, impressing and subsequent rolling of sliding punch-type rotary lentil-shaped disk within injection zone. The disc is connected with retainer through stop member. Upper well part is closed by filling gap between well wall and binder introduction means with quick-hardening material. Binder introduction means is made as perforated tube formed of elastic material and having diameter lesser than well diameter. Stress concentrator forming means has tube, head and cutter arranged in groove of the head. The cutter is made as sliding punch-type rotary lentil-shaped disk and connected to retainer by stop member including clamp and fork.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: building, particularly to reconstruct underground structures and reinforce foundations and engineering services in confined space.
SUBSTANCE: method involves reinforcing foundation in vicinity of existent structures; building vertical tube with the use of well rings; excavating ground with the use of grab; breaking tunnel liner and driving tunnel. Method of foundation reinforcement near existent structures involves injecting quick-setting cement mix through perforated pipes installed in wells drilled through support foundation part and ground; drilling guiding wells beyond vertical tube below upper tunnel level and ground water level; providing guiding wells with casing pipes; injecting grouting mortar in ground through casing pipes up to grouting mortar appearance at well head; installing well rings having perforation orifices along ring perimeters and installing injectors in above orifices; additionally reinforcing contour part of vertical tube by supplying grouting mortar through orifices in well rings; breaking tunnel link section after well ring laying onto upper liner plate of deep tunnel by cutting orifices having necessary dimensions; removing tunnel link section and seating well ring on rock base; concreting well ring; forming two orifices in well ring before tunnel driving arranged in direction of tunnel reconstruction; driving the tunnel and installing support members.
EFFECT: extended field of usage, reliability and safety of operations.
FIELD: building, particularly to form base member in ground.
SUBSTANCE: method involves introducing excavation device in ground zone to loose the ground; mixing the loosened ground with liquid to obtain suspension, which hardens in the ground zone; before suspension hardening the suspension is drawn-off from the first ground zone area located above the second ground zone area; supplying at least part of suspension drawn-off from the first area back into the second ground zone area. Device for base member production comprises excavation rig adapted to loosen ground in ground area; supplying means to supply liquid to loosened ground and mixing means to mix loosened ground with liquid to obtain hardening suspension. The device is provided with outlet device to draw-off the suspension from the first ground zone area and supply device to repeatedly supply at least part of suspension drawn-off from the first area to the second ground zone area.
EFFECT: increased quality of base and foundation member production.
9 cl, 1 dwg