Method to create modular volumetric and spatial structure
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction, in particular, to structures of complex volumetric and spatial ceilings and walls. The novelty of the invention consists in the method to develop a volumetric and spatial structure using standardised composite modules. In accordance with the proposed method the standardised modules are manufactured in advance, at the specialised production plant, not taking into account their specific use. Further on the construction object they assemble a complex volumetric and spatial structure from the modules in accordance with the specific project. Development of the complex volumetric and spatial structure from the set of modules is possible due to usage of standardised dimensions of coupled parts and collections of previously developed standard projects.
EFFECT: advantage of the proposed invention consists in simplification and cheapening of design and production of complex volumetric and spatial structures on a construction object, reduction of material wastes.
3 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to the field of construction, in particular to the structure of complex spatial ceilings and walls.
Currently for the organization of residential and public areas buildings is widely used different ways of building three-dimensional structures, with the use of different building materials: brick, building blocks, monolithic structures, structural panels, planar materials and frames. The greatest distribution organization for residential and public areas has a way of construction of spatial structures based on the use of a metal frame and gypsum boards. In this way, form (create) the walls and ceilings of rooms, walls, overhangs and other architectural elements, giving the premises a shape and form that best meets the customer requirements.
The method of construction of three-dimensional structures made of inlaid metal frame and gypsum Board is widely used and is described in detail in the regulatory, technical and training materials. In particular, this method is exhaustively described in the following sources:
- L. S. Konev Drywall: arches, walls, ceilings, installation, tools, technology. Series: Building and repairing - tips. - Odessa, Literary BU�Ivar, 2010. - 320 p.: ill. / A practical guide.
- V. I. Rudenko Ceilings hookerton: device and design. - Rostov-on-don: Phoenix, 2006. - 256 p / Travariant.
- Technology. Surfaces of complex shapes. Building together with Knauf / informational-educational edition Knauf. - M.: Knauf, 2000. - (Copy attached).
- GOST 6266-97. The sheets of plasterboard. Specifications.
- GOST R 51829-2001. The sheets of plasterboard. Specifications.
- A set of rules for design and construction. Cladding structures with application of gypsum Board. - M: SP 55-101-2000.
- A set of rules for design and construction. Design and application of gypsum Board. - M: SP 55-102-2001, etc.
Method of creating three-dimensional design of a metal frame and drywall selected as a prototype and presents a staged production of on-site metal frame generated from standardized metal profiles, which are then covered with sheets of drywall that are attached to the metal frame by means of fasteners. This metal frame is attached to structural elements of buildings and are made with consideration of the peculiarities of the spatial structure, creating in advance in the frame elements which form the basis for the surface of�hemno-spatial structure. Sheets of drywall attached to the frame in one or two layers, creating a surface spatial structure facing the man. After the erection of the spatial structure of the surface of the structure subjected to further processing (shpatljujut, paint, etc.), improving its quality.
In the same way from giocatore and metal mosaic frame is made "suspended ceilings, which are fastened to the lower surface of the slab structure. Such ceilings may have very well-developed, multi-level design. The shape of the pieces forming the ceiling is also very diverse, they use lines, arcs, angles, circles, ellipses, etc., elements. The production of such multi-level ceiling or wall requires significant time and labor costs. In addition, for the production of complex multi-level structures with niches, ledges and curved surfaces, require highly skilled workers that manufacture this design. The creation of spatial structures, different art style and harmonious proportions, requires the developer of artistic taste and special education. Production of complex spatial structures always requires a preliminary design�tion, computer modeling and visualization. Negative factor increasing the cost of construction as a whole, is also increased compared to the simple construction of wall or ceiling material consumption (frame, drywall, putties, hardware, etc.). All these factors increase the full final cost of the three-dimensional structure. Division of work on the successive stages of designing and manufacturing increases deadlines designs to the customer. Describes a set of negative factors - the complexity of design and manufacture, high cost and the duration of the project execution and the structure itself is a disadvantage of the method of construction of spatial structures of complex shape made of inlaid metal frame and plasterboard.p>
The aim of the invention is the method of construction of complex spatial structures - is to reduce labor costs for design and fabrication of three-dimensional design, simplifying the manufacture of the spatial structure and the reduction of the full cost of the constructed three-dimensional design while maintaining consumer qualities inherent in the prototype.
The problem is solved by applying the method of construction of spatial design�the use of parts of the model spatial structures (hereinafter referred to modules). These modules are made in advance on the specialized production and delivered to the installation site, then they make up and fastened to the supporting elements of the structure. Being connected together, the modules form a single three-dimensional design. The modules are made in the production of mass-produced, standard forms and sizes, without taking into account project specific spatial structure. In designing a specific spatial structure using standard solutions and techniques that are implemented through the use of standard forms and sizes.
Features of the claimed invention are that:
- standard parts (modules) of the spatial structures are simple stereometric forms, namely: straight and curved G - and C-shaped beams, niches and niches of various sizes and sectors and parts, other forms;
- standard parts (modules) of the spatial structure have the same values for the dimensions of height and depth. In accordance with these dimensions, the modules are combined into a model group - "the collection". "Collections" are a set of ready-made solutions for the formation of three-dimensional structures which may be made of modules, included in this collection.
- part of the model (mod�) spatial structures are standardized in size and shape of the mating part, that allows you to collect from a variety of standard modules of the spatial structure depending on the customer's preferences;
- standard parts (modules) of the spatial structure can have an improved surface formed at the time of production, making this surface does not require additional processing (the amount of additional work is reduced);
- standard parts (modules) of the spatial structures are standardized mounting dimensions and standardized, manufactured during the production pilot holes and fasteners;
- standard parts (modules) of the spatial structure can be made of porous materials (porous or cellular concrete at various binders, porous or foamed plastics) or materials with low specific gravity, which allows their use in modern construction without overloading slab structures and applying conventional construction fasteners;
- standard parts (modules) of the spatial structure can be manufactured using common technologies and materials, in particular the use of plaster as a material of modules allows you to meet modern environmental requirements;
- standard parts (modules) spatial co�instruction may have in your body niches for communications or have integrated communications, allows you to give the spatial construction of additional properties (ventilation, lighting);
- standard parts (modules) of the spatial design can have in the composition of the material from which they are made, additive-changing (improving) the consumer properties of the product, coloring product or giving it new properties as water resistance, resistance to growth of microorganisms, other properties;
- three-dimensional structure composed of standard parts (modules) that can form a complex multi-level suspended ceiling or complex multi-tier wall or a partition.
An advantage of the claimed invention is to simplify the design and manufacture of complex three-dimensional structures, reducing design time and production, reduction of waste material. In addition, a new method of construction of spatial structures enables the use of unskilled labor labor for the design and production of specific complex spatial structures, there is no loss of quality of the final product due to the fact that the creation of a catalogue of model projects performed by qualified specialists, and the size of the standard modules are standardized and �otbrosami through the use of reusable formwork. Also the advantage of the proposed method of construction of complex three-dimensional structures is to improve consumer properties of the areas where applied spatial structure composed of standard parts (modules), due to the fact that ready-made solutions for forming three-dimensional structures of the ceiling or walls of different artistic style and harmonious proportions. In addition, a variety of ready-made solutions based on the model parts of the same collection and the ability to create based on the model of the individual parts of the solution contributes to the uniqueness of the design space, which is an important consumer quality residential and public premises. This achieves a reduction of the spatial design through cost reduction in the production and use of less skilled labor when installing modules. Happens time savings due to ease of installation of modules on the template. These modules can be installed by consumers themselves.
Sketch the General form of the spatial structure of the model parts (modules) designed as suspended ceiling of the living room shown in Fig.1, where the following notation:
1 - the walls of the room (living room);
2 - overlap of room�ia;
3 - a doorway;
4 - typical modules ⊥-shaped ring segments, the length of which corresponds to an arc with an angular measure 0,3927 glad;
5 - model of the beam is L-shaped;
6 - insert plasterboard.
The implementation of the invention in the form of an innovative method of construction of complex three-dimensional structures, consists of two stages:
- stage 1 - production of standard modules;
- stage 2 - create a complex spatial structure.
Step 1. Production of standard modules. In accordance with the production plan, among other standard modules, the company produces and sends to the warehouse, and then the distribution network, the following standard modules:
- standard module ⊥-shaped section, which is a segment of a ring, the length of which corresponds to an arc with an angular measure 0,3927 happy
- model module - beam L-shaped cross-section, a length of 2 meters.
Step 2. The creation of complex three-dimensional structure. Using the catalogue of model projects of complex spatial structures, the consumer chooses the most suitable option for him. In accordance with the specification of the model project and given the size and characteristics of the room where it will be mounted on three-dimensional design, the consumer becomes necessary for the implementation of this project Timofyevna. Further, in accordance with the specification of the model project produces the layout and fabrication of the locating holes, trim, beams L-shaped section to size and fix the modules to the supporting surface (in the example to the ceiling). Mounted on the ceiling modules together form a complex three-dimensional design.
Structurally, a modular three-dimensional design are created as follows (the example of living room).
Dwelling, in particular the living room of an apartment building, formed by the walls 1, the ceiling of the upper floor 2 and the ceiling of the lower floor (Fig.1 not represented) and has a doorway 3, organized in the open vestibule leading into the adjacent room. On the ceiling of the upper floor, there is a complex modular three-dimensional design - tiered ceiling with securisee illumination. This modular three-dimensional design - multi-level suspended ceiling consists of modules ⊥-shaped section 4, beams L-shaped section 5, a metal frame (Fig.1 not visible) and gypsum Board 6. Modules beams 4 and 5 made of foamed gypsum - porous concrete based on gypsum binder and form the basis of a modular three-dimensional structure. Conditionally modular space-space�ing the design can be divided into several parts. One characteristic of the sector ring with an arc length of 90° (to 1.57 rad), located above the entrance to the room. This part of the modular three-dimensional structure consists of four identical standard modules ⊥-shaped section 4 (the boundaries of each module are shown in Fig.1 by a dotted line). Here the modules are adjacent to each other without gaps, forming a solid body modular three-dimensional structure. The other part of the modular three-dimensional structure consists of four rays extending from the arc to the normals. Each of these beams is formed by the two beams L-shaped section 5, located backs to each other. Here the beams L-shaped section 5 is formed edge modular three-dimensional structure. The free space between the beams 5 is closed by sheets of drywall 6, of the appropriate size (the boundaries of each module - beams, indicated in Fig.1 by a dotted line). Standard modules ⊥-shaped section beams 4 and L-shaped section 5 are in his body rigid space frame (Fig.1 not visible), placed in the body of the modules on the stage of production that serves to improve the consumer properties of products, enhance the design and ease of installation. The frame beams L-shaped section 5, among other things, comes out from the back of beyond the body of the beam is L-shaped section 5. Thanks to this� there is a possibility of connection of two adjacent beams L-shaped section 5 is movable between a metal frame and mount to the frame 6 sheets of drywall appropriate shape and size for hiding internal the space between the beams L-shaped section 5. Standard modules ⊥-shaped section beams 4 and L-shaped section 5 is attached to the ceiling of the upper floor by means of anchor fasteners. Anchoring set via formed during the production technological holes in the body of the modules. After installing the anchoring hole trying to hide with available technologies finishes. To make the modules 4 and 5 improved consumer quality in the foamed gypsum composition, at the stage of mixing the plaster test introduced a reinforcing additive fibromyoma. Modules beams 4 and 5 have a surface layer of cardboard due to improve consumer properties of products, reducing the need for additional surface treatment modules 4 and 5. In this part of the modular three-dimensional structures are made with no gaps - conjugation modules ⊥-shaped section 4 between themselves and between modules and walls, and a part of a modular three-dimensional structures are made with gaps at the junction of the beams L-shaped section 5 to the modules ⊥-shaped section 4. The point of connection beams 5 to the 4 modules further treated with putty to conceal the point of connection. Furthermore, additional processing overhead abutting beams L-shaped section 5 to l�Stam 6 drywall. After installation of the entire spatial design defects eliminate traditional operations (putty, sanding), and the color design in accordance with the artistic intent of the customer. In the body of the modules ⊥-shaped section beams 4 and L-shaped section 5 in their manufacture form the technological channels and cavities required for the wiring that feeds the lighting device, and to accommodate power supplies and control lighting devices. Lighting devices are flexible led strip having on its rear side an adhesive layer, by means of which the LEDs are attached to utility valve, integrated into the body of the modules beams 4 and 5 in their manufacture so that the front part of the engineering of valves located on the surface of the modules beams 4 and 5. Engineering rebar used in this case, for secure attachment of LEDs and for removal from the LEDs excessive heat.
Variant specific implementation of the modular three-dimensional design using standard modules shown in Fig.2.
Thus, the present invention compared to the prototype method and other methods of spatial structure allows to simplify the installation of three-dimensional design�tion and improvement of the quality of the final design and consumer properties of the room through the creation of three-dimensional design, different art style, harmonious proportions and dimensional accuracy of the modules.
The technical result of the application of the present invention is expressed in lower labor costs for the production of modular three-dimensional design, simplifying its manufacture and installation, increasing the quality of the final product due to a better matching of the dimensions of the final product and its parts to the project.
1. Method of creating a modular three-dimensional structures of walls, ceilings, partitions and other structures of residential, public, industrial and other premises, which form a plane surface, corners, ledges, niches, and other elements and parts forming the three-dimensional structure, wherein the three-dimensional structure consists of standardized, mating modules, which are made in advance in the workplace in accordance with the production plan without taking into account project-specific three-dimensional structures of arbitrary shape and with an arbitrary surface that can be smooth, textured or sonority, of concrete on the basis of different binding agents, including the lungs and/or porous concrete and/or concrete with fillers, including gypsum, hasovitsa or foamed gypsum different densities, and�and made of plastics, including a porous or foamed plastics, or other materials, three-dimensional design are creating on-site, collect the individual modules into a single unit in accordance with the individual or the typical project is attached to the surface or to the frame, which are made in advance, or directly to structural elements of the structure, match the modules to each other without gaps or with the required clearances, and thus create a uniform surface, suitable for operation without finishing or which are the basis for further decoration.
2. Method of creating a modular three-dimensional structure according to claim 1, characterized in that during the production of standardized modules they give a hardened surface or surface layer having different characteristics from material volume, or surface layer of cardboard or other suitable material, body material modules introduce a reinforcing additive, the material of the modules stained by weight and/or injected into a mass of material specific additives that impart specific properties, in the body of the modules integrate a framework that improves the quality of consumer products and provide a more easy and reliable mounting of the modules, in this part of the frame if necessary�spine taken out of the modules to bond with other parts of the carcasses of all modular three-dimensional structure or to bond with other parts or armatures of building elements, in the body of the modules are made technological holes, cavities and channels, which is the communication of or intended for installation of utilities and installation of lighting devices, engineering fittings, and other devices, mechanisms, or devices, on the surface or in the body of the modules integrate communications, engineering construction, engineering fittings, power management and distribution, antennas and any other products, devices and mechanisms, including lighting equipment, including light sources, which use different LEDs, gas discharge bulb or glow-actively or passively materials, lighting equipment, communication and other devices and modules together form a single unit.
3. Method of creating a modular three-dimensional structure according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that when you create the modular three-dimensional structure of the object standardised modules placed around the perimeter of the modular three-dimensional structure and form so its edge or modules have independently from each other, with the space between modules or between modules and components of the structure of the closed material,
forming surface, the resulting gaps, further hiding�s building materials.
SUBSTANCE: on a facade to the place of element adhesion before application of glue on its rear surface they fix auxiliary devices that represent a rectangular metal plate with extended holes for attachment to the facade. The plate is equipped with two rows of sharp cogs arranged along large edges of the plate perpendicularly to its plane. Tips of cogs have process nicks-and-burrs. Auxiliary devices are fixed on the wall so that cogs are arranged perpendicularly to the facade plane, with sharp ends outside. Afterwards glue is applied onto the rear surface of the element, and the element is strongly pushed onto protruding cogs so that the rear plane of the element and the plane of the facade contact each other, and excessive glue is squeezed out. Excessive glue is removed. The auxiliary fastening device provides for necessary temporary fixation of the element until complete drying of glue.
EFFECT: invention improves quality and reduces cost of assembly.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of industrial and civil construction, namely to structures of building and facility curtain wall systems installed in construction and reconstruction of buildings. A curtain wall system comprises brackets for fixation of the system to a construction base, guides installed onto brackets for fixation of facing panels, and also elements of fixation of facing panels, connecting inserts and closing cramps, besides, guides are made as shaped and are of open shape in the cross section, each connecting insert is also made as shaped, is installed inside two adjacent guides, between ends of which there is a gap, and is fixed at the end of one of adjacent guides, and inside the second adjacent guide the connecting insert is installed tightly to ensure coaxiality of adjacent guides, besides, at this end of the second adjacent guide there is a closing cramp, besides, each guide is fixed on the bracket, at the same time gaps between ends of guides are at the distance from areas of guides fixation on brackets and preferably at the such distance, when in guides along their length there is minimum bending torque, sent from facing panels via elements of their fixation, besides, connecting inserts in areas of their fixation at guides create closed surfaces jointly with inner surfaces of guides, and closing cramps in areas of their fixation on guides create closed surfaces jointly with outer surfaces of guides.
EFFECT: increased bearing capacity and reliability of a curtain wall system.
8 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: decorative board represents a composite material and differs by the fact that the base is veneer, binder is polyester resin of PN-1 grade, accelerator is cobalt naphthenate, catalyst is metyl etyl keytone peroxide, decorative layer material is wood chips with length of not more than 5 mm and moisture of at least 10%.
EFFECT: development of an alternative appearance of finish lining of facades, this appearance shall not be inferior in main operational properties and outer surface to existing types of finish lining of building and structure facades.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: facing panel 1 comprises a face part 2, made in the form of a group of elements 3 that imitate building masonry, a rear part 4, adjoining the support surface during facing, an upper 5 and a lower 6 extended end parts, side 7 and 8 end parts, made in the form of ledges and grooves, the first 9 and second 10 side and an upper 11 collars, connected accordingly with side 12 and 13 upper 14 edges. Collars 15 connected to side edges 16 of ledges 17 of the first side end part 7 are made with increased width from the end edge 18 of the ledge 17 to the end edge 19 of the groove 20, locating studs 23.
EFFECT: improved operational characteristics.
9 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: facing system of external walls includes small main stones used for facing of an external wall, and facing stones with front, rear, upper, lower and side faces, as well as with vertical or horizontal projections on the rear face, where the main stones have one or more slots on the external face, which correspond to one or more projections on facing stones; besides, sizes of slots exceed sizes of the corresponding projections by the value of an adhesive seam that attaches stones to each other. A projection on the rear face of the facing stone is inclined to the rear face of the facing stone at an angle of α < 90°; external projections on the rear face of the facing stone have internal faces that are inclined at an angle of β ≥ 180°- α, and sizes of the main stones are divisible by sizes of facing stones.
EFFECT: reducing labour intensity and material consumption for facing of external walls.
5 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of glued laminar structures. Laminar composite comprises two surface layers of sheet material glued together and two inner layers arranged there between. Every said inner layer is composed by reinforced cellular structure of bamboo fragments shaped to plates or chips ob bamboo walls obtained by cutting the bamboo stem along the walls and across the stem. Cellular structure reinforcement is made with the help screen of glass fibre or glass fibre web. Note here that cellular structure is laid in screen or web and closed from above by another screen or web. Besides, this invention describes the versions of laminar material.
EFFECT: higher operating performances, decreased weight.
5 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: dowel for insulation material, designed to install heat and sound insulation material, has a spacer plastic rod, which is placed into a plastic shell, which on its outer surface has guides, spacer and fastening elements, which are divided into separate zones (A, B, C, D). The lowest end guide zone (A) ends with a cone, and the highest upper zone (D) forms a flat head. To achieve better deepening of the flat head into the material in the shell above the lowest end guide (A) there is a middle transition spacer zone (B), and above it - an upper wedge zone (C), besides, in the middle transition spacer zone (B) the shell comprises a spacer lug or, as an alternative, the transition spacer zone (B) by means of rupture links is connected to the wedge zone (C), in which wedge plates are installed.
EFFECT: improved design.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial and civil construction and is intended for attachment of profiles of hinged facade systems. A bracket for profiles of hinged facade systems includes a rear wall and plates of L-shape, on the first flange of which there are holes for attachment of profiles of the hinged facade system; with that, the second flanges of plates are directed from the bracket symmetry axis. Besides, the bracket includes a U-shaped profile located between the plates so that its middle flange is located in one plane with the second flanges of plates, and side flanges are parallel to the first flanges of the plates and rigidly attached to them; with that, the middle flange of the U-shaped profile and the second flanges of the plates form the rear wall of the bracket; besides, on the second flanges of the plates there are bracket attachment holes.
EFFECT: reduction of metal consumption; increase of load-carrying capacity and improvement of reliability of the bracket.
9 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in a support washer, consisting of a support surface for a fastening element and a support surface for a base and a part connecting them disposed at different support surface levels, unlike the prototype, on the part, connecting the support surfaces, by version one radial waves are made along the entire length of the generating line, and by version two - only along their part; the radial waves are made with height, decreasing from the washer centre to the edge.
EFFECT: weight reduction and increase of the washer stiffness.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a painting canvas based on glass fibre intended to be applied on the inner surface of a building, which contains an agent capable of trapping formaldehyde, as well as a method of making said painting canvas. The painting canvas contains an impregnating agent and an agent capable of trapping formaldehyde which is selected from compounds with active methylene groups, hydrazides, tannins, amides, amino acids, peptides and proteins. The method of making the canvas involves feeding the canvas into a padding machine or device having two rollers, each having a centre tube for feeding the impregnating agent under pressure, followed by drying and collecting the canvas. The method includes a step of treating with an agent which is capable of trapping formaldehyde.
EFFECT: use of the canvas reduces the amount of formaldehyde inside buildings.
19 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: butt joint of assembly reinforced concrete columns with an overlapping includes end portions of the lower and upper columns, mounted on one vertical axis of a reinforced concrete frame with a gap in height, and the overlapping arranged between the front edges of the columns through which bars of a longitudinal reinforcement of the lower column pass through. Overlapping slabs are laid on a thin layer of fine-grained concrete with protruding bars from the lower column, injected by fast-hardening fine grained concrete, which pass through its channels at the fixation of the overlapping slab position on the assembly by means of nuts, screwed on the reinforcement bars and pressing the overlapping to the lower column. Precast reinforced concrete columns have steel centring pads at the ends and a working longitudinal uniform reinforcement of a screw profile, interconnected by couplings screwed at the ends, joining the bars of the working reinforcement in the niche of the upper column with subsequent enclosing of the joint place by cross-clamps and their caulking by fast-hardening fine-graded concrete.
EFFECT: increase of reliability, accuracy of installation, reduction of the specific amount of metal.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction. A cast-in-place and precast frame of a building, a structure is a building structure with higher stiffness of the frame and increased bearing capacity of the slab. In the frame they use bonding of bent reinforcing ropes of crossbars in monolithic crossbar-column units. The slab crossbar-column units are made with concrete dowels, which are limited by plugs with holes, through which reinforcement stretches in a transit manner, being common for opposite slabs and embedded into dowels and holes of plugs. To control filling of dowels with concrete, there are holes in slabs arranged above plugs. To increase span of bearing crossbars and their bearing capacity, the lower protective level of concrete is reduced to the permissible one (25-30 mm). To achieve the same purpose, it is possible to use high-grade concrete and reinforcement of at least class A500 in production of crossbars. To increase efficiency of labour and considerable reduction of monolithic works, also under negative temperatures, to support external masonry they use prefabricated cantilevers instead of monolithic ones.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase stiffness of frame untis and bearing capacity of a slab.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: jointless frame comprises columns, column slabs resting against columns, annular slabs arranged between column slabs, units of column jointing with column slabs and units of slabs connection to each other. Columns located in corners of buildings and places of crossing of longitudinal and transverse walls are made as figured with an angular, tee- or cross-shaped cross section, in accordance with their location. Each unit of column connection with column slabs is made in the form of embedded parts, connected with the column reinforcement and installed on peripheral sections of the cross section of the figured column, and also vertical rods pulled through holes in the column slab and joined with the embedded parts of columns.
EFFECT: increased stiffness and strength characteristics of a frame.
3 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: collapsible-monolithic framing of a building comprises collapsible pillars, multiple-cavity floor slabs and collapsible-monolithic slab crossbars. Slab crossbars are arranged with support keys in cavities at their ends and anchor joints built into them. Assembly parts of crossbars are arranged with hidden or open support cantilevers and are installed onto pillars in a floor-by-floor manner. Support keys are arranged with a working depth that is not less than their height. Support keys are equipped with cantilever reinforcement and are entered into upper shelves of slabs to arrange additional keys made as a whole. Anchor joints are installed in cavities at the ends of each slab.
EFFECT: higher bearing capacity, reliability and safety of support assemblies of slabs.
5 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of building, and namely to multi-stored building of the frame-wall structural system from prefabricated and monolithic reinforced concrete. The building comprises prefabricated reinforced concrete columns, made on several floors, and monolithic reinforced concrete slab drives. The columns are joined by the height of the building according to the type of the plug-in connection in the holes of the columns on the glue solution. End planes of the columns within the core of the sections are performed as curvilinear polygon in the form of a cup on the upper surface of the columns and in the form of a truncated pyramid or a sphere on the bottom one. In the mesh points of the columns in the levels of monolithic slabs orthogonally arranged linear rigid inserts are mounted. Inserts are mounted on the horizontal sections of the columns with plates anchoring in issues outside of the cross-section columns. The building is equipped with diaphragms of rigidity made of prefabricated wall panels with the floor height with loop outlets of varying length. Loop outlets are designed for panels anchoring in the levels of floors, foundations and with the adjacent panels on the building height.
EFFECT: reduction of consumption of materials, labor installation works, increase of the carrying capacity, reliability and durability.
2 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, in particular to building. Building comprises walls, foundation, floor slabs resting on pillars united with butt joints along their height. Pillars on end surfaces are arranged with truncated pyramids inverted to each other with smaller bases. Fixing elements are installed on smaller bases of pyramids and are rigidly connected to each other. Fixing elements have central holes. Tube is installed in central holes arranged in lower pyramid of lower pillar. Connection rod, which is rigidly connected to upper pyramid, is installed in tube and in central holes of fixing elements. Butt joint of pillars comprises binding element, outlets of lower pillar working fixtures and units of upper pillar working fixture outlets. Each of upper pillar working fixture outlet units includes the following components that are serially installed in pillar and are rigidly connected to each other - rod, insert and L-shaped outlet of fixture. L-shaped outlet of fixture is rigidly connected to appropriate rod of lower pillar fixture outlet. Binding element interacts with side surfaces of truncated pyramids, outlets of pillar working fixtures, pillars and floor slab. L-shaped outlets of fixtures in units arranged parallel to single side facet of pillar are coaxially inverted by their shelves to each other. Sum of distance from upper pillar facet to nearest rod of upper pillar working fixture unit outlet, diametre of upper pillar fixture rod and distance between upper pillar fixture rod and L-shaped outlet of fixture exceeds not more than by thickness of insert between rod of upper pillar fixture and L-shaped outlet of fixture, sum of distance from lower pillar facet to nearest rod of lower pillar working fixture outlet rod and diametre of lower pillar fixture rod.
EFFECT: improved characteristics of pillar joint unit installation process efficiency, reduced labour intensiveness of upper and lower pillars fixture outlets coupling process, reduced time required for installation of pillar joint unit.
2 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, in particular to reinforced concrete frame of building with precast and cast-in-situ hidden crossbar. Precast and cast-in-situ frame consists of column-crossbar joints and crossbar-plates of hollow flooring, and also ceiling and prefabricated columns. Joints are rigid and grouted under construction conditions. Ceiling is created by hollow plates, bearing and joint hidden crossbars. Crossbars have thicknesses equal to thickness of hollow-core ceiling slab. Precast columns are joined along height with the help of socket joint. Columns have concrete gaps in plane of ceiling for monolithic unit joint, in which bearing and joint crossbars are combined in mutually perpendicular direction. Thin precast joint and bearing crossbars are used as fixed formwork. To create smooth ceiling surface at the border of crossbar-ceiling plate, bearing crossbar has cantilever projections of armature for ceiling slabs resting on them in process of installation.
EFFECT: reduction of frame erection labour intensiveness, manufacturing of frame elements with maximum use of resources of moulding equipment in existing plants for reinforced concrete products making and higher esthetic perception due to crossbar hidden in ceiling.
SUBSTANCE: building comprises reinforced concrete plates of slabs, reinforced concrete capitals and columns. Capitals rest on columns and are fixed to plates. Every column is separated into multiple branches. Every branch is distanced from neighbouring branch at the distance that exceeds width of pyramid of capital punching with branch. Every branch is fixed to capital with the possibility of making space frame with it and with all branches of its column.
EFFECT: improved static operation and reduced weight of building bearing structures.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, in particular to diaphragms of jointless ossature buildings. Diaphragm is installed between columns, foundation, intercolumn and above-column slabs and is connected to them by means of embedded components and reinforcing bars. Diaphragm is made of central and two side parts connected between each other in the same vertical plane. Width of diaphragm central part is equal to length of intercolumn slab. Central part of diaphragm from three sides - upper one and two side ones, and every side part of diaphragm from two sides - upper and side ones from the side of central diaphragm are equipped with loop projections. Lateral sides of central part is connected to side parts by means of reinforcing rods. Reinforcing rods are installed between slabs vertically in openings that are formed by loop projections during joining of parts towards each other. Ends of reinforcing bars are installed in splined seams of intercolumn and above-column slab joints. Every side part of diaphragm from the side of column is equipped with embedded "П"-shaped components. Columns, between which diaphragm is installed, are equipped with plate embedded elements. Embedded elements of columns are installed opposite to "П"-shaped embedded elements of diaphragm side parts and are rigidly fixed to them. In every intercolumn slab installed above central part of diaphragm, square opening is provided, being edged with angle. Opening contains fastening element arranged in the form of two grids of L-shape. Grids are connected to angle and loop projections of diaphragm central part. Central part of diaphragm is connected to side parts of diaphragm with the help of reinforcing bars that are passed horizontally through openings of all upper reinforcing projections of all diaphragm parts. Splined seams between parts of diaphragm and adjacent splined connections of slabs, and also joints of intercolumn slab and diaphragm are filled with concrete.
EFFECT: higher reliability of structural joints and seismic stability, lower labour intensiveness of structure erection.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: constructional engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to constructional engineering, in particular to butt connection of modular columns to coverage and to method thereof. Butt connection includes bottom segments of lower and upper columns vertically fixed on reinforced concrete framing axis with height fracture, and coverage placed between end faces of columns. Screw-threaded longitudinal reinforcement escapes pass through coverage. Escapes ends are fitted with screw nuts to lateral steel sheet in recesses provided in upper column. The sheet is rigidly connected to end face of the upper column. Then recesses are calked with rapid-hardening fine concrete. Over coverage top there are aligner nuts provided for upper column support. Coverage has centre tube to grout rapid-hardening fine concrete. Also, coverage is supplied with openings with anchored metal pipes. Lower column longitudinal reinforcement escapes pass through each metal pipe. Metal bolsters are fixed in opening metal pipes under coverage and under each aligner nut over coverage in rapid-hardening fine concrete layer on longitudinal reinforcement escapes. Bolsters are made as truncated cones with theirsmaller bases directed towards each other. Metal gaskets are fixed between end face of lower column and bolsters.
EFFECT: increased reliability, construction accuracy, more rapid construction and reduced steel intensity.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for residential and public building erection.
SUBSTANCE: composite frame comprises reinforced concrete columns with orifices formed at story floor areas, composite prestressed crossbars having horizontal depressions of triangular cross-sections in end sides thereof; floor panels arranged so that a gap is created between ends thereof. Floor panels and column orifices are grouted together with frame reinforcement bar ends inserted in them. Reinforced concrete columns extending through several stories have continuous reinforcement formed of prestressed bars extending along the full column length including areas near orifices. In this areas reinforcement bars pass through thick-walled tubes having steel support plates and embedded in column body for anchoring length.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of columns and buildings, increased earthquake resistance.
3 cl, 11 dwg