Beam with continually retained wall

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: beam with a continually retained wall comprises a compressed and an extended belts and a wall, besides, a flat wall in areas of action of transverse forces and/or torques of considerable intensity is reinforced by mostly transversely installed stiffening ribs in the form of preferably metal shapes adjoining each other with a gap providing for reliable connection of ribs to each other and to a wall, at the same time the shape and calibre of ribs may change along the length of the wall in accordance with variation of intensity of acting forces.

EFFECT: reduced material intensity of a beam and its increased bearing capacity.

9 cl, 5 dwg

 

The invention relates to the construction, in particular to the supporting structures that can perform enclosing functions. The scope of the invention - industrial and civil buildings and structures.

The prior art discloses a metal I-beam or box-shaped cross - sections, "Metal construction. Vol. 1. The structural elements of" Educational publication. Edited by V. V. Gorev, Moscow, Higher school, 2004. With 228-284. To ensure the sustainability of the wall at its nominal flexibility over 3.2 in the absence of a moving load, and more than 2.2 - in the presence of a moving load, applied discretely spaced transverse and longitudinal (conditional flexibility walls more than 6) unilateral or bilateral ribs. Not being a thin-walled construction, this bar can work with account of elastic-plastic stage of deformation of the material. The disadvantage of this beam is increased compared to thin-walled structures, metal consumption and, as a consequence, the considerable weight of the product, which has a negative impact including on the consumption of material other designs perceiving loading weight beams: columns, walls, joists, foundations, etc.

The closest analogue (prototype) predlagaemogo of the invention the technical essence and the achieved effect is the ball�and with alternating corrugated wall - patent for useful model №91583. The structure of such beams corresponds to the intensity changes of the main efforts that occur in it during the bending, however, requires the use of specialized goreobsessed equipment. Remains unstudied question about the development of elastic-plastic deformations in flexible structures with corrugated walls.

The technical result of the application of the present invention is to reduce the material intensity of the beam and increase its bearing capacity.

Said technical result is the solution of an actual problem of the effective use of the material in load-bearing structural elements. Noted the technical result is achieved due to the fact that the flat wall (wall - in the case of box-section) in areas of significant action by the intensity of shear forces and/or torques - usually Primorye zone - reinforced predominantly transversely mounted stiffeners in the form of mainly steel sections (angles, channels, pipes, z-shaped profiles, etc.) adjacent to each other with a gap, providing welding, adhesive or other reliable connection of the ribs with each other and with the wall, the profile and size (position in the mix) the ribs may vary along the length of the wall in accordance with am�using the intensity of the effective forces. Under reliable connection means the connection of beam elements, which has sufficient strength for the perception of acting for combining efforts from design loads and their combinations. In some cases, such a connection has a strength balance with the joined elements.

Wall, supported at least in some sections, mostly transverse stiffeners installed continuously with a gap, providing the organization with reliable connection of the ribs with each other and with the wall, it is proposed to call the continuum is supported by the wall.

Changing the profile and size of the ribs corresponds to the changes in the intensity of shear forces, bending and torsional moments in the beam. At sites relatively intense shear forces and/or torques caliber of ribs maximum, and the profile has the greatest stiffness from the plane of the beam web. On sites of relatively small transverse forces and/or torques - return decision: caliber minimum, the profile has the lowest stiffness. In areas where the stiffness of the stiffened wall sufficient for the perception of effort stiffeners are not allowed to install. The exceptions are cases in which the ribs are instrumental. Constructive causes the device �skretny or continuous stiffeners can be: areas of connection/junction other structures; focusing on the local site external load; places of abrupt changes in the cross-section of the beam or its elements; zone device manufacturing holes, anchoring devices puffs, additional bonds (dampers); change scenario design scheme due to damage or failure of components and structures, etc. Changing design scheme appears to be relevant from the point of view of self-preservation and adaptation of the supporting structure (the system of load-bearing structures of buildings and structures to the new conditions when the effects of accidental nature, caused by the influence of anthropogenic (fires, explosions, accidents, errors, installation, design and manufacturing, non-project and/or improper operation, etc.) or natural (karst effects, deformation of the base, the excess of the existing natural loads above calculation, etc.) factors.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, in which

Fig.1 shows a beam with a continuous-backed wall and parallel zones of sheet material;

Fig.2 is a side view of the beam of Fig.1;

Fig.3 is a longitudinal cross-section a-A in Fig.2;

Fig.4 - cross section b-B in Fig.2;

Fig.5 is a magnified image of fragment A in Fig.3.

A beam with a continuous-backed wall consists of compressed zone 1 and rastjanutaja 2, United wall 3. The reinforced wall 3 arranged one behind the other (with the technological gap, providing a reliable connection) predominantly transverse ribs 4. An essential factor is the location of the ribs 4 on regions of intense shear forces and/or torques - mostly reference zone. Profile and/or the caliber of the fins 4 may be constant or vary along the length of the wall. It is possible that some areas of the wall 3 ribs 4 are immutable profile and/or a caliber, and on the other variable.

In the case of I-beam cross section of the rib 4 may be unilateral or bilateral relative to the median plane of the wall 3. The duplexer of the ribs 4 is preferable from a constructive point of view, due to a more uniform transfer of effort from zones 1 and 2 to the wall 3, the best works in torsion, the smaller the sensitivity of the design to the imperfections of the geometry of the elements, the heterogeneity of their material, the eccentricities of load. In the case of box-shaped or I-shaped-box-beam cross section of the rib 4 is rational to arrange with one of the outer side of each of the walls 3.

The invention also provides a variant of the beam, which uses the ribs 4, as a facing on both edges of the wall 3 (i.e. the dissemination�ausina from zone 1 to zone 2), never coming out or coming out only on one edge.

Wall 3 may have a perforation 5, which is preferable to provide in the areas with a predominant influence of the bending moments on the bearing capacity. The perforation device 5 can, in some cases further decrease the amount of material on the wall 3 and pass communications through design.

The thickness of the wall 3 along the length can be variable. It is most efficient to assign the maximum wall thickness of 3 plots the prevalence of intense shear forces (shear forces).

Profile change and/or caliber of the ribs 4, and the thickness of the wall 3 with the constructive and technological point of view it is convenient to perform compartments within which describes the parameters constant. Thus, beam (wall 3) may consist of compartments, and its structure is, for example, in the following sequence: reference compartment, an intermediate compartment, srednepolny compartment, an intermediate compartment, a supporting compartment.

The beam may be made of metals, alloys, composites, plastics, fiber reinforced plastics, metalloplastic, wood and other building materials.

In the case of manufacturing a beam of metals is a rational connection of the ribs with the wall with a welded joint with the least possible �on structural and strength requirements of the cathodes of the weld to minimize internal stresses from residual welding deformations. The purpose of vsekommentarii these efforts, it is recommended to carefully design the Assembly sequence design.

Distinctive features of the proposed design:

the purpose of the thickness of the wall 3 of the terms of shear strength when combined with ribs 4 on the perception of loads that cause elastic-plastic deformation cross sections of the beam. In areas where existing transverse forces and torques are perceived by the wall 3, the ribs 4 stiffness are not installed, if it is not dictated by structural requirements described above, and the requirements of local stability. The proposed design on the specifics of the power work occupies an intermediate position between the known thick-walled rib beam with discrete arrangement of ribs and a beam with thin alternating corrugated web, combining the advantages of both designs:

as in thick-walled beam - allowed elastic-plastic work material, does not require specialized homoopathie equipment;

as in a beam with alternating corrugated web - resistance wall 3 provides increased rigidity due to the proposed location of the ribs 4, the respective intensities of the effective forces.

A distinctive feature of the proposed beams, missing her famous� analogues: the perception of transverse shear effort not only by the wall 3, but the ribs 4 through a continuous (continuity) of their device at the respective sites of the beam and the organization of a gap between them for connecting ribs 4 between itself and the wall 3.

In view of the foregoing circumstances, it appears that the rational from the point of view of materials consumption the range of flexibility of the wall 3 (one of the key parameters of optimality beam structures) is 180-350 for metal beams. With less flexibility design degenerates into a known beam with discrete arrangement of stiffeners, and when more become more efficient thin-walled structures, working mainly in the elastic stage of deformation of the material.

The possibility of working beams in elastic-plastic stage, the internal residual stress from welding deformations, and relatively high flexibility of the wall 3 increase the likelihood of initial imperfections (geometric imperfections - deviations from idealized form), the negative impact which the most impact in primarnych parts of the wall 3. This fact, and the fact that the influence of the support reactions close to close external force, causing the need for devices supporting ribs in most cases.

Zone 1 and 2 beams with continuous-backed wall 3 can be parallel to the Il� not parallel to each other, representing a triangle, trapezoid, polygon, segment or shape.

The compressed zone 1 and stretched belt 2 can be performed with different cross-section and made of different materials with different physical-mechanical characteristics. You can change the cross section of the belts 1 and 2 in length.

On top of the beam may be metal, concrete (monolithic, precast, precast) or other flooring, fastened with a belt 1 of the beam with anchor elements or other compounds. This effectively apply such compounds and elements that will provide collaboration beams and flooring.

The cavities formed by the ribs 4 and the wall 3 can be filled with a solution based on the non-shrinking or expanding cement for the purpose of stiffening sections of the wall 3. The filling solution can be carried out, for example, through the holes in the belt 1 and/or 2, the wall 3 or the ribs 4. The solution may be injected under pressure.

The cross section of the beam may be I-shaped, box (double wall 3), h-box - (in fact - box-with overhangs zones 1 and/or 2).

The proposed beam can be designed and calculated articulated, rigid, or provopoulos bearing on the ends, and also taking into account multi-span continuous scheme �work.

The nature of the work beam with continuous-backed wall 3 is as follows:

when uploading beams external load acting on one or two belts 1 and 2 and directed in the plane of the wall 3, there is a transverse bending of the structure. In the gully there are efforts mainly due to shear forces, bending and torsional moments. Transverse forces are perceived almost entirely by the wall 3 and the ribs 4, and the bending moments - almost entirely zones 1 and 2. Stress from torque perceived by zones 1, 2, wall 3 and ribs 4. If on top of the beam is arranged securely connected to the flooring, it is included in the work of the compressed zone 1 compression and torsion, allowing to significantly reduce its consumption of materials. The stability of the compressed zone 1 is improved in the places of their joining the ribs 4 of the wall 3 through the support rib 4. Wall 3 in zones of intense bending moments (usually sredneprotsentnye areas) is included in the work zones 1, 2 bending. The stability of the wall 3 is provided with a device of the ribs 4, the profile and the caliber of which are determined by calculation. The stability of the beam from the plane is provided by unfastening her contacts in the form of struts and beams, solid flooring in the form of concrete slabs, profiled or flat sheet metal, etc., the Support reaction of the beam p�Borchali on downstream vertical load-bearing elements of the structure (walls, columns, pylons) and the foundations. Upon impact of an emergency nature, damaging a system of load-bearing structures, the determining criterion is maintaining the carrying capacity of buildings (or parts thereof) at least for sufficient time for evacuation. In such cases, with appropriate design of the proposed beam can operate on the principle of the thread (the guy), creating the thrust perceived other structures: columns, walls, ceilings discs. thus, not allowed to observe the quality of normal (non-emergency) operation design (e.g. stiffness), and the material of the beam can operate under samopoznaniya.

In the case of manufacturing the beams of the metals it is recommended to give preference to the steels of different strength. In this case, since the bending moments are perceived mainly by zones 1 and 2, may be made of metals with different physical-mechanical properties (in particular - bistline solution), and the wall 3 it is recommended to connect with zones 1 and 2 using a continuous, single-sided or double-sided welds that requires consideration of indicators weldability and conditions of use.

To increase the rigidity of the proposed beam can be prestressed, for example, using the device stretched for�of Aiki, preliminary deformation and other ways.

The scope of the invention : structural system of load-bearing elements of buildings and structures for civil and industrial use. The proposed utility model can be used in various snow, wind and seismic areas. The considered beam is designed for the perception of static or dynamic effects. Under dynamic loads, it is recommended to produce this beam of steel, and the connection zones 1 and 2 with the wall 3 to implement using a double continuous welds.

Purpose specific design parameters of the beam profile and calibre of ribs 4; section and the material of the beam elements, its General dimensions, etc.) based on the conditions of construction, the complex task on its design and the results of calculations of the bearing capacity and performance. For meaningful calculations, it is recommended the use of numerical methods theory of elasticity, in particular the finite element method (FEM) in the computer implementation.

Recommended for the stability calculations of the beam to take into account the elastic-plastic material properties (nonlinear stability), as well as to analyze not only the first form of buckling, but also subsequent.

When in-house� computer calculations FEM recommended for use in the simulation of the beam shell finite elements with regard to the geometric and material nonlinearities. In addition, calculations of the bearing capacity of the beam is recommended taking into account the internal forces from residual welding deformations. An essential criterion of the adequacy of the estimated model is its maximum similarity with the field design as on the geometric characteristics and stiffness parameters.

1. A beam with a continuous-backed wall containing the compressed and stretched belt and the wall, characterized in that the flat wall at the sites of action of considerable intensity shear forces and/or torques strengthened mainly transversely mounted stiffeners in the form of mostly metal sections adjacent to each other with a gap, ensuring the implementation of the reliable connection of the ribs with each other and with the wall, the profile and calibre of ribs may vary along the length of the wall in accordance with the intensity variation of the effective forces.

2. A beam with a continuous-reinforced wall according to claim 1, characterized in that the profile and/or the caliber of the ribs varies along the length of the wall.

3. A beam with a continuous-reinforced wall according to claim.1 or 2, characterized in that the compressed and stretched belt not parallel to each other, with the outline of the zone is a triangular, trapezoidal, polygonal or segment shape.

5. A beam with a continuous-reinforced wall according to claim 4, characterized in that provided in the wall of the perforation.

6. A beam with a continuous-reinforced wall according to claim 5, characterized in that the wall thickness along the length of the variable.

7. A beam with a continuous-reinforced wall according to claim 6, characterized in that the cross section of the I-beams and box-shaped or I-shaped-box.

8. A beam with a continuous-reinforced wall according to claim 7, characterized in that the structure is prestressed.

9. A beam with a continuous-reinforced wall according to claim 8, characterized in that the cavities formed by the ribs and the wall are filled with a solution based on the non-shrinking or expanding cement.



 

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