High-frequency composite dielectric
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to high-frequency composite dielectric materials used in antenna engineering and high-frequency transmission lines. The composite material comprises packed fluoroplast-4 powder with particle size of no more than 5 mcm, impregnated with binder. The binder used is epoxy resin with a curing agent. The epoxy resin is a product of condensation of epichlorohydrin and aniline in an alkaline medium, with viscosity of no more than 200 mPa·s, and the curing agent used has viscosity of no more than 40 mPa·s. Impregnation with binder is carried out under pressure and while evacuating the volume of the powder, followed by curing.
EFFECT: producing a dielectric material with low permittivity, low dielectric loss tangent and improved properties such as strength and modulus of elasticity in compression.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
The invention relates to high frequency dielectric materials based on the composition of fluoroplast-4 in powder form, where the average particle size of the powder is not more than 5 μm, and an epoxy resin (condensation product of epichlorohydrin and aniline in an alkaline environment) and can be used in the manufacture of the antenna insulators and insulators devices, analiziruemykh frequency energy.
All dielectric materials-analogues of the claimed composition are divided into groups using one -, two prevailing characteristics. So, polystyrene, polyethylene, Teflon-3, Teflon-4 possess at frequencies over 1 MHz low permittivity ε=2.1 and 2.5 and a small value of tangent of dielectric loss angle tgδ=0.0002 to 0.001 (see "Electrical engineering materials", Gotman, E., Moscow, Energia 1969, p. 170-189). However, these materials are not constructive, i.e. cannot be used for the manufacture of components operating at high mechanical loads and high temperatures. To another group of dielectric materials-analogs include materials having good mechanical properties (tensile strength from 8090 to 5000 kg/cm2), but with insufficient electrical parameters (ε=4.5 to 8, tgδ=0.01 to 0.05) and a large water absorption (0.2 to 0.5 mass%). This materials - AG-4, the different glass Maro� SCM-1, STEF, STAT (see "Electrical engineering materials", Gotman, E., Moscow, Energia, 1969, pp. 163-164, 205 to 220).
As the closest analogue (prototype) of the present invention are selected material KF-9 - composition based on organosilicon resin modified PTFE and mineral fillers. The material used for the manufacture of parts and products electronic destination (see "Handbook of Aviation materials", volume 7, part 1, Moscow, Auntie-1976, p. 305).
Table 1 shows the characteristics of the materials-analogues of the material of the prototype and the proposed material KMD (composite dielectric material).
The table shows that the proposed material KMD has electrical parameters (ε and tgδ) at the level of the best options dielectric - PTFE-4, and the mechanical parameters at the level of the composition of AG-4 and exceeds the parameters of the material-prototype - KF-9 on electrical parameters on the compressive strength and, importantly, on water absorption. This allows the use of the proposed material KMD for the manufacture of parts and products employed in circuits of high-frequency signals under mechanical loads and in water, for example, in an airtight comparenode and connectors.
The present invention is durable�Xia establishment of a dielectric material, having electric characteristics with a low dielectric constant at 2.1-2.5 and a low value of dielectric loss tangent of 0.001, as for example, Teflon-4, and the best mechanical and climatic characteristics, selected as a prototype of press material KF-9 strength and modulus of elasticity in compression.
The problem is solved in that the following components were used:
powder PTFE-4 (polytetrafluorethylen) with an average grain size 5 μm under the trademark "TOMFLON" (ultrafine powder of PTFE with a mass fraction of moisture not more than 0.02%, a specific gravity of 2.2 g/cm3the melting point is 250°C). The binder used in the composition is not more than 30-40%,
- binder composed of:
epoxy resin with a viscosity of 200 MPa·sec and a curing agent with a viscosity of 40 MPa·sec. As such a curing agent were used material From MTHFA (isomethyltetrahydrophthalic anhydrite) is easily crystallizing soluble liquid. The quantitative ratio of the components is expressed in mass units. The ratio of the mass of 40-45% and 55-60%.
- binder in the composition is not more than 30-40%.
For the implementation of the task developed a method of making the inventive material using the apparatus shown�CSOs in Fig. 1,
where the notation:
1 - cylindrical shape for powder;
2 - in the form of powder;
3, a cylindrical shape for the binder;
4 - binder;
5 - shape piston POS.3;
6 - shape, where a vacuum is created.
To implement the manufacture of the inventive material, we used the following technological processes.
1. Preparatory operations
1.1 Sieved powder of PTFE;
1.2 Sifted powder is heated to a temperature of 90°C and held for three hours;
1.3 stage filling of cylindrical shape sifted 1 powder 2 with simultaneous vibration of form and further degassing forms a seal for the powder (see Fig 1). The evacuation process lasts at least 20 minutes;
1.4 heating Is of the form 1 with compacted powder 2 to a temperature of 90°C for at least two hours, followed by heating to a temperature of 70°C and aged for 15 minutes;
1.5 is Prepared binder material epoxy resin with a viscosity of 200 MPa·sec and a curing agent with a viscosity of 40 MPa·sec. The ratio of the mass of 40-45% and 55-60%. Is blended in a separate container selected epoxy resin and hardener for at least 15 minutes.
2.1 user fills in top shape with powder 2 prepared by impregnating composition 4;
22 is a vacuum Created 6 from the form of powder 1. A discharge is not less than minus 1 ATM;
2.3 mechanical pressure is Created in the connecting material 4, for example, the yoke on the piston 5;
2.4 controlled impregnation process by darkening the color of the powder in the form 2.
3.1 Shape with impregnated throughout the volume of the powder 1 is heated to a temperature of 90°C and held for at least three hours;
3.2 Pre-utverjdena composition "powder - impregnated" placed in an oven with a temperature of 160-170°C for 7 hours to finish curing;
3.3 The sample material on a lathe cut ends.
The thus obtained substance has characteristics and properties that allow its continued use as an insulating material in the manufacture of insulators in high frequency products.
High-frequency composite dielectric made of the cured composite material containing a compacted powder of the PTFE-4 with a particle size of not more than 5 μm, impregnated, taken in an amount of 30-40% and containing 40-45% of epoxy resin is the condensation product of epichlorohydrin and aniline in an alkaline medium, with a viscosity of 200 MPa·sec and 55-60% of curing agent with a viscosity of 40 MPa·sec.
FIELD: radio engineering.
SUBSTANCE: radiating device comprises two metal plates, between which dielectric waveguide and asymmetrical dielectric element are installed, the latter being adjacent to metal plates without creation of slots, having section of asymmetrical shape and one or several curves in plane of metal plates, moreover, curve convexities are inverted and nearing dielectric waveguide, and concavities are inverted in direction of generated front of radiated wave.
EFFECT: expansion of functional resources of radiating device due to generation of required distribution of amplitude and phase front of wave with a specified width without significant complication of structure.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates electric radio engineering and particularly to dielectric aerial containing round waveguide with ribbed flange. The latter is located on the open end of waveguide. There is also a dielectric rod being installed coaxially inside the waveguide and projecting the waveguide limits. Dielectric bushing is also available in the aerial and situated on the projecting part of the dielectric rod. According to the invention the projecting part of dielectric rod is additionally provided with dielectric insertion of the cross section similar to the rod. It is installed at a distance L1=(0.6÷0.7)λ from the open waveguide end. The length is L2=(1.1÷1.3)λ, relative dielectric permeability of insertion material must be ε2=(0.8÷0.9)ε1, where λ - average length of operating wave; L1 - distance from the open waveguide end to dielectric insertion; L2 - length of dielectric insertion; ε1, ε2 - relative dielectric permeability values for dielectric rod and insertion accordingly.
EFFECT: provision of uneven table top part of the aerial beam no more than 1 dB within the frequency band to 17% and minor lobes level not exceeding 10 dB.
FIELD: microwave engineering; transceiving antennas for local industrial networks.
SUBSTANCE: proposed antenna element has dielectric resonator in the form of dielectric disk, coaxial line section with central conductor connected to cylindrical conductor, and space-enclosing conductive wall. Dielectric disk extends length l beyond space. Conductor section whose longitudinal axis is aligned with dielectric disk axis excites electromagnetic waves in the latter, their field structure corresponding to that of dielectric resonator E-waves. Dielectric disk axis is perpendicular to conductive wall surface. Effective excitation of E-waves in dielectric disk is ensured when its thickness is chosen from equation , where h is dielectric disk thickness; D is its diameter. Dielectric disk extends l = h - δ beyond space, where h is dielectric disk thickness; δ is conductive wall thickness amounting to 0.1-0.3 of dielectric disk thickness l.
EFFECT: enlarged passband and enhanced gain.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: antenna engineering.
SUBSTANCE: novelty is that proposed antenna is made of dielectric material in the form of regular pyramid whose prismatic base mounts converter.
EFFECT: simplified design.
8 cl, 21 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polymer composition for manufacturing sealing and electroinsulating materials for production of connection cable envelope. Composition contains low-pressure polyethylene, lubricant buxol as plasticiser and filling agent representing titanium oxide.
EFFECT: composition is characterised by high thermodynamic compatibility of components, which makes it possible to obtain material with high mechanical characteristics and optimal combination of electro- and hydroinsulating properties.
SUBSTANCE: electrically insulating composition consisting of suspension polyvinylchloride, ester and, when required, phosphate plasticiser, lead or calcium-zinc stabiliser, antioxidant, antimony oxide, zinc oxide, zinc borate, epoxidated vegetable oil comprises additionally sized aluminium hydrate or magnesium hydrate or their mixture, sized calcium carbonate, sized calcium-magnesium hydroxycarbonate and calcium-aluminium hydroxycarbonate at certain ratio of component.
EFFECT: reduced toxicity, corrosion activity and fume emission.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to a cable for transportation and distribution of medium- and high-voltage energy. The cable (1) comprises at least one electrical conductor (2) and at least one electric insulating layer surrounding the above electrical conductor, at that this electric insulating layer (4) contains: (a) thermoplastic polymer material selected from at least one propylene copolymer (i) with at least one olefine comonomer selected from ethylene and α-olefin, not being propylene, at that the above copolymer has melting point higher or equal to 130°C and enthalpy of melting from 20 up to 90 J/g; mixture of at least one copolymer (i) with at least one ethylene copolymer (ii) with at least one α-olefin, at that the above copolymer (ii) has enthalpy of melting from 0 up to 70 J/g; mixture of at least one propylene homopolymer with at least one copolymer (i) or copolymer (ii); at that at least one of copolymer (i) and copolymer (ii) is a heterophase copolymer; (b) at least one dielectric liquid mixed thoroughly with thermoplastic polymer material, at that the above at least one dielectric liquid is aromatic dielectric liquid with the ratio of carbon aromatic atoms number towards the total number of carbon atoms is higher or equal to 0.3; (c) at least one voltage stabiliser selected from substituted bensophenones and hindered amines.
EFFECT: invention improves breakdown strength of the cable dielectric.
20 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polypropylene, a method for production thereof and a film capacitor made from said polypropylene. The polypropylene has a melting temperature (Tm) measured according to ISO 11357-3 of at least 151.0°C and xylene cold soluble fraction (XCS) of not more than 1.5 wt %. According to stepwise isothermal segregation technique (SIST) results, 45.0 to 67.0 wt % of the crystalline fraction has a lamella thickness in the range of 7.70 to 14.09 nm and 18.0 to 50.0 wt % of the crystalline fraction has a lamella thickness greater than 14.09 nm.
EFFECT: disclosed polypropylene has high heat resistance and enables to obtain biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) and/or a film capacitor with high electrical breakdown strength and a high β parameter.
13 cl, 1 dwg, 9 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a polyolefin composition with improved dielectric strength of insulation, to a wire or cable, in particular to a cable of middle, high or superhigh voltage, which includes such composition, as well as to application of such composition for production of wire or cable, in particular a cable of medium, high and superhigh voltage. Polyolefin composition contains polyolefin (A) and benzyl derivative (B) of a certain structure. Benzyl derivative (B) is used in the polyolefin composition as an additive for stabilisation of dielectric strength.
EFFECT: additive provides considerable improvement of dielectric strength, possesses good solubility in a polyolefin matrix and low predisposition to migration, and also possesses compatibility with respect to all other components of the polyolefin composition, in particular with cross-linking agents.
21 cl, 6 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: electrically insulating composition contains suspended polyvinyl chloride, an ester plasticiser, a lead stabiliser, diphenylol propane, chalk, stearic acid, calcium stearate, epoxidated soya bean oil, magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, chlorinated paraffins, antimony trioxide, zinc oxide, boric acid and organoclay.
EFFECT: low level of smoke emission in burning and glowing conditions while maintaining the degree of incombustibility.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: electric insulating composition includes suspension polyvinyl chloride, ester plasticiser, diphenyl propane, lead stabiliser, stearic acid, lubricating material, epoxidated soya oil, chlorinated paraffin, magnesium hydroxide, ammonia polyphosphate and organic clay.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to produce a composition with lower combustibility, low release of smoke and hydrogen chloride during combustion, and to increase value of physical and mechanical characteristics.
1 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: electroconductive peroxide cross-linkable composition comprises, wt %: polyolefin 49-62, benzopropionic acid 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxy-2-[3-[3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-1-oxopropyl] hydrazide -0.05-0.20, tetra-bis-methylene-(3-(3,5-di-tret-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate)-0.05-0.20, organic peroxide-0.2-1.9, electroconductive technical carbon with specific volume resistance p=10±6 Ohm*cm - 29-34, technical carbon with specific volume resistance p=5±3 Ohm*cm - 2.5-5, 4,4'-thiabis(6-tret-butyl-m-cresol) - 0.05-0.25, zinc stearate - 0.15-1.0, polyethylene wax - 3-9. The composition of the specified compound is not exposed to substantial thermal-oxidative ageing and premature cross-linking during superimposition, and items from it have smooth surface.
EFFECT: improved physical and mechanical properties of cable products made with application of the proposed composition, and its manufacturability and stability.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrical engineering, specifically to cable engineering and polymer compositions based on plasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with low inflammability, release of smoke and hydrogen chloride during combustion, intended for insulating inner and outer sheaths of cables. The electrically insulating composition contains suspended polyvinyl chloride, an ester plasticiser - dioctyl phthalate, tricresyl phosphate, chalk, soot, a stabiliser - melanine, antipyrenes - magnesium hydroxide and ammonium polyphosphate, smoke absorber - chlorinated paraffins, lubricant agent - calcium stearate, antioxidant - diphenylol propane and filler - organoclay, which is a product of modifying montmorillonite from the Gerpegezh deposit of the Kabardino-Balkaria Republic with cation-exchange capacity of 95 mg-eq/100 g clay with urea, in amount of 10% of the mass of montmorillonite.
EFFECT: obtaining a composition characterised by high non-flammability and low release of smoke during combustion.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cable engineering and specifically to polymer compositions based on plasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with low inflammability and release of smoke in combustion and smouldering conditions and release of hydrogen chloride during combustion, meant for insulating inner and outer sheaths of wires and cables used in high fire hazard conditions. The electrically insulating composition contains suspension polyvinyl chloride, an ester plasticiser, a lead stabiliser, calcium carbonate, a trihydrate of aluminium oxide or magnesium hydroxide, antimony trioxide, calcium stearate, zinc oxide, zinc borate, a bromine-containing fire retardant, boric acid and diphenylol propane.
EFFECT: invention improves fire safety of wires and cables, reduces smoke-formation during smouldering or combustion and provides low inflammability.
1 tbl, 15 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a curing composition for producing electrically insulating structural material for electrical or electronic components. The curing composition contains epoxy resin, a curing agent and a filler composition. The filler composition contains wollastonite and amorphous silicon dioxide. The surface of one of the fillers is treated with silane. A cured product is obtained by curing said curing composition.
EFFECT: invention enables to use said curing composition directly in the ceramic housing of a switching device and has high cracking resistance.
9 cl, 3 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electric engineering, namely, to a heat-generating electromechanical converter designed for heating and/or movement of liquid or gaseous medium. The device comprises an additional fixed element made of antifriction non-electroconductive material, which performs the functions of a radial and/or thrust sliding bearing, from polymer composite material on the basis of epoxide-diane resin with filler from fluoroplastic powder, cut glass fibre and additionally aluminium oxide Al2O3 or silicon dioxide SiO2, which makes it possible to increase quantity of heat removed from the primary winding.
EFFECT: increased coefficient of heat conductivity of a fixed heat-insulating element provides for reduced temperature of primary winding of a heat-generating electromechanical converter, which accordingly increases reliability of its operation.
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to the field of casting resins for switching devices. Described is a solid resin system for insulating materials in the switching devices, which contains a solid bisphenol A-based resin, which has an epoxy number (DIN ISO 16945) from ≥0.2 to ≤0.3, and a liquid bisphenol F-based resin, which has an epoxy number (DIN ISO 16945) from ≥0.4 to ≤0.63, where a part of the liquid bisphenol F-based resin, measured as a weight to the total weight of the resin, constitutes from ≥5% to ≤60%, with the solid resin system before hardening having an epoxy number (DIN ISO 16945) from ≥0.2 to ≤0.55, and the solid resin system includes as resins only the said resins themselves. Also described is application of the said solid resin system as an insulating material in electric switching devices.
EFFECT: obtaining the solid resin system, possessing low susceptibility to cracking and high resistance to bursting.
7 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: resin contains methyl nadic anhydride and/or hydrogenated methyl nadic anhydride and imidazole of formula , where R1, R2, R3 and R4 are given in claim 1.
EFFECT: obtained resin has significantly higher glass transition temperature with high quality mechanical characteristics and tracking resistance.
3 dwg, 7 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: electric insulating filling compound contains epoxide diane resin, amine hardener in the form of triethylene tetramine (TETA), and also a modifier - a phosphorus-containing methyl acrylate (PCM), at the following ratio of components, wt parts: epoxide diane resin ED-20 - 100 triethylene tetramine (TETA) - 10-15 phosphorus-containing methyl acrylate (PCM) - 30-40.
EFFECT: reduced viscosity of a filling compound, its higher viability, improved elasticity after hardening, preservation of dielectric properties.
SUBSTANCE: surface modified electrical insulation system, comprising a cured synthetic polymer composition including at least one filler and optional additives, wherein the surface of said synthetic polymer composition is modified by applying a thin coating; said thin coating being applied via plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) with thickness within the range of about 50 nm to about 50 mcm; and/or said thin coating is applied via a sol-gel technique with thickness within the range of about 0.5 mcm to about 2 mm; and wherein said thin coat is an electrically non-conducting polymeric material with melting point which is considerably higher than the melting point or degradation temperature of the synthetic filler containing polymer composition; and a method of making said electrical system involving formation of a hardened or cured synthetic polymer composition, applying a thin coating on the surface of said synthetic polymer composition via plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition.
EFFECT: improved system.
18 cl, 2 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: housing has inner layer and outer layer. Thickness of inner layer is at least by 50% more than thickness of outer layer, and inner layer is more flexible than outer layer. Inner layer is made from composition of the first resin which at hardening has relative elongation at rupture which is more than 5%, and outer layer is made from composition of the second resin which at hardening has relative elongation at rupture which is less than 5%.
EFFECT: improving insulation and strength properties of electric item, and profitability of its manufacture.
14 cl, 2 dwg