Method to prepare haydite concrete mix
SUBSTANCE: in the method to prepare a haydite concrete mix, including preparation and mixing of mixture components, mixing of the haydite concrete mix is carried out in a turbulent concrete mixer with rotor rotation frequency of at least 8 sec-1 and not more than 30 sec-1, at first 30% of required tempering water is supplied into the turbulent concrete mixer, and gradually haydite gravel is loaded with the running turbulent mixer, and mixed for 120 sec., then the required balance of water is supplied to the continuously running turbulent concrete mixer with addition of technical modified lignosulphonates and a gas forming additive PAK-3, then fly ash and cement are loaded, and the mix is mixed for 2-3 min. to produce homogeneous mix with required cone slump, at the following ratio of components, wt %: portland cement 20.00, haydite 41.50, superplasticiser LSTM 0.0312, fly ash of TPP 17.50, PAK-3 0.025, water - balance.
EFFECT: reduced process operations in production of haydite mix, increased frost resistance, heat insulation properties and reduced average density of haydite without strength reduction.
The invention relates to the construction materials industry, in particular to a technology for manufacturing lightweight aggregate mixtures, resource-saving technologies of the lightweight concrete.
There is a method of production of cellular concrete mixture (Patent No. 2474493, IPC VS 5/00, publ. 10.02.2013), which includes preparation and mixing in the mixer Portland cement, lime with a known value of enthalpy, gypsum, water, siliceous component, reverse slag, aluminum powder, measuring the temperature of the mixture in the mixer during mixing, discharging the mixture from the mixer to the form.
The disadvantage of this method is the large number of technological operations, the complexity of the mixture.
A method of obtaining concrete (Patent No. 2470901, IPC SW 40/00, SW 28/26, SW 111/20 publ. 27.12.2012), including the preparation of aluminosilicate binder component, the dosage of filler and binder components, mixing, molding, curing and subsequent hardening. Preparation of aluminosilicate component includes a joint grinding in a ball mill ash and moldboard ash mixture for 20 min, the molding is carried out by vibrating.
The disadvantage of this method is the large number of technological operations.
The known method betablocking manufacturing gas is of concrete construction products (Patent No. 2083535, IPC SW 38/02, SW 28/18, SW 1/50 publ. 10.07.1997), which includes the concrete mix in the mortar by mixing Senatorova binder, silica filler (silica sand or coal ash) and water, followed by the introduction into the concrete mixture of blowing agent and mixing to obtain a concrete mixture, molding casting concrete mixture obtained in the form and curing products under the action of hydrothermal treatment in the steam chamber steam low pressure.
The disadvantage of this method is the large number of technological operations, allowing us to obtain concrete of the required quality.
The technical result of the claimed invention is the reduction of technological operations in the production of concrete mixture with the required technological, and further operational properties of claydite-concrete.
The technical result is achieved in that for the manufacture of concrete mixtures, including the preparation and mixing of the mixture components in the following ratio, wt.%: Portland 20.00, clay 41,50, superplasticizer LSTM 0,0312, ash CHP 17,50, PAK-3 0,025, water - the rest, according to the invention, using a turbulent mixer with a rotor speed of not less than 8 sec-1 -1. First in a turbulent mixer serves 30% of the required quantity of the mixing water and load gradually expanded clay gravel when working turbulent mixer with crushing clay gravel and its activation within 120 seconds, next in continuously working turbulent mixer, submit the required balance of water with the addition of lignosulfonates modified (hereinafter superplasticizer LSTM) and gas-forming additives PAK-3 (PAC-3), then load the fly ash and Portland cement, and stirred the mixture for 2-3 minutes until a homogeneous mixture with a desired slump.
The use of turbulent mixer with a rotor speed of not less than 8 sec-1and not more than 30 sec-1promotes partial crushing clay gravel. When crushing clay gravel is the exposure of new surfaces clay gravel that contain free radicals with unsaturated valency. These free radicals actively interact with minerals in Portland cement clinker with the formation of new chemisorption compounds on the surface of the grains of expanded clay gravel. These new chemisorption compounds are strongly held on the surface of clay gravel and the surface of the grains of Portland cement, the resulting improved strength and other physical and mechanical properties of claydite-concrete. Optimal crushing limestone for 120 sec together with 30% of the required quantity of the mixing water.
Mixing concrete mixture in a turbulent mixer for 2-3 min has an activating effect on the fly ash, which is loaded together with Portland cement after you add the rest of water with the addition of superplasticizer LSTM and PAC-3. Spherulites fly ash subjected to partial fragmentation, and expose the surface of the fly ash containing silica and alumina. These oxides actively interact with the calcium hydroxide produced during the hydration of tricalcium silicate with slightly basic education hydrosilicates and hydroalumination calcium, which significantly improves hydrophysical properties of claydite-concrete.
The use of turbulent mixer to obtain a concrete mixture has an activating effect on grain Portland cement. Intensive mixing in a turbulent mixer activates grain of Portland cement due to their partial crushing, thus expose new surfaces of UN-hydrated Portland cement grains. These surfaces having free radicals, actively engage in the processes of hydration intensive formation of new hydrated compounds. Introduction to ceramsite the traditional mix of PAC-3 leads to the formation of the structure of cement stone with uniformly distributed pores in the form of a polydisperse in size, closed, deformed in the right polyhedra with glossy surface preparepage layer, separated by a thin, but dense and uniform in cross-section interporous partitions (an Additive in concrete and mortars: training Handbook / L. I. Kesternich. - Rostov-on-don: Phoenix, 2007). Such a pore structure concrete mixture helps to increase the insulation properties of expanded clay concrete and improve the physico-mechanical properties of the obtained claydite-concrete.
The use of turbulent mixer also contributes to the activation of the blowing agent, which leads to the formation of a large pore volume of concrete mix and lower average density concrete mixture without reducing the strength of the system. Thus, the use of turbulent mixer for the manufacture of concrete mix allows you to get the expanded-clay lightweight concrete with high performance properties.
|The composition of concrete mixtures|
|Composition No. 1||Composition No. 2 (the optimum)||Composition No. 3|
|Gas-forming additive PAK-3||0,025||0,025||0,025|
|The average density, kg/m3||1210||1000||1130|
|The strength of claydite-concrete, kg/cm2||75||95||90|
|Frost (F), cycle||15||20||20|
The technical result of the claimed invention was achieved on concrete samples with the following composition: Portland cement, limestone, fly ash CHP, PAK-3, superplasticizer LSTM in the following ratio, wt.%: Portland 20,00; clay 41,50; superplasticizer LSTM 0,0312; ash CHP 17,50; PAK-3 0,025; water - the rest.
The dependence of the characteristics of the samples prepared with different ways of mixing parameters from mixing concrete mixtures are presented in table 2.
|The parameters of mixing in turbulent mixer.|
|Comparative characteristics||Method of preparation mix|
|No. 1||No. 2||No. 3 (optimal)|
|The frequency of BP is in the rotor, s-1||7,0||7,5||8,0|
|Time crushing and mixing the clay with water, sec||150||135||120|
|While stirring the mixture with fly ash, superplasticizer LSTM and PAK-3, min||5||4||3|
|The average density, kg/m3||1250||1150||1000|
|The strength of claydite-concrete,||85||90||95|
|Frost (F), cycle||15||20||20|
Table 2 is about, that way the mixture with optimal parameters is the way to No. 3. Comparing between the characteristics of the concrete samples prepared in different ways, we can conclude that with decreasing rotor speed average density increases and strength decreases. Even with increasing time crushing and mixing this dependence varies slightly. Therefore, the application of concrete mixer with rotor speed 8 sec-1and not more than 30 sec-1(with a corresponding reduction in mixing time in a concrete mixture in the installed above the framework) is the most effective for the given concrete mixture.
The method of preparation of the concrete mixture, which includes preparation and mixing of the components of the mixture, wherein the mixing of the concrete mixture is performed in a turbulent mixer with a rotor speed of not less than 8 sec-1and not more than 30 sec-1first in a turbulent mixer serves 30% of the required quantity of the mixing water and load gradually expanded clay gravel when working turbulent mixer and stirred for 120 seconds, then, non-stop working turbulent mixer, submit the required balance of the odes with the addition of lignosulfonates modified and gas-forming additives PAK-3, then download the fly ash and cement, and stirred the mixture for 2-3 minutes until a homogeneous mixture with a desired slump, in the following ratio, wt.%: Portland 20.00, clay 41,50, superplasticizer LSTM 0,0312, ash CHP 17,50, PAK-3 0,025, water - the rest.
SUBSTANCE: method to manufacture construction products from foam concrete includes preparation of a foam concrete mix from portland cement, fractionated quartz sand, a foaming agent and water in a turbulent mixer, loading of the produced mix into moulds from dielectric material, on the side surfaces of which there are metal electrodes, exposure of the foam concrete mix to the AC electric field of specified frequency and intensity. Processing of the freshly moulded products with electric field is carried out at the field intensity of 1.5-4.5 V/cm for 0.5-5 min. Efficiency of foam concrete mix exposure to the AC electric field depends on grain-size composition of quartz sand and is maximum when sand fractions of 0.16-0.315 mm are used.
EFFECT: improvement of strength characteristics of foam concrete.
3 cl, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method for obtaining a heat-insulating material involves mixing of filler and a binding agent with further shaping and hardening. Industrial wood chips 5±2 mm thick are used as filler, and rigid polyurethane foam consisting of polyol and isocyanate is used as the binding agent. First, components of the binding agent are mixed; then, the binding agent is mixed with the filler by layer-by-layer laying of a binding agent layer, a filler layer and a binding agent layer into a mould at the following component ratio, wt %: polyol 24-22, isocyanate 36-33, industrial chips 40-45. After supply of the components is completed, the mould is fixed with latches and exposed during 15-20 minutes.
EFFECT: reduction of density and thermal conductivity of material.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of foam materials on the basis of asbestos, basalt, carbon, polyether or polyamide or any other inorganic and organic fibres to be used in aircraft and ship building, machine building, etc. This method comprises the steps that follow. Production of foam bilk from initial mix of fibres and feed of said foam bulk to conveyor belt. Foam bulk is dried in drying chambers at stepwise increase in temperature in successive zones. Foam bulk is annealed in the kiln to foam material and cut reset-size boards. Note here that drying and annealing comprises simultaneous effects of IR radiation and convective heat. Note here that drying stepwise temperature increase occurs at 60°C-170°C. Annealing is performed at 190-280°C. Foam bulk is fed through drying chambers and annealing kiln at the rate of 6-12 m/h. Invention proposes also the conveyor line to this end.
EFFECT: accelerated drying, higher quality of foam material, continuous production.
8 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preparation of construction mixtures, primarily fine-grained concrete mixtures and mortars which harden in natural conditions or under steam curing. Disclosed is a two-step method of preparing a construction mixture using mineral filler, a plasticising additive, sand and binder. The first step comprises mixing the binder - portland cement M500 D20, mineral filler - silicon carbonate gaize, 55-65% sand and 60-70% hardening water to obtain a homogeneous mixture, and the second step comprises adding to the obtained mixture the remaining sand, plasticising additive - superplasticiser SP-1 and the remaining water, and finally mixing to obtain a homogeneous mixture of given workability.
EFFECT: reducing consumption of expensive materials without reducing strength of the obtained material.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises electrochemical treatment of mains water in three-chamber electrolysis unit with ion-selective membranes by alternating asymmetric current. Meanwhile the electrolysis unit anode is made from shungite. During the electrochemical treatment of water in the anode and in the anode chamber the ultrasonic oscillations are exited, the frequency of which exceeds the cavitation threshold frequency within a range from 20 kHz up to 100 kHz, and the intensity of the named ultrasonics is in the field of stable cavitation from 1.5 W/cm2 up to 2,5 W/cm2. Water treatment is stopped at achieving of density of particles of hydrated fullerene 10-3-10-4%.
EFFECT: improvement of frost resistance of concrete mix, increase of cement hydratation level and strength of cement stone in early periods of curing.
SUBSTANCE: method of activation of concrete mixing water by its modifying with carbon fulleroid nano-particles with its consecutive ultrasonic processing comprises the placement of shungite into a vessel with water, the mass of shungite amount no less than 1% of water mass, and ultrasonic oscillations are excited in water with the frequency in the range from 20 kHz to 100 kHz, from 1.5 W/cm2 up to 2.5 W / cm2, and 10-3-10-5% and water and shungite are subjected to named ultrasonic oscillations within 5-10 minutes until achieving of density of fullerene, emanated from shungite into activated water, then the activated water is passed through the filter and is used as a concrete mixing liquid, and the shungite bottoms are left in the vessel, which is filled with the next portion of water and the procedure of concrete mixing liquid activation is repeated.
EFFECT: improvement of physic-mechanical characteristics of concrete, decrease of water consumption or cement consumption without affecting the concrete strength.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of activating hardening water of cement-based composites. The method of activating hardening water of cement-based composites includes treating tap water in a plasmatron with low-temperature nonequilibrium plasma in a period of time ranging from 1·10-2 s to 5·10-2 s.
EFFECT: high efficiency and degree of activation of water in order to speed up hydration and strength gain in the early stage of concrete hardening.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of inorganic heat-resistant rustproof composites in production of plastics, antirust and lubing materials for construction, electrical engineering, etc. Proposed method comprises mixing of inorganic natural material, liquid glass, dolomite powder and additive, mix forming and thermal treatment. Used is liquid sodium glass, its density making 1.28-1.42 kg/m3, as inorganic natural material, that is, montmorillonite modified by organic substance. Said additive represents a hydrated cellulose fibre shaped to 5.0-20.0 mm long staple impregnated with 30%-aqueous solution of iron, zinc, copper and aluminium sulphates taken in the ratio of 1.0:0.5:0.5:1.0 in flushing bath for 70-80 minutes. Then, said fibre is squeezed to moisture content of 60-65% and dried at 120-140°C to remove 95-98% of residual moisture. Components are mixed by mechanical activation for 8-10 minutes, mix being formed and annealed at temperature increase from 140°C to 1300°C for 30-40 minutes. Note here that montmorillonite is modified by the product of interaction between caprolactam or its oligomers with butyl stearate. Mix contains components in the following ratio in wt %: modified montmorillonite - 20-60, liquid glass - 20-30, dolomite - 10-35, cellulose fibre - 10-15. This invention is developed in dependent clauses.
EFFECT: higher fire resistance, lower heat conductivity factor, antirust properties.
3 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of producing a composite material consists in the fact that a cavity of a casing construction is filled with very rigid concrete, produced by mechanic activation of a cement composition. The cement composition includes 30% of cement of grade PC-500DO-N, 7.5% of microsilica, 1.8% of an expanding additive EA-H, 20% of river washed sand with the fineness modulus Mf 5, 40% of basalt gravel with a size up to 30 mm, 0.7% of an ethylene glycol-based superplasticiser. Mechanic activation is carried out in blade mixers of a forced type with a frequency of blade rotation not less than 60 rpm for not less than 20 min. Highly-strong concrete is poured into the cavity of the casing construction, and is simultaneously consolidated by vibration processing. Then, to exclude steam discharge from it, the cavity of pouring is closed. Autoclave solidification of concrete, consisting in the fact that the entire construction is evenly heated to a temperature of nearly 200°C to solidify it, is realised. The construction is exposed to the said temperature for 12 hours. After that, it is gradually cooled to room temperature and kept at the said temperature until complete hydration of cement takes place. And, finally, mechanical processing of basic surfaces is realised.
EFFECT: simplification of technology of the material production.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a powdered composition of a construction material, preferably dry mortar for industrial production, and especially to tile adhesives, joint filler, putty, waterproofing slurry, repair mortar, levelling mortar, reinforcing adhesives, adhesives for heat-insulation composite systems, mineral plaster, fine putty and seamless floor systems, which contains an ester of A) 2-ethylhexanoic acid and B) an alcohol with a boiling point of at least 160°C. Further, the invention discloses the production of said products, as well as use of esters according to the invention in powdered compositions of construction materials for reducing dust formation. The invention is developed in subclaims.
EFFECT: reducing dust formation, reducing the degree of release of organic compounds during storage and use of construction materials.
14 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: concrete mixture contains, wt %: portland cement 22.0-24.0; haydite with grain size of 20-40 mm 22.0-27.5; haydite sand 6.0-8.0; grade 6 asbestos 1.0-2.0; rock flour from limestone or marble 20.0-24.0; water 18.0-20.0.
EFFECT: high water-resistance.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to dry concrete or mortar composition, containing porous granules and to concrete or mortar, manufactured from said composition. Dry concrete or mortar composition, containing particles-cores, to the surfaces of which particle of hydraulic binding substance are fixed, and separate particles of hydraulic binding substance, particles-cores consist of inert or pozzolanic material and together with binding substance attached to them form porous granules, which, in their turn, are fixed to the surface of dry filling agent. Concrete or mortar, manufactured from said dry composition, mixed with water, is described. Invention is developed in dependent items of the invention formula.
EFFECT: increase of strength and fire resistance of concrete, obtained from claimed dry composition.
25 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: raw mix for manufacturing of heat insulation foam concrete contains, wt %: portland cement or slag portland cement 24.0-26.0, swollen perlite sand 40.4-44.65, air entering extraction-colophony resin 0.13-0.17, carboxymethylcellulose 0.13-0.17, superplasticiser S-3 1.0-1.2, silica gel 0.05-0.1, water 30.0-32.0.
EFFECT: reduced cement consumption without loss of foam concrete strength.
SUBSTANCE: charge for production of a porous filler contains, wt %: montmorillonite clay ground to powder condition 85.0-90.0, glauconite ground to powder condition 10.0-15.0.
EFFECT: increased strength of a porous filler produced from charge.
SUBSTANCE: concrete mixture contains, wt %: portland cement 24.0-26.0, expanded clay with particle size of 20-40 mm 10.0-15.0, haydite sand 41.4-47.1, superplasticiser S-3 1.0-1.5, sodium ethyl siliconate or sodium methyl siliconate 1.0-1.5, lavsan fibre cut into 10-20 mm pieces 0.1-0.15, water 15.0-17.0.
EFFECT: high strength of articles made from the concrete mixture.
SUBSTANCE: concrete mixture, which includes portland cement, expanded clay, haydite sand, water, further contains asbestos of 6-7 types, which is fluffed up in advance, gypsum binder, sodium methyl siliconate or sodium ethyl siliconate, with the following ratio of components, wt %: portland cement 26.0-30.0; expanded clay with particle size of 20-40 mm 46.0-48.0; haydite sand 5.0-8.5; asbestos of 6-7 types, which is fluffed up in advance, 0.5-1.0; gypsum binder 0.5-1.0; sodium methyl siliconate or sodium ethyl siliconate1.0-1.5; water 15.0-17.0.
EFFECT: high strength.
SUBSTANCE: concrete mixture contains, wt %: portland cement 18.87-21.34, expanded clay 41.13-41.56, superplasticiser LSTM 0.0312, thermal power plant fly ash 13.92-18.87, gas-forming additive PAK-3 0.022-0.025, iron-containing sludge - chemical production waste 0.10-0.50, water - the balance.
EFFECT: obtaining concrete with higher strength and low density.
SUBSTANCE: charge for production of a porous filler comprises, wt %: montmorillonite clay 82.0-86.0, ground schungite sifted via a net with hole size of 2.5 mm 8.0-10.0, ground wollastonite sifted via a net with a hole size of 2.5 mm 6.0-8.0.
EFFECT: increased strength of a porous filler produced from charge.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the production of building materials and products, in particular to wall ceramic products, and can be applied in the production of ceramic bricks and stones. A ceramic mass includes easily fusible clay and carbonate-silicon zeolite-containing rock of a mixed mineral composition and flotation wastes of coal washing - coal slurries, and carbonate-silicon zeolite-containing rock is applied with a degree of milling less than 1 mm, with the following component ratio, wt %: easily fusible clay - 60-75; carbonate-silicon zeolite-containing rock - 20-25; flotation wastes of coal washing - 5-15.
EFFECT: reduction of an average density and heat conductivity, increase of the product durability and reduction of expenditures for burning.
1 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method for producing lightweight ceramic heat-insulating building material, comprising mixture of pre-treated silica-containing component and alkaline component, homogenization of raw mixture, drying of the granulated raw mixture, grinding of dried granules and firing in metal moulds. At that, the preliminary treatment of silica-containing component is carried out at stone-separating rolls in order to remove strong impurities and activate the silicon dioxide, in the drying apparatus to achieve the humidity of 19-25% and in grinding device in order to achieve the maximum particle size of 1 mm. Diatomite o tripoli and/or flask, containing the active silicon dioxide is used as silica-containing component, mixture of caustic soda and soda ash in the ratio of 0.5-0.8/1 is used as alkali component. Mixing of silica-containing component and alkaline component is carried out in the mixer of periodic action, providing the content of mass fraction in dry raw mixture of caustic soda of 6-14% and soda ash of 6-15%. Homogenization of raw mixture is carried out by treatment in strew press with filtering grid with size of cells of 8-25 mm, and drying of granular raw material mixture is carried out in dryer drum until the humidity of 5-7% is achieved. Grinding of dried granules is performed until the achievement of maximum particle size of 3 mm, and firing of silicate mixture, obtained as a result of grinding, is carried out in metal moulds in oven by raising the temperature up to 650°C with speed of 100-120°C/hour, and up to maximum of 680-800°C - with speed of 15-25°C/hour with subsequent isothermal exposure at maximum temperature during 1-3 hours, cooling from the maximum temperature up to 600°C is carried out with speed of 30-50°C/hour and from 600 to 50°C - with speed of 50-60°C/hour.
EFFECT: reduction of energy costs and improvement of hygienic and sanitary conditions of production.
4 cl, 5 ex, 3 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for preparing a mixture for composite cell concrete involves supplying the ingredients of the composition into a mixer and agitating them to prepare a homogenous mixture, introducing a dry powder mixture into the prepared composition and agitating together; a zeolite additive prepared by pre-agitation of one- or multi-layer nanotubes in water by an atomiser in the sprayed form and agitated with zeolite in a cyclic mixture, is introduced into the composition; the prepared dry powder mixture consisting of dry foaming agent, PAP-2 aluminium powder and PAP-1 aluminium powder is also added; the ingredients of the dry mixture is supplied into a common mixture in the following proportions, kg: cement 600, fly ash of CHP plants 400, microsilica MKU 50, superplasticising agent C-3 9, sodium oleate 3, sodium gluconate 15, adiment CT-2 2, Lastonox biocidal additive 2, fibre 1.5, polymer additive 5, above dry powder mixture 20, above zeolite additive containing one- or multi-layer nanotubes 50; the common composition resulted from agitation is exposed to impact mechanic activation on UDA plants.
EFFECT: preparing the homogenous dry mixture, reducing the bulk density, increasing strength and frost resistance of non-autoclaved cell concrete prepared from the declared dry mixture.