Staroverov's rocket engine (versions)

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: rocket engine contains a combustion chamber where borane, or silane, or phosphene, or germane, or other hydrides with a positive enthalpy of formation from simple substances or their mix are fed. The named above substances a fed at the temperature ensuring self-sustaining course of reaction of their thermal decomposition due to heat of exothermic reaction. Another invention of the group relates to the liquid or solid fuel rocket engine into the combustion chamber of which in addition to stoichiometric composition of the main fuel borane, or silane, or phosphene, or germane, or other hydrides, or methane are fed. Another one invention of the group relates to the solid fuel rocket engine in which solid hydrides in addition to stoichiometric composition of the main fuel are a part of solid rocket fuel.

EFFECT: group of inventions allows to increase a specific impulse of a rocket engine.

9 cl

 

The invention relates to rocket engines, liquid and solid fuels. Famous rocket engines, see for example my "Open-frame motor samapada", U.S. Pat. No. 2431052. All existing chemical rocket engines utilize the principle of high-temperature heating gas or dust a working body (dust is the solid fraction of decomposed solid rocket fuel). This is done in order to increase the flow rate of the working fluid from the jet nozzle. This speed is determined, firstly, the speed of sound in the gas, and, secondly, the degree of expansion of the gas in expanding supersonic jet nozzle, and reaches the best engines 4000 m/sec. Moreover, parts of the engine are in very intense heat mode, even with regard to their cooling.

Meanwhile, the speed of sound in hydrogen even at normal temperature and pressure of 1330 m/s. And if we slightly increase the temperature of the hydrogen, the speed of sound and speed the end of the nozzle will increase dramatically. For example, hydrogen with a temperature of 650 ° C (this temperature below its ignition) will be the speed of sound 2360 m/s and will be able to jet nozzle to accelerate itself and disperse dust particles up to about 4300 m/s. There will be "cool rocket engine", where due to the adiabatic expansion of the gas in which the exits the jet nozzle may be approximately ambient temperature.

Based on this idea of the present invention. The purpose of the invention - is to increase the speed of the jet stream and the specific impulse of the rocket engine. And in some cases reducing the unmasking of infrared radiation. And in one embodiment, the receipt of thermobaric weapons.

OPTION 1. This engine is liquid type (probably gas) and has a combustion chamber (will be called, although no process of "burning" it does not occur), which is served borane, or a silane or phosphine, or German, or other hydrides, with a positive enthalpy of formation of simple substances (hereinafter "enthalpy"), or their mixture at a temperature of providing a self-sustaining reaction of thermal decomposition of these substances due to the heat of exothermic reactions (any of the alternative traits, including a mixture of substances, which has a positive enthalpy of formation, and provides the specified technical result - samorazrushenie hydrides, and to copulate with "other" features of the invention alternative signs can't, because no other signs). That is, in the avalanche chemical reaction will produce a hydrogen and a solid ingredient (except phosphine). As the speed of sound in heated to the same temperature the hydrogen will be much higher than the speed of sound in the gas is x a normal rocket engines (about 4 times), the outflow velocity of the jet stream and the specific impulse can be more.

The working temperature should be such that emitted from the exothermic decomposition of the hydrides such heat could account for the heat source and the resulting substances and heat loss to heat itself above the temperature of decomposition. That is then an avalanche reaction will be energetically chain (chain not in the nuclear sense of the word, when you select one or more particles, causing the continuation of the reaction, and in the energy sense when energy is released, causing the continuation of the reaction). Actually, this is nothing new - so are all of rocket fuel.

Hydrides can be in the rocket and fed to the engine in a cryogenic liquid or compressed gaseous state (advances in nano-materials create a lightweight body made of titanium or composite materials desired strength).

Except for boron, silicon and phosphorus positive enthalpy has hydride Germany, however, the percentage of hydrogen in it is small, and the cost Germany high, so it is only of theoretical interest.

The positive enthalpy of some substances are: DIBORANE - 1,39 kJ/g, monosilane - 1.08 Kj/g, phosphine - 0,16 kJ/g, monogermane - 1,185 kJ/year

Interest retained the e hydrogen in these substances: DIBORANE - 21,86%, monosilane - 12,55%, phosphine - 8,88%, monogermane - 5,26%.

From these data it is clear that from the available materials of practical interest DIBORANE with all the highest, and monosilane, which is much "weaker", but perhaps will be in mass production cheaper DIBORANE. And besides, as will be shown below, the silane charge a higher reaction temperature.

To such engine is started, it needs an initial source of heat. They can be installed on the launcher burner or pyrotechnic grenade, which is directed into the combustion chamber. For some time she passes by the camera, and then, after filing hydride, initiates the start of the reaction by its decomposition.

A more interesting variant, in which the checker quickmatch solid rocket fuel is installed in the combustion chamber in the center and/or on the walls. This piece at the correct calculation of its capacity immediately starts to move the rocket, heats the combustion chamber and at the end (about 25-10% power) initiates the reaction of decomposition of the hydride. Possibly gradual replacement performance checkers continuous flow hydride in the combustion chamber. The time of such checkers few seconds or even fractions of a second. Since it is desirable to heat the walls of the combustion chamber, if two checkers in the center and on the edges of ka is a career combustion, the Central piece should work a little longer to warm wall, opened after complete burnout of the side pieces.

The process of decomposition of the hydride may be catalyzed, for example, alumina, engraved on the walls of the combustion chamber.

OPTION 1-A. If the combustion chamber is fed a mixture of hydrides, possible secondary reactions resulting from their decomposition substances (except hydrogen). For example, the formed boron and silicon, or boron and phosphorus, or phosphorus and silicon, etc., And if this reaction is exothermic, the specific dissipation will increase. But it is important that the formed compound at a given temperature were not gaseous, or because their presence the speed of sound in the resulting gas mixture can dramatically decrease.

Example 1. Define practical temperature as a result of application of the two most promising of these engines: DIBORANE and monosilane. It is important that it turned out to be higher than the temperature of decomposition of the hydride, otherwise the reaction will not be an avalanche.

DEMORNAY. Molar enthalpy is 38.5 kJ/mol, the molar heat capacity is accounted for 56.9 kJ/mol, i.e. now the heat is able to heat the substance to 677°, which is much higher than the temperature of decomposition, even if you count from absolute zero. But, by the way, below the ignition temperature of hydrogen - 700°C. is, however, given the specific heat of hydrogen, the temperature will be below - about 440°C. the Speed of sound in that hydrogen will 2075 m/sec, and the possible speed of a jet - 3800 m/s. However, too small amount of hydrogen released inspires doubts whether he will be able to disperse all the initial mass up to that speed. Check calculations according to the law of conservation of energy showed that the maximum speed of the dust jets even at 100% efficiency will have a total of 1180 m/s. In reality even less.

MONOSILANES. Molar enthalpy or 34.7 kJ/mol, the molar heat capacity -42,89 j/mol. That is now the heat is able to heat the substance to 809 degrees, which is significantly above the temperature of decomposition. The actual temperature will be about 635°C, the speed of sound of about 2340 m/s, and the velocity of the jet - 4270 m/s. A test calculation on the energy conservation law gave the value of 1470 m/s.

That is, this engine does not need expanding nozzle, rather tapering.

Engines, based on the reaction of thermal samorazrusheniya hydrides with a positive enthalpy will not give a high performance. But they have an important feature is the temperature of the jets with large expansion in the nozzle may not be different from the ambient temperature. That is, this engine is not visible in the infrared range, which in some cases may be useful. In addition, they do not require heavy and expensive abdominal, wolf mowich structures. Due to the low operating temperature for such engines enough light titanium structures, it has not cooling, but on the contrary, external and/or internal insulation to reduce heat losses and to reduce the unmasking of infrared radiation.

OPTION 2. Moreover, to reduce the temperature of exhaust gases is possible additive in the above-mentioned hydrides with a positive enthalpy of formation of hydrides with negative or small positive enthalpy of formation. For example, monogermane, phosphide, beryllium hydride, beryllium borohydride, lithium aluminum hydride (last three hydride solids, so they flow into the combustion chamber is difficult).

It can be applied to such low-temperature rocket engine? For example, for anti-tank Turov that it was impossible infrared equipment to detect the start of Pture in the tank.

But particularly promising application of such engines as thermobaric weapons. Flying over enemy trenches and leaving a hydrogen-air mixture (which instead of a single nozzle, the motor can be aimed a little to the side, and even better - horizontally, mnogomodovoi ejector apparatus), which is then ignited, one such engine may shock wave to destroy the living force ran the half-mile even in the trenches.

OPTION 3. To increase the specific heat of the engine can be combined with classic rocket engine, liquid or solid. That is, this engine includes a combustion chamber or housing with a nozzle that runs on liquid or solid rocket fuel and differs in that the combustion chamber or in the case of solid-fuel rocket engine advanced (meaning - in addition to the stoichiometric composition of the main engine is borane, or a silane or phosphine, or German, or other hydrides, or methane, or solid hydrides optionally included in the composition of solid rocket fuel (any of the alternative signs provides the specified technical result is the release of hydrogen and increase the speed of sound in the stream).

As a result of burning plain (redox) rocket fuel and thermal decomposition of the hydrides obtained the gas-dust mixture, in which the speed of sound is lower than in hydrogen, but higher than in a conventional rocket gases. The total momentum of such a motor can be higher pure hydride engine, and higher redox engine (requires a series of experiments). But even if the pulse will be approximately the same, the engine continues to maintain the advantage of low pace of the search process, there will be a reduced infrared signature and low thermal tension the design of the engine, i.e. its light weight and lack of cooling.

Example 2. In classical liquid-propellant rocket engine (for example, oxygen-kerosene) in addition served DIBORANE or tetraboron in number, for example, 1:1 to the fuel. The engine works normally. May be methane, which exothermically decomposes with evolution of heat and 4.68 kJ/g, carbon in the form of carbon black or graphite and two molecules of hydrogen.

Example 3. In the composition of the fuel classical solid rocket motor (for example, ammonium perchlorate and polyurethane) additionally includes 10% of beryllium borohydride. The engine works normally. Because beryllium borohydride may be a component of rocket fuel, you should pay attention to the word "advanced" in the claims. That is, in excess of oxidizing ability of the oxidant (e.g., ammonium perchlorate).

1. Rocket engine containing a combustion chamber and wherein the combustion chamber is borane, or a silane or phosphine, or German, or other hydrides, with a positive enthalpy of formation of simple substances, or their mixture at a temperature of providing a self-sustaining reaction thermal decomp the supply of these substances due to the exothermic heat of reaction.

2. The engine under item 1, characterized in that the combustion chamber is DIBORANE or monosilane, or their mixture.

3. The engine under item 1, characterized in that the combustion chamber additionally served hydride with a negative enthalpy of formation.

4. The engine under item 1, characterized in that the combustion chamber is directed burner or pyrotechnic grenade, mounted on the launcher.

5. The engine under item 1, characterized in that in the center and/or at the edges of the combustion chamber is installed piece of solid rocket fuel.

6. Rocket engine operating on liquid or solid rocket fuel and characterized in that the combustion chamber in addition to the stoichiometric composition of the primary fuel supplied borane, or a silane or phosphine, or German, or other hydrides, or methane.

7. The engine under item 6, characterized in that the combustion chamber additionally served DIBORANE, tetraboron or methane in quantities of 1:1 to the fuel.

8. Rocket engine that runs on solid fuel, characterized in that the solid hydrides in addition to the stoichiometric composition of the primary fuel are part of the solid rocket fuel.

9. The engine under item 8, characterized in that the composition of solid rocket fuel, also include beryllium borohydride, in excess oxidative opportunities acyclical is 10%.



 

Same patents:

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Propelling device // 2532326

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FIELD: chemistry.

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2 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: engines and pumps.

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9 cl

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3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: engines and pumps.

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1 dwg, 1 tbl

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EFFECT: better fuel mix mixing.

2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

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EFFECT: better fuel mix mixing.

5 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed engine comprises solid-propellant grain with one or several channels extending over the entire grain length filled with propellant of quicker ignition than that of the primary propellant. Or, said grain has several parallel channels. Note here that some of them tear off the grain surface at distance equal to or larger than that between adjacent channels. In case several channels are made in said grain, these are located in parallel or in direction towards cone vertex. In compliance with another version, inclined channels are inclined over the grain entire length or in its rear part periphery. Note here that ignition rate of leader-propellant, or leader-propellant and primary propellant decrease. Engine rear has central conical recess with several recesses with their leader-propellant charges that tear off the preset distance from engine rear end. Besides, several parallel or converging channels can be made at engine front and filled with higher ignition rate than that of the primary propellant. Note here that ratio between length of separate peripheral channel and ignition rate are selected to make ignition rate of all propellants in all channels equal. This makes the engine gas capacity per unit area constant. In compliance with the other versions, engine front lateral part is composed of one or several conical layers and by primary propellant with higher ignition rate while of premade conical recess at engine rear end occupies the part of rear end surface. Besides, primary propellant ignition rate can decrease either continuously or by layers at periphery. At vertical start of conical rocket engine it is mounted at horizontal surface with resilient coating and hole at the centre. Prior to starting, engine is retained in vertical position by elastic suckers arranged over its outer surface.

EFFECT: no need in engine division into stages, variable thrust.

20 cl, 2 dwg

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