Device for profiling soil surface and determining direction of flow of atmospheric precipitations in field

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device for measuring the soil surface profile and determining the direction of flow of atmospheric precipitations in the field comprises a frame (1) with height-adjustable supports (3) and a mechanic's level (12) mounted on it, a platform (10) movable in a vertical plane. The platform (10) is mounted on the supports (3) of the frame (1) with use of sleeves (2) and connected to the frame (1) of the screw mechanism. The screw mechanism consists of a screw (5) with a handle (6) with a turn counter (7) and the rotation angle of the handle (6), the central retainer nut (8) mounted on the frame (1), the lower nut (9) mounted rigidly on the movable platform (10). In the holes of the platform (10) at equal distances from each other in a two-dimensional grid nodes there are movable probes-rods (11). The probes-rods (11) are made of dielectric material and their upper ends are fixed to abutments-rings (17) made of electrically conductive material.

EFFECT: improvement of accuracy of measuring the soil surface profile and determining the direction of flow of atmospheric precipitations in the field.

2 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to devices for the study of water erosion, and can be used in soil science, land reclamation and hydrology.

Known profilometer soil FE 250, designed to measure the surface profile of the soil during testing tillage machines [1, S. 19]. The Profiler provides a basis with three height-adjustable legs, set on level. On guide base moves the carriage has mounted on it the measuring transducer. Carriage travel is fixed increments of 50 mm, length of one cycle of measurements is equal to 1800 mm, Number of measurements up to 50 [1, S. 19].

A disadvantage of the known device is the measurement of the surface profile of the soil in only one longitudinal vertical plane along the carriage 1 measurement cycle, which does not allow to determine the direction of flow of precipitation.

The purpose of the invention is to improve the accuracy of measuring a surface profile of the soil and determine the direction of flow of atmospheric precipitation in the field.

The goal is achieved in that the device for profiling the surface of the soil in sloping lands and determine the direction of flow of atmospheric precipitation field contains a frame with adjustable height legs and set her level of concentration in the th in the vertical plane of the platform, mounted on support frame with bushings and connected to the frame of the screw mechanism consisting of a screw with a handle with Rev counter and angle of the handle, the Central nut-lock, fixed on the frame, the lower nut mounted rigidly on a mobile platform, in holes which are at equal distances from each other in the nodes of a two-dimensional grid posted by moving the rods-the rods, made of dielectric material, and the rods-the rods with their upper ends secured to made of electrically conductive material blocks-rings, closing the electrical circuit.

In Fig. 1 shows a schematic diagram of the device of Fig. 2 is a top view (in section) of Fig. 3 is an electrical diagram, in Fig. 4 - the response surface to determine the direction of flow of atmospheric precipitation in the field.

The device consists of a frame 1 with four bushings 2, in which there are support 3 with 4 tabs, and in the center of the frame 1 is placed screw mechanism consisting of a screw 5 with the handle 6 with Rev counter and rotation of the handle 7, the Central nut of the stop 8, the lower nut 9 mounted on the platform 10, the holes which are movable rods-the rods 11. On the frame level is set to 12.

To improve the accuracy of determining the moment of contact of the probe rod 11 of the profiled poverhnosti used electrical circuit (Fig. 3), including consistently positive pole of the power source 13, the key 14, a diode 15, a flexible wire 16, the end ring 17 made of electrically conductive material, and the platform 10, which is the total "mass" and connected with a flexible wire to the negative pole of the power source 13. The rods-the rods 11 is made of a dielectric material with a metal cap, and the platform 10 is the total mass and connected by flexible wires 16 to the negative pole of the power source 13. The rods-the rods 11 are located in the holes the same distance from each other at the nodes of a two-dimensional grid 18, formed of longitudinal and transverse lines (Fig. 2). All diodes 15 are numbering corresponding to the numbering rods-rods 11 with which they are connected and installed in the screen rigidly mounted on a frame (not shown conventionally). The device operates as follows.

Before measurement, the frame 1 is installed horizontally with the supports 3 level 12 and secured with screw clamps 4. Include key 14 to close the electrical circuit and sunbathing all diodes 15 on the screen.

Next, the arm 6 rotates the screw 5 and lower the platform 10 with the rods-the rods 11 to the first touch one of the terminals with the surface of the soil. This point is determined by the circuit and went out the of the corresponding diode 15. The room faded diode 15 logs of the observations, and the position of the platform 10 charge for the source.

Then continue to rotate the screw 5 until the next extinction diode 15 due to break the electric circuit at the touch of a corresponding rod on the soil surface. The number of completed revolutions and the angle of rotation from the original position of the arm with incomplete turnover in degrees read from the counter of revolutions and the rotation angle of the arm 7 and the log of observations for extinct diode.

The amount of translational movement of the platform 10 is determined by the formula

where L is the translational movement of the base, mm; s - thread pitch, mm; K - the number of complete revolutions of the screw; γ - the angle of rotation from the original position of the arm with incomplete turnover, hail.

Then continue to rotate the screw 5 with the handle 6 and conduct experiments according to the aforementioned method, until it turns off all the diodes 15. The results obtained are recorded in the log of the observations, where the circuit is constructed in the form of a two-dimensional grid (see Fig. 2), each node of which is recorded data (vertical movement) for the corresponding probe-rod 11. On the basis of these data is based surface response (steady rise of nodes), which determines the direction of flow of atmospheric precipitation in the field.

Experimental the surveys were conducted at various agricultural background, just over 5 (perennial grass, arable land, arable land with weeding, mulching, crop, stubble cereals and other). Research results after processing in the program "l" shown in Fig. 4 is a graph representing the response surface on the arable land of the harrowing.

Sources of information

1. An annotated collection of measuring and test equipment. - Novokubansk too: FGNU "RosNITI", 2012. - 51 S.

1. Device for profiling the surface of the soil in sloping lands and determine the direction of flow of atmospheric precipitation in the field, characterized in that it includes a frame with height-adjustable legs and set it level, movable in the vertical plane, a platform mounted on support frame with bushings and connected to the frame of the screw mechanism consisting of a screw with a handle with Rev counter and angle of the handle, the Central nut-lock, fixed on the frame, the lower nut mounted rigidly on a movable platform, the holes which are at equal distances from each other in the nodes of a two-dimensional grid posted by moving the rods-the rods, made of dielectric material, and the rods-the rods with their upper ends secured to made of electrically conductive material blocks-rings, guard electric is EPI.

2. Device for profiling the surface of the soil in sloping lands and determine the direction of flow of atmospheric precipitation in the field under item 1, characterized in that the electrical circuit for determining when the touch probe is a rod with a ground surface includes consistently positive pole of the power source key, a diode, a flexible wire, the gauge-rod, the end rings and the platform, which is the total "mass" and connected with a flexible wire to the negative pole of the power source.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of land reclamation, particularly to irrigated agriculture. In the method the timing of the regular vegetation irrigation under conditions of the Northern Caucasus is determined using the sensor. On the irrigated field in the soil, to half the depth of the active layer of the soil, the probe-sensor is inserted, made in the form of a bayonet with transverse grooves at its end and a scale of depth of immersion with 5 cm graduations from 0 to 50 cm. Upon reaching the middle of the active layer for each individual plant species the probe-sensor is removed from the soil and at its end with the grooves the degree of humidity of the soil and the time of regular vegetation irrigation is visually determined, which is settled if on the end with the grooves of the probe-sensor there are no traces of moisture and clumps of wet soil, which corresponds to average moisture content of the active layer of soil 75-85% of field capacity (FC). At that the place for inserting the probe-sensor should be in the middle of a row of plants, in the wetting contour zone located in the middle of the section, it should not be compacted from the surface by agricultural machines, devices and people.

EFFECT: method enables to simplify the timing of regular vegetation irrigation and provide plants with soil moisture.

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, forestry and ecology. The method comprises determining the branching index as the ratio of the number of individuals with deviations to the number of all individuals in the sample of moss. At that the bioindicator is used as Hylocomium splendens, the branching index of Hylocomium splendens is determined by the formula: B=BnBN100%, where B is branching index of Hylocomium splendens (in%), Bn is the number of individuals in the sample, having deviations from the normal branching in Hylocomium splendens, BN is the number of individuals examined in the sample, if B is from 0 to 10% the soil condition is normal, not phytotoxic, if B is greater than 10% the soil condition is disturbed - soil is phytotoxic.

EFFECT: method enables to determine the degree of soil deviation from the normal in the presence of stress factors.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method to determine coefficient of filtration of soil, by which water flow is sent via a soil sample. A sinker is placed on the surface of the soil sample, the start of sinker submersion is recorded. Then parameters of the sample and the water flow are measured. Then the soil filtration coefficient is calculated using the measured indices. At the same time they additionally record the value of humic acid concentration in a flow of water that has passed via the soil sample, and as the value of concentration reduces by more than 10% of the initial value, solution of humic acid is introduced into a flow of water sent into the soil sample, thus restoring the value of concentration of humic acid in a water flow that has passed via the soil sample, to the initial value.

EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities of filtration coefficient determination in soil exposed to humic acid, in black soil area.

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a frame consisting of a steel plate and racks. Two guides are attached to the plate from the bottom, on which the slider is moved with the support plate, connected to the die block through the hollow extension and the thrust bearing. The axis of the die block, passing through the hollow extension, is a mechanism of shear loading of the soil layer. The mechanism of the vertical load of the soil layer is provided with a vibration exciter and a set of loads for transmission of vertical dynamic and static loads, connected through the slide to the support plate to the die block. The synchronisation mechanism of loads provides simultaneous joint application of vertical and shear loads on the die block. In the process of deformation by the die block of the soil layer the registration of the sensor readings of vertical and angular displacement of the die block to the computer is carried out. The registered readings enable to calculate the physical and mechanical characteristics of soil with the program "Registration of linear displacements".

EFFECT: use of device enables to improve accuracy of measurements and testing efficiency and to expand multi-functionality of the tests.

1 tbl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to the field crop production. The method comprises estimation of the soil composition of the cultivated land and its production potential based on soil samples, the status monitoring of crop development on video images of crops, obtained by visual control module, and man-made impacts on technological processes. Taking and delivery of soil samples and fragments of crops from depressed sites of the cultivated land is performed using robotic devices, in the operation of which the harmful effect on soil and crops is eliminated. At that, assessment of soil composition and its production potential and the status monitoring of crop development is carried out in two stages. At that, at the first stage the assessment of the soil composition and its production potential is carried out by comparison of video images of crops, located on the cultivated land. According to the results of comparison of video images the cultivated land is divided into areas that are homogeneous in composition of the soil and its production potential. At the second stage of assessment the depressed areas of the cultivated land are revealed, on which the man-made impacts are necessary, increasing the production potential of the soil. From these depressed areas the delivery of fragments of crops and soil samples is carried out. After that, the laboratory analysis of comparison of soil and crops is carried out for each depressed area of the cultivated land. The man-made impacts are developed and implemented on the technological processes of cultivation, the crops and soil to increase crop productivity on depressed areas of the cultivated land. The device comprises the laboratory-control complex and the module of visual control of the state of crops on the cultivated land. The device comprises the module of delivery of crop fragments from the cultivated land into the laboratory-control complex. At that the module of delivery of plant fragments from the cultivated land is used as unmanned flying machine. The module of visual control of the state of crops on the cultivated land, the laboratory-control complex, and the module of delivery of crop fragments from the cultivated land are interconnected infocommunication bond.

EFFECT: group of inventions enables to increase the efficiency of control of processes of crop growing in real time without damaging the soil and crops.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to the technologies of precision agriculture. The device comprises a bearing frame connected to the means of moving on the field, a support element mounted on the frame and determining its position above the ground, the knife-milling chisel plough placed on a frame, creating longitudinal slit channel in the soil during motion, a measuring unit with the measuring sensors, made elongated along the direction of motion, of the same thickness with the knife-milling chisel plough and mounted behind it in the direction of motion, the assembly of stepped depth adjustment of the position of the measuring unit in the longitudinal slit channel when moving on the field, the assembly of protection of the measuring unit from damage by collision of the knife-milling chisel plough to the obstacles, the control unit of measurements, collection and conversion of the measurement information, the on-board computer and the receiver of the geopositioning system for registering measurement information and mapping. And the housing of the measuring unit is made in the form of a monolithic metal plate with a pointed and bevelled downwards and backwards frontal anterior edge and is fixedly connected to the bearing frame by the front and rear racks. The sensors are embedded in the measuring unit and located on its side walls along the common straight line with the same depth of location of the sensing elements from the soil surface. The support element is made in the form of a support skid located under the measurement unit, pivotally connected with the rack mounted on the bearing frame. And this rack is mounted on the bearing frame with the ability of a stepped change in the given distance between the sole of the support skid and the straight horizontal line with the same depth of location of the sensing elements in the measuring unit from the soil surface. The said knife-milling chisel plough mounted on the frame in front of the measuring unit, has an axial connection with the frame, ensuring the formation of a common vertical longitudinal plane of symmetry with the measuring unit and made with the ability to control the angular position of the knife-milling chisel plough in this plane. The knife with the cutting edge has a length that ensures creation of the slit channel in the soil with the depth enough for embedding the measuring unit until it stops of the support skid on the surface of the soil at any given distance between the sole of the skid and the horizontal line of position of the sensors and any specified angle of the knife-milling chisel plough mounting. The upper end part of the knife-milling chisel plough, located on the other side of the axial connection, is fixed by the safety shear bolt in the assembly of stepped fixing of the angular position of the knife-milling chisel plough located on the frame, and this assembly is equipped with a stop for fixing the position of the blade of the knife-milling chisel plough along the frontal measuring unit when collision to the stone and cutting the safety shear bolt, moreover, to retain the measuring unit in the vertical plane of symmetry coinciding with the direction of movement of the device. The bearing frame is provided with a rigid drawbar to connect with the vehicle for motion on the field.

EFFECT: unit provides measurement efficiency of agrotechnological characteristics.

17 cl, 24 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture: agricultural chemistry, soil science, agroecology. The laboratory method of determining the nitrification capacity of soil comprises composting soil and determining the amount of nitrates accumulated in the soil as a result of nitrification processes, and composting of the soil samples is carried out under conditions of active aeration of an inner volume of a closed vessel with the soil sample with air injection.

EFFECT: invention enables to reduce the number of technological operations in conducting the analysis and to reduce an error of the laboratory analysis.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: methods of determining the quantitative composition of a multi-component medium includes placement of a sample in a cell of a differential scanning calorimeter and supply of liquid with the known volumetric thermal expansion coefficient and known volumetric heat capacity into the cell. The total thermal capacity and the total volumetric thermal expansion coefficient of the sample and liquid, located in the cell, are determined and volumes of sample-constituting components are determined by the solution of a system of equations.

EFFECT: increased accuracy, reliability and rate of determination of volumes of a multi-component medium components.

24 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technical measurement devices of physical and mechanical soil properties. The device includes a strain link, in-series connected pressure sensors and functional supercharge transformers, at the turbocompressor inlet and underpressure of turbocompressor, and an analogue-to-digital converter, a soil hardness detector, a communication factor setting device, an indicator, a crank shaft speed sensor and a tachometer, a corner mark shaper, a functional angular speed transducer, a differentiator, an upper dead point (UDP) sensor, a UDP pulse shaper, a corner mark counter, an analogue UDP switch, a cycle corner mark setting device, a null detector, a functional converter of the number of pulses to voltage, a corner mark shaper of a cylinder, a retunable resonant filter, a strobe shaper, an analogue switch of cylinders, a setting device of numbers of corner marks of cylinders, the first and the second meters of average rectified, maximum and mean-square values, from the first to the third switches, in-series connected angular speed sensor of a rotor of a turbocompressor, a functional angular speed converter of the rotor and a double differentiator, and a generator current and voltage meter.

EFFECT: simpler and higher accuracy and flexibility of hardness determination of any non-homogeneous soils with ploughing outfits.

10 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: offered invention relates to a method for detection of a mineral in target material, a sorting method of raw material flow and to a device for determination of presence of target mineral in the material. The mineral detection method in the raw product involves irradiation of material rock fragments with electromagnetic radiation, for example microwave radiation, and recording of thermal response of material of rock fragments during or immediately after the irradiation to detect mineral in the material as per rate of its heating or its part on the recorded radiation.

EFFECT: proposed method is based on the fact that temperature change rate at heating of crystals by microwave radiation in target material is different, which allows improving efficiency and accuracy of sorting of rock fragments to detect presence or absence of mineral in a material respectively at power consumption reduction.

22 cl, 20 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: wear-resistant adding material is welded up along the working surface of a part with streamline shape, the said material is presented as identical strip sections 2-4 mm thick which are parallel to each other, arranged in staggered order at the right angle to the direction of the part's working surface movement. The length of the strip sections is 5-7 times more than their width, and the distance between them amounts to not more than the width of the welded up strip, and the distance between the adjacent strips is equal to the strip width. The longitudinal symmetry axis of the central welded up strip is placed in the same plane as the symmetry axis of the working surface is, in the movement direction of the latter.

EFFECT: invention allows for the decrease of wear rate of base metal in the zone of most intense friction of the part's working surface with streamline shape by means of increasing the degree of deformation and hoeing of the near-surface active soil layer in the movement direction.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to restoring of the productivity of perennial grasses in the chestnut soil zone. The method comprises chisel ploughing of soil under perennial grasses to the depth of 40 cm. The spacing between the working elements is set in the gap providing first the continuous loosening the soil until appearance of untreated soil surface, equal to the width of capture of one working element.

EFFECT: method enables to enhance replenishment of perennial grasses by discontinuous chisel ploughing of soil.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to forestry, in particular agro-forest amelioration, and can be used for afforestation in arid, for example, chalk slopes having soil cover. The method comprises mapping the reafforesting area, digging trenches in rows across the slope with the depth greater than the soil layer, stacking the excavated soil into the trenches, and the rest of the soil near the trenches down the slope, planting of woody plants. Soil of the slopes and bottom of the dug trenches is compacted. In between the rows a part of the soil layer is cut and the trenches are filled with it to form a roll. The soil remaining in between rows is compacted. The woody plants are planted in spring in the formed roll. The soil in the trenches and the soil between the rows is compacted to a density providing maximum water-holding capacity. The soil in between the rows is compacted during the growing seasons before closing crowns in between the rows.

EFFECT: method provides improved survival ability and growth of woody plants by improving their moisture content, nutrient and light regimes.

2 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises sowing of perennial grasses and embedding of the grown mass into the soil. At that sowing with simultaneous fertiliser application is carried out in every third aisle preserving the growing mass during 3 years. Sowing in neighbouring aisles is carried out respectively on the second and third years. Plowing with embedding of the grown mass in the aisle is carried out on the third year after sowing.

EFFECT: method enables to provide effective protection of soil from erosion by reduction of effluent and reduction of washout.

3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises ploughing soil as enclosures across the slope to form back ridges and detached intermittent furrows - furrows with jumpers intercepting runoff flow. At that upwards the direct slope having incline not less than 0.015, the width of each previous enclosure Bi is smaller than the width of each subsequent Bi+1, such as Bi-1<Bi<Bi+1, where i is the number of enclosure, growing up the slope, and the width of the ith enclosure is determined by the formula Bi≈B ki, where B is the width of the enclosure that is set from the maximum performance condition of the applicable unit that takes into account the length of the pass, the width of the grip of one plough body, the number of bodies and the minimum turning radius of the unit; ki is the correction factor taking into account inequality of solid and liquid precipitation on the slope and its exposure, absorption and water runoff and defined by the formula ki2,3KnKe(е0,1i0,7е0,06i)[1,4+24(J0,031)]ln(0,025L), where Kn is the coefficient taking into account the soil dry-weight percentage and equal for light soils Kn=1.0, for medium soils - 0.87 and for heavy - 0.7; Ke is the coefficient taking into account the exposure of the slope and location of the enclosure on the slope: in case of the normal precipitation for the flat surface of 600 mm/yr for the upper and middle parts of the slope at its north and south orientation Ke=0.86; north- west, north- east and south- west Ke=0.88; west Ke=0.9, south-east Ke=0.91 and east Ke=1.0. It is taken into account that under the conditions of Nonchernozem belt the lower part of the slope, as a rule, needs drainage; J is the incline of the slope equal to or greater 0.015, but not greater than 0.05; L is the length of the slope equal to or less than 400 m; n is the number of enclosures on a slope (1≤i≤n) defined by the formula nLBKnКe[1,4+24(J0,031)].

EFFECT: method enables to reduce soil washout on the lower parts of the slope, to ensure the termination of planar and linear soil erosion, to increase crop yield on the slope, and to prevent siltation of rivers and water reservoirs.

2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises subsurface tillage together with cutting slits and formation of cavities. At that the cavities are formed to the depth of 30 to 60 cm due to low-frequency vibrations at a frequency of 1 stroke per second of blade cultivator trapezoidal semi-hoes on the sides of the rack. Sealing of the walls of the cavities is carried out by exposure to high-frequency vibrations with a frequency of 250 Hz by means of roller elements. The device comprises a hinged frame with support wheels and working elements. The boardless working elements are mounted chequerwise and comprise the made C-shaped racks with chisels fixed at the end and at the sides by the blade cultivator trapezoidal semi-hoes. Behind the racks the mole blades are attached, the trapezoidal semi-hoes in front part are pivotally mounted on the axes rigidly fixed on the sides of the rack, and at the rear part they have a kinematic connection to the mechanism of a wobble plate connected in turn to the power takeoff shaft of the power means. The mole blades are made in the form of brackets rigidly attached to the racks, equipped with axes with two pivot roller elements. At that the axis with the rollers is equipped with a vibrator and is mounted with the ability of displacement relative to the bracket.

EFFECT: inventions enable to increase the density of the walls of the cavities in the lower part and increase the cross section of the cavity by giving it a rectangular shape.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises two rotary milling chisel ploughs located vertically symmetrically along the direction of travel of the device, mechanically connected to a common driver. The rotary milling chisel plough is provided with an annular milling chisel plough. The annular milling chisel plough is provided with outer cutting elements, provided along its outer side at the side surfaces alternately on the left and on the right. In front of the cutting element a container for receiving soil is made. The container for receiving soil is simultaneously a cavity of engagement of the gear drive on the outer side of the annular milling chisel plough. The container for receiving soil of the annular milling chisel plough is provided with a recess on its rear surface formed parallel to the plane of the annular milling chisel plough between the bottom of the container for receiving soil and the cutting element of the annular milling chisel plough. The rear surface in the direction of rotation of the pinion tooth is provided with a projection which width is 20-30% of the width of the pinion tooth, which lateral plane is made in one plane with the lateral surface of the tooth, directed towards the central plane of the pinion.

EFFECT: this constructive implementation enables to improve cleaning the container for receiving soil of the annular milling chisel plough and the cutting element of the annular milling chisel plough from the extracted soil, to reduce the tractive resistance and energy consumption, to improve reliability of the device.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and soil erosion. In the method on sloping lands oats, perennial grasses, winter rye, potatoes are cultivated. At that the cultures in the crop rotation are distributed as follows: oats with clover - clover - clover - winter rye - potato - winter wheat. At that after harvesting of winter rye vetch with white mustard are seeded, and after winter wheat - rape as green manure crop.

EFFECT: method enables to increase the output of environmentally friendly products, soil fertility and to reduce the degradation processes.

1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to soil erosion. The method includes mouldboard processing of complete fallow for accumulation of moisture, nutrients and for weed control, compacting in autumn after rains for formation of a soil crust, destruction of the crust and pre-plant soil loosening under it in the form of bands in spring of next year, with the formation of furrows for seeds in the loosened soil, formation at the bottom of the furrow on virgin soil of compacted bed, sowing seeds and their embedding by loosened soil layer. The destruction of the crust and pre-sowing loosening of the surface layer of the soil is carried out as bands to a depth of not more than 5 cm while maintaining of the crust between rows that protects the soil from wind erosion to complete germination.

EFFECT: method provides protection of soil from wind erosion in the autumn period the fallow year, the spring and early summer periods of sowing and increase of grain yield.

3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a vehicle with wedge-shaped mouldboards mounted in front. The trailed frame is made in the form of transverse beams connected to the hitch tongue. The device also comprises skis, the adjusting mechanism of ski and frame position in height. The mouldboards of the trailed frame are kinematically connected to the skis and the adjusting mechanism of ski and frame position in height. The mouldboards are mounted with the ability arranged to gauge the soil surface across the width of the device and are interconnected in pairs to form at least two ridgers with the output windows and forming chambers. The front part of each pair of the mouldboards is connected to the main crossbar via hinges with horizontal longitudinal axes. Part of the mouldboards connected to the forming chamber of each pair of mouldboards is pivotally connected to each other with the ability to move the forming chambers of the mouldboards in height. The edges of the lower edges cutting snow of each pair of the mouldboards, mounted on the sections of the additional beam, form the input windows.

EFFECT: constructive implementation enables to enhance the technological capabilities of the device due to reducing the tractive resistance, increasing performance and reliability while simultaneous improving the quality of snowfall capture by creation of snow banks of specified height.

9 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: environment protection.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.

Up!