Method of protection of karst occurrence
FIELD: mining operation.
SUBSTANCE: method of protection of karst occurrence comprises drilling wells in the area of karst formation and injection of reinforcing material. While injecting the reinforcing material in the form of a polymer-mineral composition in the rock mass of the area of karst formation two layers are created: the lower insulating-stabilising layer which prevents access of water to the karst at the depth of occurrence of karst rocks and stabilising the situation at the stage of karst formation, located within the boundaries of the sliding wedge, and the upper bearing layer serving as a bearing local layer and corresponding to the width of the lower layer. Drilling wells is carried out sequentially - first inclined well is drilled to the upper transition zone of the geological horizon exposed to karst formation, the polymer-mineral composition with the capacity from 2 to 10 meters is pumped, which forms a lower insulating-stabilising layer, then the inclined well is drilled to contact with the upper boundary of groundwater, and the polymer-mineral composition with the capacity from 2 to 5 meters is pumped, which forms the upper bearing layer. Then the control vertical well is drilled to contact with the upper bearing and the lower insulating-stabilising layer. The core-sample is raised from each layer to check the presence of the polymer-mineral composition. Between the bearing and the insulating-stabilising layers in the rock mass the channel of flow of groundwater from the water collection area to the discharge area is formed, preserving the natural hydrogeological mode in the rock water-bearing mass of the karst formation area.
EFFECT: increase in protective properties of rocks with karst occurrence, improvement of physical and chemical and bearing properties of the soil, increase in the strength properties of the soil, reduction of the possibility of landslides occurrence.
The invention relates to the mining industry, in particular to technology strengthening of structurally unstable and saturated soils, deceleration and further the conservation of cave process and prevent caving of the overlying rocks during the construction and operation of various facilities.
There is a method of strengthening a weak soil Foundation subgrade, including discharge into the Foundation soil through the bore of the polymer composition with the two sides of the roadbed at an angle of 20-45° to the horizontal plane, forming a reinforcing anchor system in the form of a spatial lattice structure of the soil associated polymer composition, consisting of two interconnected grids with nodes at the intersections of the elements of the arrays, RU # 2474651 C2, E02D 3/12, 10.02.2013.
A known way of eliminating the depths of the earth canvas maintained roads and Railways on casinopokernews soils, including the creation in strengthening the array of subgrade fragments transformed soil by introducing into the soil a mixture containing composite materials, freezing the top layer of soil to a depth of 0.10-0.15 m, the mixture contribute by drawing in such a way as to create around the array of subgrade prone to swelling, Vert is unique screen and horizontal screen depth, the corresponding maximum depth of seasonal freezing of soils, and within the array of fragments transformed soil is placed in a checkerboard pattern, RU # 2471928 C1, E02D 3/12, 10.01.2013.
Known method of eliminating putinobamamania road construction managed by alkalization of the soil, including the injection heaving soil subgrade using two injectors fixing solution 2-10 N. sodium hydroxide solution with the addition of lime in the amount of 1-2% by weight of the working solution, while the injectors are placed horizontally under the pavement, RU # 2407859 C1, E02D 3/12, C09K 17/00, 27.12.2010.
There is a method of strengthening the railway line, representing the roadbed located therein prism ballast with rail and tie bars, which consists in the treatment of soils railway firming composition of hydraulic binder, mineral adsorbent and water then seal up the full enveloping the particles of soil ballast in its upper layer, reinforcing composition, which is taken in the amount of 8-12% of the volume of ballast, RU # 2422577 C1, E02D 3/12, E01B 27/00, 27.06.2011.
The known method of eliminating voids in abdelazeem the space of sections of a railway tunnel, including the submission of a solution with filler, with drill article is ol in the lower part of the section of a railway tunnel on the detected void for filing zapolnennogo material and the second shaft for supplying a hardening solution, then insert a boot device and through it serves Zapolyarny material in the form of balls made of waterproof material with a density equal to or greater than the density of water, compacted balls with the help of a vibrator, displace the balls of voids accumulated water or through holes in the rock, or through the trunk to feeder hardening solution, at the end of voids balls boot device is removed and the barrel block and the second barrel serves hardening solution and at the end of voids trunk clog, RU # 2342491 C2, E02D 19/20, E02D 31/10, E02D 11/38, 27.12.2008.
There is a method of soil stabilization used in the construction and reconstruction of the roadway linear transport constructions, bases and foundations piers of bridges and structures, the contact network, etc. in terms of their wetlands and putinobamamania consists of water treatment and firming the composition in an amount of 6-10% by weight of soils containing lime and organic additive, followed by compaction of the soil mixture, RU # 2192517 C2, E02D 3/12, 10.11.2002.
In the known methods of strengthening the weak soil Foundation subgrade stabilizing deformed sections of roads due to heave, the elimination of voids in the weak water-saturated soils is carried out by injection of reinforcing materials of different the s composite structures.
Known the grouting composition to isolate the areas of acquisitions, including Portland cement, expanding additive in the form of a copolymer of carboxylic acids of the acrylic series, CaCl2as the hardening accelerator, water and gidrofobiziruyuschey additive in the form of silicone fluid on the basis of potassium methyl siliconate, RU # 2444553 C1, C09K 8/467, 10.03.2012.
Known plugging the injection solution through a drill string or plugging highly cavernous permeable rocks with glikoliticski mixtures, or plugging of porous rocks using resins, penetration ability which in small channels (less than 1 mm) is much higher than cement slurries, cement based, or plugging with tampons in containers filled with dry cement substance (cement, gypsum, bentonite and so on), mining-enc.ru/t/tamponirovanie/
It is known that for water insulation karst rocks, characterized by the presence of different sizes of water conveyance channels (large caverns to channels with minimal disclosure) required such a cement slurry, which would have at least two phases with significantly different structural-mechanical characteristics, to ensure a uniform process of plugging, large caverns, and available in an array of small is residuality, when isolation flooded karst rocks, based on the creation of a special structural mode and provide a predetermined period of flow of cement slurry into the injection pipe, grouting mortar gets the set enhanced plastic strength by the time they enter into the zone of a large karstic voids, dissertation Litovchenko Century. N. "Preliminary bridging large karst cavities in the construction of vertical mine workings..", 1984, dissercat.com/content/predvarit.
There is a method to plug the underground cavities in aquifers in the construction of mines, used for isolation of large karst cavities and including drilling, revealing an underground cavity, and the injection of cement slurry, RU # 1832847 A1, E21D 11/38, 09.08.1995.
This solution is accepted as the closest analogue of the present invention.
The closest analogue relates to a method for filling and isolation of large karst voids, cavities and channels in conditions of increased filtration of groundwater by conducting plug.
The nearest analogue to the drill pipe attached soft shell from a stretchable elastic material (e.g. rubber), put the shell in the underground cavity and fill backfill material. As backfill materialaluminum mixture of clastic materials (gravel, gravel, rock and other) with bistructures cement slurry and after a period of stabilization, backfill material (usually 20-30 min) shell disconnect from the pipeline.
Then lowered into an underground cavity of the other shell, the number of which depends on the cavity size and the shells. After filling the cavity begin pumping cement grout to fill voids between the shells.
Constructed thus impervious veil closest analogue is highly reliable, durable and virtually waterproof, however, the technology, the method is time-consuming, requires the preparation of a large volume of backfill material, works by attaching and removing the shells, ensure the integrity of the wellbore for the entire period of operation (particularly difficult for composing the subsurface unconsolidated (sand, gravel deposits, and so on) of rocks or clay, or salt deposits, etc.,), in this regime of groundwater is broken and the necessity to take measures to prevent significant reduction of the pressure of the groundwater in a karst area.
The present invention is based on a solution that can improve the protective properties of rocks under Barstow the x manifestations, to improve the physico-chemical and structural properties of the soil, to improve the strength properties of the soil, to reduce the likelihood of landslides, to systematize the process.
The technical result of the present invention is slowing, conservation of karst processes on the level achieved, and further suspension of the process of karst, in ensuring the permanence and gidroservices soil overlying carthusiana breed to preserve the natural hydrologic regime by creating in the rock mass zone of the karst manifestations of two layers: the lower solarwise-roll and the upper bearing by injection into the layers of polymer-mineral composition and education between the lower solarwise-roll and the upper bearing layer channel flow of groundwater.
According to the invention this problem is solved due to the fact that the method of protection of karst manifestations include drilling wells in the zone of karst processes and the injection of restorative material.
During injection of a restorative material in the form of polymer-mineral composition in the thickness of the rocks area of karst processes create two layers: the lower solarwise-stabilizing layer and the upper supporting layer.
Bottom solarwise-stabilizing layer prepyatstvuet the access of water to the karst at the depth of carthusia rocks and stabilize the situation on the stage of the cave.
The upper supporting layer performs the function of carrying the local layer. It corresponds to the width of the lower layer.
Drilling carried out consistently.
First are drilling an inclined hole to the top of the transition zone of the geological horizon, subject to the cave. Download polymer-mineral composition with a capacity from 2 up to 10 meters, forming the bottom solarwise-stabilizing layer.
Then are drilling an angled hole into contact with the upper boundary of the groundwater and pumped polymer-mineral composition with a capacity from 2 up to 5 meters, forming the upper supporting layer.
Then Buryats control vertical well before contact with the upper bearing and the lower solarwise-stabilizing layers. Taking core samples from each layer to validate the presence of polymer-mineral composition.
Between a bearing and isomerous-stabilizing layers in the thickness of the rock formation channel flow of groundwater from the catchment in the discharge area, preserving the natural hydrological regime in the thickness of the water bearing formation zone of the karst manifestations.
The applicant has not identified the sources containing information about technical solutions, identical to the present invention, which allows to make a conclusion about its compliance with the criterion of "novelty".
Due to the implementation of otlichitelnym features of the invention (in conjunction with signs, specified in the restrictive part of the formula) achieved an important new properties object.
Creating in the rock mass zone of the karst manifestations of two layers: the lower solarwise-roll and the upper rotor slows down and further to the conservation of karst processes, which increases the protective properties of rocks in karst manifestations.
The formation of the lower layer performs the function of insulating and stabilizing local member preventing access of water to the karst lands on the depth cartoomics rocks and stabilizing the situation on the existing stage of karst, provides ageing and gidroenergoremont soil that improves the physical and mechanical properties of the covering strata.
Injection of polymer-mineral compositions at the top and bottom layers increases the strength properties of the soil.
Consistent drilling first region of the lower layer to the geological horizon, subject to karst, injection of polymer-mineral composition with a capacity from 2 up to 10 meters and education solarwise-stabilizing layer, and then drilling into contact with the upper boundary of the groundwater pumping polymer-mineral composition with a capacity from 2 up to 5 meters and the formation of the upper is on the base layer changes dramatically the properties of the overlying rocks, increases the strength properties of the soil and systematizes the process.
Drilling vertical monitoring wells prior to contact with the upper bearing and the lower solarwise-stabilizing layers to check for polymer-mineral composition in them helps control geometrization of the created design.
The presence of channel flow groundwater, preserving the natural hydrological regime in the rock mass, reduces the risk of congestive swamping, clipping in the upper horizons of precipitation and, consequently, leads to the formation of landslides.
The applicant is not aware of any publication that would contain information about the impact of the distinctive features of invention technical result achieved. In this regard, according to the applicant, it is possible to draw a conclusion on the conformity of the proposed technical solution the criterion of "inventive step".
The invention is illustrated by drawings, which shows:
In Fig.1 - Area of karst processes schematically.
In Fig.2 - Technological scheme of protection of karst forms.
In Fig.3 is a schematic diagram of the location of the protective layers and channel flows of groundwater.
In Fig.1 - Fig.3 shows:
area of karst manifestations - 1,
the thickness of the mountain then the d (zone 1) - 2,
geological horizon (zone 1) - 3,
the upper boundary of the groundwater (zone 1) - 4.
Prism collapse (zone 1) - 5.
Bottom solarwise-stabilizing layer 6,
limit boundaries (prism 5) - 7.
Base course - 8,
width (prism 5) - 9.
Channel flow of groundwater (between layers 6 and 8) - 10.
Drill installation -11.
Well hatchback (layer 6) - 12.
Well hatchback (layer 8) - 13.
Control the vertical well (for layers 6 and 8) - 14.
The method is as follows.
Method of protection of karst manifestations includes the drilling of inclined 12 and 13 in the zone of karst manifestations 1 using a drilling device 11 and the discharge of restorative material in the form of polymer-mineral composition.
During injection of the polymer-mineral compositions create in the rock mass 2 zone of the karst manifestations 1 two layers: the lower solarwise-stabilizing layer 6 and the upper supporting layer 8.
Bottom solarwise-stabilizing layer 6 prevents the access of groundwater to the karst at the depth of carthusia rocks (saves the dissolution of rocks in the isolated zone in the form of presidency aqueous solutions) and stabilize the situation on the achieved stage of karst. Bottom solarwise-stabilizing layer 6 is located within the settlement boundaries 7 failure wedge 5.>
The upper supporting layer 8 performs the function of carrying the local layer. The upper supporting layer 8 corresponds to the width 9 of the failure wedge 5, which is equal to the width of the bottom solarwise-stabilizing layer 6.
Well slanted 12 and 13 Buryats sequentially for each layer, 6 and 8, respectively.
Depending on the location of zones of karst manifestations drilling can be performed with a tilt angle ranging from 0 to 90 degrees.
First are drilling an inclined hole 12 to the top of the transition zone of the geological horizon 3, subject to karst, pumped polymer-mineral composition with a capacity from 2 up to 10 meters, forming the bottom solarwise-stabilizing layer 6.
Bottom solarwise-stabilizing layer 6 creates a gas-tight and hydro impenetrable cover, preventing the development processes of leaching and diffusion. Injection of polymer-mineral composition is exposed in the destruction of the upper layers of carbonate and gypsum rocks, assigned to the zone of intensive tectonic disturbances, and previous weathering of rocks, with the aim to isolate access to the caverns of fresh water.
Then are drilling an inclined hole 13 into contact with the upper boundary of the groundwater 4, pumped polymer-mineral composition with a capacity from 2 up to 5 meters, forming the top of the third supporting layer 8.
Then Buryats control vertical borehole 14 to contact with the upper bearing 8 and the lower solarwise-anti-roll 6 layers, taking core samples from each layer 6, and 8 to check for polymer-mineral composition.
Between the bearing 8 and isomerous-anti-roll 6 layers in the rock mass 2 is formed a channel flow of groundwater 10 of the catchment in the discharge area, preserving the natural hydrological regime in the rock mass 2 zone of the karst manifestations 1.
Upon contact with groundwater polymer-mineral composition, absorbing a portion of water increases in volume and structured. This creates a dense polymer-mineral layer (composition + water + sand or other filler), occurring in the interval of injection of polymer-mineral composition, which increases the strength properties of the soil, as in the injection interval, and above, up to the surface. This is due to the increase in deformation properties of soils, calculated by summing the strength (deformation) properties of soil layers (soil + sand + layer polymer-mineral composition) to meet emerging (increase) synergy (KSYN.) reaching values of 1.4 to 1.6.
The composition of the polymer-mineral composition provides reliable is the strengthening of soils with the following options:
- coefficient effective porosity Peff=1÷20%;
the filtration coefficient Kf=1÷500 m/day.
Experimental work on the implementation of the method prove the positive effect of protection of karst processes in structurally unstable water-saturated soils. Formed channel flow groundwater provides a natural hydrogeological regime of the zone of karst forms.
In the proposed method of protection of karst manifestations of used equipment and devices, widely used in mining industry, and research, design data and performed the experimental work, determine, according to the applicant, the method according to the criterion of "industrial applicability".
Using the proposed method allows to:
- to enhance the protective properties of rocks in karst manifestations;
to improve the physico-chemical and structural properties of soil;
- to improve the strength properties of the soil;
to reduce the likelihood of landslides:
- to systematize the process.
Method of protection of karst manifestations, including the drilling of wells in the zone of caves and injection of restorative material, characterized in that during injection of a restorative material in the form of polymer-mineral compositions in the rock mass the ons karst create two layers: the lower solarwise-stabilizing layer, preventing access of water to the karst at the depth of carthusia rocks and stabilizing the situation on the stage of karst, located within the boundaries of the failure wedge, and the upper supporting layer that performs the function of a local carrier layer and corresponding to the width of the lower layer, and drilling carried out sequentially - first are drilling an inclined hole to the top of the transition zone of the geological horizon, subject to karst, pumped polymer-mineral composition with a capacity from 2 up to 10 meters, forming the bottom solarwise-stabilizing layer, then are drilling an angled hole into contact with the upper boundary of the groundwater and pumped polymer-mineral composition with a capacity from 2 up to 5 meters, forming the upper supporting layer, after which the Buryat control vertical well before contact with the upper bearing and the lower solarwise-stabilizing layers, taking core samples from each layer to validate the presence of polymer-mineral composition, with between bearing and isomerous-stabilizing layers in the thickness of the rock formation channel flow of groundwater from the catchment in the discharge area, preserving the natural hydrological regime in the thickness of the water bearing formation zone of caves.
SUBSTANCE: first, size and depth of a karst formation under a building foundation is determined; then, the first type of wells is formed along the building perimeter at least in one row; injectors are introduced to each of the above wells and a hardening solution is injected into well walls. Wells are formed so that at injection between adjacent wells in the row there can be formed intersecting zones of compacted soil; in the lower zone of loose soils of geomassif, which are located around a karst formation caving zone, there formed are at least two rows of wells of the second type, which are located in an arch periphery line, into which there also pumped is a hardening solution by means of injectors, so that wall-shaped structures are formed by means of the hardening solution throughout the height of the karst formation out of intersecting solid elements that are flat as to vertical direction. Then, in the lower zone of loose soils of geomassif, which are located above dome-shaped arch of the karst formation caving zone, there formed is the third type of wells located along the imagined surface of the dome-shaped arch of the karst formation and going beyond the perimeter of the zone enveloped with wells of the second type, to which there also pumped is the hardening solution by means of injectors, so that a dome-shaped massif of at least one layer of intersecting flat-parallel elements is formed above the karst formation with formation of compacted geomassif above the dome-shaped massif. After that, at least one well of the fourth type is formed with its opening to the cavity of the karst formation, which is filled with the hardening solution, with formation in the cavity of the karst formation of a volumetric elements; at availability of suffusion processes in the karst formation, to the karst formation cavity there added is at least one flexible envelope, to which the hardening solution is pumped, after hardening of which the soil is additionally compacted above layers of flat-parallel elements of the dome-shaped massif by pumping of the hardening solution in a downward or upward direction to cracks and cavities formed during formation of a dome-shaped arch out of flat-parallel elements. Cement mortar and/or raw mix containing a siliceous component, a gas-forming agent and a mixing agent is used as a hardening solution.
EFFECT: improving reliability of reinforced geomassif; reducing labour input and material consumption at its formation.
8 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes injection of a sealing substance, providing for damage of soil structure. Soil compaction is carried out by development of bodies in it with specified dimensions, shapes and properties from non-Newtonian liquid, which does not change the ratio of its components under load and preserves shape given to it with absence of external impact, which is injected by pressing into soil with impact loads applied to its surface. Soil is compacted by its displacement by external surface of developed bodies from spaces that they occupy. The device comprises a working element and a facility to apply impact load to it, made of a guide pipe, into which a rod is inserted as capable of movement along it and contact with the working element. The working element is made in the form of a rod with a conical point at the end and is inserted into the guide pipe as capable of limited longitudinal displacement in it. The conical point of the rod protrudes from the guide pipe. On the working element there is an assembly that excludes its drop-out from the guide pipe.
EFFECT: increased density of soil by introduction of non-Newtonian fluid into it in the mode of periodical impact loads and increased efficiency of a device due to elimination of the possibility to damage a well with a rod and deviation of the working element from the specified path.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: composition for sandy soil reinforcement, comprising a filler and a binder component, and the filler comprises sand milled to fine dispersion (74-136 nm), and the binder component is used as saponite-containing material milled to microdispersed state (265-451 nm) isolated from pulp of tailing dump of industrial ore dressing of diamond field deposit, with the following ratio of components, wt %: saponite-containing material 3-6, sand - the rest.
EFFECT: improving the strength characteristics of sandy soil.
2 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for mixing soil materials, in particular to a device for mixing additives directly with soil materials of the ground. The device comprises at least two mixing drums made with the ability to rotate around their axes of rotation which are located at a small distance from each other. Between the drums the fixing frame is located, on which the drop sleeve is fixedly mounted. At the upper end of the drop sleeve the attachment means are located for attachment to the lever for mounting the attached implement. The rotation axes of the mixing drums are inclined relative to the plane perpendicular to the vertical axis of the device, so that when the drop sleeve is in the upright position, the axes of rotation of the mixing drums are inclined downward toward the outer ends of the drums. Thus, the ends of the mixing drums, located closest to each other, are substantially closer to each other with their lower edges than with their upper edges.
EFFECT: device housing does not create a dead zone which would prevent the working movement.
8 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and utilisation of wastes of heat engineering, and namely to reinforced ground compositions (soil cements), which can be used for construction of structures, including in structures of bases of road pavements of automobile roads; in an earth bed of automobile roads and other structures; for backfilling, elimination and recultivation of developed soil banks and slurry ponds; for reinforcement of sides of roads, slopes and cavities. Composition for arrangement of bases of road pavements and structures, which includes cement, slurry of chemical water treatment of CHP, and when necessary, for assurance of required humidity (optimum for compacting), it additionally contains sand at the following component ratio, wt % (by solid phase): sand 57-82, cement 6-12, CHP chemical water treatment slurry (on a dry basis) 12-30. The invention is developed in a subclaim of the formula.
EFFECT: accelerating strength gain.
2 cl, 4 ex, 5 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of construction and may be used to determine quantity of cement in soil-cement material in creation of building structures by means of jet cementing. The method to determine quantity of cement in the soil-cement material of the structure in development of building structures by means of jet cementing consists in addition of a powdery indicator into the cement mortar injected into a well. Such powdery indicator may be powder graphite, fineness of grinding of which is not below fineness of cement grinding. Weight ratio of graphite powder makes 1-10% of cement weight. During realisation of the method they first measure electric conductivity of the injected cement mortar, then electric conductivity of the soil and cement pulp discharged from the well is measured, and the quantity of cement in the soil-cement material of the structure is determined as difference between the cement quantity in the cement mortar and the quantity of cement in the pulp. The quantity of cement in the pulp is calculated in accordance with the following formula:
EFFECT: higher efficiency of the method.
SUBSTANCE: in the method to strengthen natural soils and mineral materials for construction of roads with using of hydraulic mineral and water-dissolved polymer binders, including cement and latex of copolymers on the basis of sterol, ethers of acrylic acid, butadiene, acrylonitrile, ethylene with vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride or their mixtures with additives of thickeners on the basis of cellulose, defoaming agents of siloxane type and ether of glycol with regulation of pH by caustic, the specified polymer binder is used, polymer particles in which have dimensions from 50 to 200 nm, preferably 80-160 nm, with an additive in the amount of 0.1-5.0 wt parts per 100 wt parts of dry substance of the specified binder as a coalescer - ether of glycol of simple mono- or diester of ethylene- or diethylene glycol or aromatic hydrocarbon, for instance, white spirit, the value pH equal to 6.5-9 is set when using caustic in the form of 1-2% solution.
EFFECT: higher strength, water resistance.
10 ex, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of intense soil strengthening under an existing building includes formation of a peripheral row in the zone of performance of restoration works along the perimetre of a strengthened base of sagging soil and cellular structure in the zone of the strengthened base of the soil by drilling of depth wells to the depth of sagging soil, filling of injectors into wells, their sealing and injection of a hardening mortar under pressure in a certain sequence of sagging horizon strengthening. Relative to the structure contour they create a process base zone of multi-level support horizons of a counterforce body, in which at the bottom they form a root of stabilisation of sagging soil by the method of forced main and additional stage-step injection of an active mass of the mortar, distribution and regulation of sagging soil in volume density at joints of sections of the contact and combination of complect-active heterogeneous systems, direct and reverse pressing of a zone of relaxation sections in volume density of sagging soil at joints of contact sections under alternating directivity of supply of an active mass of mortar at variable angles in horizontal planes of multi-level support horizons. Intensive development is created to move mortar through soil by forced and transverse shift forces relative to each other in different levels of horizons of a counterforce body in direction of counteraction of strengthened soil resistance forces. Locations of nodal directivity of mortar injection into soil are distributed and formed with possible correction of required linear and angular parameters of directivity of reciprocal displacement of the mortar, consolidation and formation of the soil structure. Injection of the mortar into shafts of depth wells is carried out in steps by horizons and formation into a single volume-space structure of soil to the entire depth of the active base zone of relaxation sections of the counterforce body. Introduction of an additional injection of mortar and creation of a retaining force is carried out in the form of supply of a by-mortar and serial selective direction, distribution and formation of its position at local sections of horizontal transitions of basic zones of relaxation sections of the counterforce body in the sagging soil under the existing building.
EFFECT: higher intensification and efficiency of soil strengthening under an existing residential building.
5 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in treatment of the latter by a stabiliser containing latex polymer, which is applied mixed with water. Treatment of soil or foundation is carried out by introduction of the stabiliser by means of a cutter by the cutting method as the stabiliser is mixed with ground or foundation. The latex polymer is represented by latexes from the group that includes sterol-butadiene latex, (meth)acrylate latex, ethylene-vinyl acetate latex, ethylene/propylene latex, ethylene/propylene-dimer latex, butadiene-acrylonitrile latex, silicon latex, polybutadiene latex, latex from natural rubber or mixture of two or several of the specified latexes. The stabiliser additionally comprises a thickener based on cellulose, a defoaming agent selected from the group including silicons, glycol ethers, natural fats or oils and fatty alcohols, and also at least one chloride or at least one hydroxide of alkaline or earth metal, besides, the stabiliser has the following composition (wt %); 0.1 - 50 latex polymer, 0.05 - 5 thickener, up to 5 defoaming agent, 0.01 - 10 chloride or hydroxide of alkaline or earth metal, residue to 100 - water.
EFFECT: fixation and stabilisation of soils or foundations, making it possible without removal and recycling of oil soil and special costs to perform construction-earth works.
6 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method to construct preferably high and high-rise buildings and structures on unevenly compressible soils, according to which, after erection of another group from one or several floors of the building, they measure subsidence of foundations, average inclinations of the upper slab above this group of floors and average inclinations of upper slabs above all previously erected groups of floors. On the basis of measurement results and their analysis they decide on deformations of the base and strain stress behaviour of the building at the moment of measurements and until completion of the building, and also on the necessity to impact the soil or the foundation. At first the foundation is erected as designed not for a full load from the building, but for its part, for instance, from the half of the building, in process of erection of this part of the building they measure deformations of foundations and inclinations of slabs, they are used to assess actual characteristics of soil deformability, strain stress behaviour of the building at the moment of measurements and for its completion, and also the necessity to increase the bearing capacity of foundations. Afterwards, if necessary, works are performed to increase the bearing capacity of the foundations by means of increasing of foundation size, strengthening of soils under foundations, for instance, by means of injection of setting solutions, addition of a solid reinforced concrete board to the previously erected foundations, or pressed, screwed or bored piles. The bearing capacity of foundations is increased only in that part, that volume and at that level of height of the constructed building or structure, which provide for safety and permissible level of building deformations until its completion.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of assessment of soil compressibility characteristics in a foundation base in process of erection of a building, a structure, increased validity of analysis of strain stress behaviour of a structure during erection and upon completion of construction, reduced labour intensiveness.
1 tbl, 9 dwg
FIELD: road construction.
SUBSTANCE: device has towed device with platform, connected to moving gear, tank for reinforcing liquid, force pipes with bars with apertures in lower portion. Bars are made of conical shape with screw blades, mounted on a platform made in form of slides, and radiuses of bars effect overlap. In back portion of platform a screw is mounted. Tank for reinforcing liquid is placed in front portion of platform and by gear pump is connected to distributing comb, each force pipe, which through locking armature is connected to appropriate bar. Bars in amount no less than three are kinematically connected to each other, and to shaft for drawing power from moving gear, to screw and to gear pump for feeding reinforcing liquid.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: heat engineering constructions.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used as supports of different construction on permafrost. Proposed heated pile has reinforced concrete or metal shaft with inner or outer heated pipe in form of ribbed evaporator and condensers provided with metal strip ribbing arranged over ground surface with inclination to vertical part of shaft. Novelty is that heated pile is made T-shaped, and heated pipe in form of ribbed evaporator is made symmetrically double relative to axis of shaft with connection of some ends or its evaporators, other ends being connected with condensers. Evaporator ribbing is made in form of upward convex ring surfaces with central passes secured on inner surfaces of walls of heated pipe evaporators and uniformly distributed in height, and metal strip ribbing of condensers is element of horizontal part of T-shaped heated pile.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of heated pile, facilitated replacement of pile in case of failure.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: protection of ground and underground water pollution with toxic chemical substances, particularly forming antifiltering screens around waste disposal areas, dumps, for producing water reservoirs, building vessel coatings, mud reservoirs and store facilities for oil products and building materials.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming water-proofing mixture including polyethylene waste; laying thereof on store facility base and heat treating the mixture under temperature of mixture or upper store facility layer melting. The mixture includes waste polyethylene in amount of 70-99% and polypropylene in amount of 1-30%.
EFFECT: improved ecological safety and manufacturability, reduced cost for antifiltering screen forming, increased strength, reliability and extended trouble-free service life.
FIELD: building, particularly for reinforcing foundations and cast-in-place piles forming.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises percussion assembly including pneumatic drift and case surrounding thereof, as well as pipeline with pump. Case is rigidly secured to percussion assembly. Case comprises orifice made in front part thereof and adapted for receiving plug. Defined between the plug and the front part is cavity having cross-sectional area equal or more than that of pipeline located between percussion assembly and the case. Case has members for forming holes in ground located along longitudinal case axis and extending in radial direction thereof. The members have low rigidity and may be bent in radial direction. The members are provided with grooves formed in bending line thereof and rest brought into contact with case in extreme position.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
7 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for reinforcing soft and sagging ground at deep locations during building foundation construction and reconstruction, for protection of sliding natural slopes, as well as artificial dam, pit and trench slopes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming cylindrical cavity from ground surface; reinforcing cylindrical cavity walls by means of soil pipe and injecting hardening mix by pumping thereof into ground through injector. In the case of consolidating ground having high thickness cylindrical cavity is formed and reinforced with the use of soil pipe by vibratory driving thereof in ground. Soil pipe has auxiliary tube arranged coaxial to soil pipe and having outer diameter determined from a given relation. When soil pipe reaches upper boundary of soft ground layer to be consolidated the auxiliary tube is removed from soil pipe. Injector is deepened for the full soft ground layer thickness through the soil pipe and hardening mix is intermittently fed through the injector. After each hardening mix feeding operation injector is lifted for height corresponding to next gap to be filled with the mix. All injection operations in one consolidation point are performed during relaxation of ground compacted by soil pipe and injector driven in ground.
EFFECT: increased capacity, reduced time and labor inputs, improved technological effectiveness.
3 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: building, particularly to consolidate building or building structure foundation base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving injectors in ground; supplying high-pressure grout through ejectors; recording and measuring mortar pressure and forming grout body. Grout is injected simultaneously through at least three injectors installed along straight line and spaced equal distances one from another. The distances are equal to 5-10 injector diameters. Vertical grout body orientation is provided by driving injectors up to given mark reaching with following partial lifting thereof for height equal to 10-20 injector diameters and with their fixation at predetermined level before start of grout ejection process.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of ground base consolidation for ground of all types due to performing ground compaction along with forming vertical grout body of predetermined shape.
4 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: building, particularly to consolidate building or building structure foundation base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving injectors in ground; supplying high-pressure grout through ejectors; recording and measuring mortar pressure and forming grout body. Grout is injected simultaneously through three injectors installed in apexes of imaginary equilateral triangle with side dimensions equal to 5-10 injector diameters. Grout body forming is performed by driving and following lifting injectors for height equal to 1-3 injector diameters before start of grout supply to ejectors.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and increased efficiency of ground base consolidation due to providing of predetermined grout body shape in horizontal grout breaking plane.
3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: building, particularly technology and equipment for structurally unstable ground, for instance for industrial and civil building.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling well; forming longitudinal stress concentrator on wall thereof, locking upper well part along with injection zone separation; introducing binder under pressure in ground and forming plane of fracture in ground. Longitudinal concentrator is created by advancing, impressing and subsequent rolling of sliding punch-type rotary lentil-shaped disk within injection zone. The disc is connected with retainer through stop member. Upper well part is closed by filling gap between well wall and binder introduction means with quick-hardening material. Binder introduction means is made as perforated tube formed of elastic material and having diameter lesser than well diameter. Stress concentrator forming means has tube, head and cutter arranged in groove of the head. The cutter is made as sliding punch-type rotary lentil-shaped disk and connected to retainer by stop member including clamp and fork.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: building, particularly to reconstruct underground structures and reinforce foundations and engineering services in confined space.
SUBSTANCE: method involves reinforcing foundation in vicinity of existent structures; building vertical tube with the use of well rings; excavating ground with the use of grab; breaking tunnel liner and driving tunnel. Method of foundation reinforcement near existent structures involves injecting quick-setting cement mix through perforated pipes installed in wells drilled through support foundation part and ground; drilling guiding wells beyond vertical tube below upper tunnel level and ground water level; providing guiding wells with casing pipes; injecting grouting mortar in ground through casing pipes up to grouting mortar appearance at well head; installing well rings having perforation orifices along ring perimeters and installing injectors in above orifices; additionally reinforcing contour part of vertical tube by supplying grouting mortar through orifices in well rings; breaking tunnel link section after well ring laying onto upper liner plate of deep tunnel by cutting orifices having necessary dimensions; removing tunnel link section and seating well ring on rock base; concreting well ring; forming two orifices in well ring before tunnel driving arranged in direction of tunnel reconstruction; driving the tunnel and installing support members.
EFFECT: extended field of usage, reliability and safety of operations.
FIELD: building, particularly to form base member in ground.
SUBSTANCE: method involves introducing excavation device in ground zone to loose the ground; mixing the loosened ground with liquid to obtain suspension, which hardens in the ground zone; before suspension hardening the suspension is drawn-off from the first ground zone area located above the second ground zone area; supplying at least part of suspension drawn-off from the first area back into the second ground zone area. Device for base member production comprises excavation rig adapted to loosen ground in ground area; supplying means to supply liquid to loosened ground and mixing means to mix loosened ground with liquid to obtain hardening suspension. The device is provided with outlet device to draw-off the suspension from the first ground zone area and supply device to repeatedly supply at least part of suspension drawn-off from the first area to the second ground zone area.
EFFECT: increased quality of base and foundation member production.
9 cl, 1 dwg