Express-method of identifying detergent additives in automobile petrol
SUBSTANCE: dispersion-indicator composition is prepared, for which purpose hydrochloric acid and water-alcohol solution of bromophenol blue are introduced into distilled water, obtained composition is combined with petrol sample, into which methyl-tert-butyl ether is preliminarily added, mixture is mixed and settled at room temperature, volume of foamy layer of blue-light blue colour is measured at the boundary of “petrol-water" separation, and if its value is not less than 1 cm3 conclusion about detergent additive in petrol is made.
EFFECT: acceleration of identification with high degree of its reliability.
1 ex, 5 tbl
The invention relates to methods of quality control of gasoline (AB), in particular to a rapid method of determining the content of detergents in AB, and can be used in laboratories, fuel, gas stations, enterprises engaged in receiving, storing, issuing, quality control of gasoline.
During use in engines of motor gasoline are formed deposits in fuel tanks, the power supply system, the combustion chamber, rods and plates of the intake valves in the crankcase. Deposits alter thermal regime of the engine, reduce fuel, wear and reliability.
To ensure established quality requirements for motor gasoline use additives that improve the performance of engines providing persistence quality, reducing deposits in the combustion chamber, reducing the level of toxicity of exhaust gases [1 - A. S. Safonov, A. I. Ushakov, A. C. Oreshenkov. The quality of automotive fuels. Operational properties. The quality requirements. Testing methods. NECC, 2006, S. 148].
The most effective way of dealing with the formation of deposits in the intake system of the engine is the use of special detergents. With constant use the gasoline with detergent additives possible fuel savings of up to 2-3%. In addition, adding to the gasoline detergent additives increases the mileage of the car without disturbing the adjustment reduces the content of carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases [1 - S. 156].
Detergent additives are oil - and maslosoderzhashchimi surface-active substances (surfactants) with sufficient thermal-oxidative stability, which manifest themselves on the phase boundary metal-hydrocarbon-resinous deposits, contributing to the translation of resinous deposits on the metal in a liquid hydrocarbon medium. Most detergents are complex nitrogenous and oxygenated compounds obtained by the reaction of higher fatty acids, alcohols, amines, aldehydes and other petrochemical products. The mechanism of action of detergents is based on the introduction of surfactant molecules into the particles of the contaminants adsorbed on the surface, a change in volume of fuel and solubilization within the micelles formed by the surfactant molecules. While detergents also have a dispersing effect, preventing the planting of contaminants on the metal surface of the engine and fuel equipment [2 - Danilov A. M. additives and additives. M.: Chemistry, 1996, S. 131].
Detergent additive can be introduced into the gasoline at all stages of its production, storage and application. In terms of refinery additives trying to enter h for whom ordinary is not to increase the number of grades of gasoline and therefore, tanks, communications, etc. today is widely practiced introduction of additives to the tank farms and filling stations during shipment of fuel to the consumer. In this case, the additive is metered into the stream of fuel or poured into the tank of the tank truck: mixing occurs in the pumping process. [3 - Journal "oil Refining and petrochemical industry" №3 2010 S. 22-23;].
In the current regulatory and technical documentation for petrol determination of the presence of detergents is not provided, the conventional methods are not available. The definition of detergent additives in gasoline should be implemented in order to ascertain whether or not they (detergents) were introduced into gasoline during shipment or refueling and to check compliance with the cleansing properties of gasoline, which, as a rule, are made in the accompanying documentation.
The authors goal was to develop a simple to implement, does not require sophisticated analytical equipment, as well as budget in economic terms, a rapid method of determining the presence of detergents in motor gasoline with acceptable accuracy and precision.
In the analysis of scientific-technical and patent literature have been identified technical solutions, partially solving the task of determining the presence of detergents in motor gasoline.
From the local method of quantitative determination of detergents in motor gasoline, which is based on measuring the peak areas in the field 1103 cm-1in Fourier transform infrared spectra of solutions of detergents on the basis of high molecular weight Mannich bases in methylene chloride. The spectra were obtained using a Fourier transform IR spectrometer Tensor 227 "BRUKER" or "Nicolet 380" as spectrometers of high resolution. Survey spectra were carried out in a demountable liquid cell with glass KBr, spacer thickness was 0.5 mm [3 - n-21-26].
There is also known a method of determining the presence of detergents in motor gasoline, according to which the presence of detergents is determined by the difference of the number of pitches before and after washing with n-heptane, using the method of determining the washed resin (resin remaining after washing with n-heptane). [EN P # 2497111, G01N 33/2 (2006.02)].
The analysis of the above methods for the determination of detergents in AB shows that they have several disadvantages associated with the need to use expensive equipment, the duration of the test time, which eliminates the possibility of operational use at petrol stations, oil depots and other facilities that consume gasoline.
The authors found no rapid methods for the determination of detergent additives in gasoline, and any of the above methods may be adopted for the prototype, as it solves the same problem - the definition of a detergent prisa is key.
The technical result of the invention is to reduce the time of determination of detergents in motor gasoline, without compromising on accuracy.
This technical result is achieved in that in the method of determining the presence of detergents in motor gasoline, according to the invention is prepared dispersible indicator composition in distilled water is injected in 0.1 n hydrochloric acid and water-alcohol solution of bromophenol blue in a volume ratio of 1:0.01 to:0,001, the resulting composition is combined with 40±2 cm3samples of gasoline, which previously added methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in an amount of 0.1 sample volume, the mixture is stirred for 60±5 seconds, defend at room temperature for 10-15 min, measured at the interface of the volume of the foam layer of the blue color, the meaning of which is not less than 1 cm3judge the presence of a detergent additive in gasoline, the original volume of distilled water take is equal to the sample volume of gasoline with methyl tert-butyl ether.
The essence of the method consists in the extraction detergent additive weakly acidic solution of 0.1 n hydrochloric acid (HCL) (GOST 3118-77) in the presence of the indicator bromophenol blue (PLS) (TU 6-09-5421-90) with subsequent fixation of its existence. For this purpose were selected conditions extraction detergents from AB received what I emulsion and selection of the indicator, having a color transition upon contact with the emulsion containing detergent additives. In addition, the studies revealed the influence of different quantities of MTBE by volume of the foam layer at the interface of gas-water, which led to the determination of the minimum sufficient amount of MTBE is added to a sample of gasoline is 0.1 of the volume of the sample.
To justify operating parameters and the set of methods of the claimed method were prepared samples of gasoline with different detergents additives (table.1).
The method is implemented as follows.
Example 1. In a sample of 40 cm3gasoline for sample No. 1 (PL.1) add 4 cm3MTBE. Prepare dispersible indicator composition in water volume 44 cm3add to 0.44 cm30.1 n HCL and 0.04 cm3(4 drops) indicator bromophenol blue. Next, a sample of the gasoline additive MTBE is mixed with the received dispersible-indicator composition and exercise dilution (e.g., by shaking) within 60 sec. The resulting mixture assert within 15 minutes, get a clear boundary "gasoline-water, where visible foam layer. Record the volume frothy layer blue color.
The above steps of example 1 were carried out with all the prepared samples No. 2 to No. 4), the car is gasoline. The results obtained are presented in table 2.
As can be seen from table 2, using a rapid method confirmed the presence of detergents in the samples No. 1 to No. 3 and sample No. 4.
Modal parameters and the ratio of reagents in the present method is obtained when conducting research using samples on the table.1 and many other artificially prepared samples.
The results of experimental studies on the selection of parameters for the determination of detergents in motor gasoline are presented in table. 3 and 4.
As can be seen from the test results, the magnitude of the foam layer depends on the time of settling of the foam layer and the volume of 0.1 n HCL, part dispersible indicator composition. It is established that the formed foam during sedimentation decreases, and after 10 minutes almost stabilized (see line 4, 5, 9, 10, 14, 15 in table.3), and the quantity of foam sufficient for its measurement, the best at 0.4 cm3of 0.1 n HCL (see lines 13-15).
Dispersible indicator composition is obtained during the research a liquid mixture of distilled water, 0.1 n hydrochloric acid and PLS taken in the ratio 1:0,01:0,001. At other values of the ratios do not show a clear foam layer.
Time peremeci the project for 60±5 seconds so it was chosen based on the magnitude and time stability of the foam layer. With less time mixing the foam could not be generated.
Identified the need for additional introduction of MTBE in samples of gasoline confirmed the influence on the increase of the foam layer. The results of the impact assessment of the content of MTBE on the size of the foam layer are presented in table 4.
The optimal number of MTBE selected 4 cm3(0.1 of the volume of the sample), and the introduction was carried out directly in the cylinder with AB and other necessary reactants before mixing. Adding MTBE significantly increases the amount of frothy layer that facilitates its fixation, especially for gasoline, which in its composition does not initially contain MTBE (Pulsar-92).
The claimed method in the laboratory were tested with real samples of automotive gasoline Pulsar-95, the production company TNK-BP and Regular-92 (Ryazan refinery). The content of additives in the samples to confirm the reliability was checked by the method of IR-spectroscopy (3 - n-22-23). The results are presented in table 5.
The results presented in table 5, confirm that the invention is reliable, in addition, laboratory equipment and chemical reagents used to implement this method, enable re is to be applied as in a stationary, mobile laboratories, and the immediate application of AB (gas stations, oil depots and tankers) within a short interval of time (10-15 minutes).
A rapid method of determining the presence of detergents in motor gasoline, characterized in that the prepared dispersible indicator composition in distilled water is injected in 0.1 n hydrochloric acid and water-alcohol solution of bromophenol blue in a volume ratio of 1:0.01 to:0,001, the resulting composition is combined with 40±2 cm3samples of gasoline, which previously added methyl tert-butyl ether in an amount of 0.1 of the volume of the sample, the mixture is stirred for 60±5 seconds, defend at room temperature for 10-15 min, measured at the interface of the gasoline-water volume of the foam layer of the blue color, the meaning of which is not less than 1 cm3judge the presence of a detergent additive in gasoline, the original volume of distilled water take is equal to the sample volume of gasoline with methyl tert-butyl ether.
SUBSTANCE: method of evaluating corrosiveness of jet fuel comprises determining the decrease in weight of copper-containing material placed in the fuel before and after testing at high temperature. The copper-containing material used is copper foil which is placed in the fuel and held in hermetically sealed cells in the form of metal vessels at temperature of 150±2°C for 4 hours while holding in two steps of 2 hours each and replacing the fuel after the first step. The greater the decrease in the weight of the copper foil before and after test, the more corrosive the jet fuel.
EFFECT: high reliability and faster evaluation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical methods of expertise of explosive substances and forensic identifying preparations. A method of marking an explosive substance consists in the introduction of a marking composition, containing identifiers, the quantity of which equals the quantity of technical parameters to be marked, into the explosive substance, obtained by mixing of separate components. To mark the explosive substance each separate component, included into the mixture of the explosive substance, is marked. The marking composition for each separate component is composed of at least one polymer material from the group of polyorganosiloxanes with the length of a molecular chain, representing an identifier, different from lengths of molecular chains and values of viscosity of polymer materials in the marking compositions of other separate components, constituting the mixture of the explosive substance. As the marking composition of the explosive substance a set of marking compositions of separate components of the said substance mixture is used.
EFFECT: improvement of marking.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes determination of the density at the fuel temperature 20°C, determination of the averaged boiling temperature Tc, °C, by calculated dependences on temperatures of boiling away of different fuel fractions, setting the density range at 20°C from 700 to 1020 kg/m3, determination of kinematic viscosity at a temperature of 50°C with the fuel density from 860 to 1020 kg/m3 and the temperature of boiling away of final fuel fraction higher than 400°C, equipping a nomogram for CI estimation with an additional scale of viscosity, matched with the Tc scale on the section from 268 to 320°C, setting the Te range from 90°C to 320°C, setting the range of the kinematic viscosity scale from 2.0 to 1000 mm2/s, setting the range of cetane index scale, units, from 0 to 70. The nomogram makes it possible to determine CI of any liquid hydrocarbon fuel (from petrol to the residual one).
EFFECT: extension of assortment of analysed fuels and increased reliability of estimation.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of analysis of physical properties of liquids. A device contains a container for sampling with a scale with a piston and rod placed in it, software and hardware to measure time and temperature, a tube for liquid intake during sampling in order to determine the relative viscosity, a thermistor which can be installed at the tube during determination of microcone penetration, demulsifying ability and index of the liquid heating dynamics, a cone that can be installed instead of the piston on the rod by means of a threaded connection for determination of microcone penetration, a plug or a cover which can be installed into the container nipple instead of the tube for determination of microcone penetration and demulsifying ability, and a support for the container installation.
EFFECT: simplification and acceleration of the analysis as well as increase in its information content and reliability.
5 cl, 4 tbl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: filler used is chromogenic ion-exchange dispersed silica with covalently grafted hydrazones or formazans.
EFFECT: high sensitivity and selectivity of detecting metals.
3 tbl, 4 dwg, 14 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: at first sample of tested oil product with fixed volume is passed through water-coagulating agent placed between turns of a flat spiral mounted in a cavity of the element having shape of a truncated cone. When the sample is passed along the spiral the time for coagulation of free water microdrops in the sample is extended. Then the sample of the tested oil product is passed through a filter membrane with a deposited layer of water-sensitive chemical agent. At that by means of the hollow element having shape of a truncated cone this sample is localised at the surface of this water-sensitive chemical agent and water availability or concentration is evaluated by its colour changing. Additionally water concentration in the sample of the tested oil product is evaluated against decrease of the sample fixed volume before the water-sensitive chemical agent changes its colour.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of the analysis.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in application of the dependence of kerosene compatibility with rubber upon content of antioxidant therein for determination of antioxidant amount in tested kerosene. Rubber seal ring is used as the rubber specimen in proposed method. Said ring is compressed to 20% of its thickness, placed in tested kerosene to fix compression force continuously during the entire test for determination of compatibility of kerosene with rubber. Compatibility index is calculated by the formula including maximum rubber ring compression force and ring compression force after 3 hours of holding said ring in kerosene at 150°C.
EFFECT: perfected method.
3 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in calculation of a value of a criterion showing increase of volume of explosive gases in comparison to initial charge volume based on fixation of quantity of destructed material in a metal marker plate at end influence on it of a tightly adjacent cylindrical charge of a test liquid explosive with initiation of explosion from the charge end that is opposite in relation to that adjacent to the plate in order to assess k coefficient of polytrope of explosion products as per an equation solved relative to k with further assessment of destructive properties of exploded charge as per the value of the above criterion that is calculated from the specified ratio.
EFFECT: improving assessment informativity and reliability.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: to predict disposition of mineral coals to self-ignition, a model is created, which imitates natural processes of hydrothermall and fluidogenic conversion of coals in foci of self-ignition of pit beds. Continuous flow filtration of air and water mix is carried out via a ground coal sample, placed into a quartz reactor with the specified heating mode to temperature not exceeding temperature of coal self-ignition. Then the quartz reactor is cooled down to room temperature, and continuous flow filtration is repeated. The start of sample thermal destruction is fixed by reaction of indicator gas with water-alkaline solution. By the angle of opening of curves corresponding to the first and repeated heating in the chart they determine speed of exothermic reaction behaviour. The time for incubation period of self-ignition is calculated, which is a predictive factor of disposition of mineral coals to self-ignition.
EFFECT: development of a model that imitates natural processes of low temperature hydrothermal and fluidogenic conversion of coals in foci of self-ignition of pit beds.
10 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: fuel or air stream is passed at a constant rate through a water separator consisting of multiple cells arranged in series one after the other, formed by a coagulator and a separating grid, and water obtained from separation on a porous partition wall is removed into a settling tank. Pressure in front and behind the partition wall is constantly or periodically measured; information on the pressure measurements is transmitted to an analytical recording unit; hydraulic resistance of the porous partition wall is calculated based on the pressure difference; the obtained data are then used to determine the amount of water retained by the porous polyvinyl formal of the coagulator; based on the obtained calibration data on change in hydraulic resistance of the porous partition wall depending on water content in the coagulator and in the fuel stream, and based on said data, the amount of water contained in the fuel is determined. An apparatus for realising the method is also described.
EFFECT: high accuracy and reliability, easy determination.
8 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises determining the values of the inform-parameter for various reference petrols, plotting calibration dependence of the inform-parameter on the octane number, determining the value of the inform-parameter of a sample of petrol to be analyzed, determining octane number of the petrol to be analyzed from the calibration curve, and measuring density and temperature of the sample. The value of the inform-parameter is determined from measuring the surface tension of the sample. The octane number is calculated within temperature range 10-40oC.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determining.
1 tbl cl, dwg
FIELD: analytical methods in fuel industry.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in using detector represented by a set of five piezo-sorption mass sensors modified with fixed phases having different sensitivity and selectivity while responses of sensors are recorded in turns. Identification of product is accomplished using "visual imprints" technique.
EFFECT: achieved rapidity in gasoline identification.
15 dwg, 1 tbl, 15 ex
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: indicator comprises filtering material made of two interconnected layers each of which is made of a mixture of ultra-thin perchlorovinyl fibers with a diameter of 5-9 μ and 0.5-1.2 μ. The first layer is provided with ferricyanide (II), and the second layer has a mixture of potassium ferricyanide (II) and potassium ferricyanide (III).
EFFECT: enhanced sensitivity.
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises controller, which receives the signals from the mass flow meter, and analyzer for determining the percentage of mass-fractions of the flow. The output signal of the controller, which corresponds to the enthalpy of fuel combustion, is fed to the throttle gate for control of the flow of natural gas on the basis of a parameter chosen in advance.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measuring.
21 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises direct visualization of image, which is formed in microscopic observation, processing the images, and determining the quality of the emulsion from the histogram of the water drop distribution in the fuel, mean size of drops, and dispersion of the results. The fuel sample of high viscosity is heated up to 50-60°С.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of determining.
1 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: oil industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes taking sample of water-oil-gas mixture in hermetic tank, exposure thereof and measurement of hydrostatic pressure P1. after exposure and forming of oil-water boundary water is let out and hydrostatic pressure P2 is measured again when oil-water boundary reaches bottom of tank, and mass concentration of water W is determined from formula W=(1-P2/P1). Device has hermetic tank with inlet and outlet branch pipes, temperature detectors and hydrostatic pressure detectors, relay detector of oil-water joint position mounted near tank bottom and blow branch pipe with valve for forcing liquid phase from tank by gas.
EFFECT: higher precision.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to determining mass fraction of high explosive, such as hexogen, octogen or tetranitropentaerythritol, in deflagrating explosives and can be used in control of manufacture quality for elastic explosives containing special additives, such as indicated above. Sample elastic explosive is rolled into tape 0.2-0.3 mm thick and treated with carbon tetrachloride. High explosive present in sample is dissolved in acetone and residue is removed from the solution. Resultant solution is evaporated and remaining high explosive is dried and weighed.
EFFECT: assured determination safety, increased determination accuracy, and reduced consumption of materials and time.
4 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns physicochemical analysis and can be used in production of explosives to determine content of metal component. Proposed method of recovering oxide of a metal component from mixed explosives belonging to nitramine class comprises converting mixed explosive into nonexplosive form by decomposing it through treatment with alkali reagent followed by oxidation of metal component to metal oxide by heat treatment of resulting material in air at 800-1100°C for 2-4 h.
EFFECT: increased degree of recovery of metal components.
FIELD: petroleum product investigation methods.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of investigations and analyses of fuels using standard laboratory equipment and suitable for in-line control of petroleum products' quality. Method of invention comprises determining octane number of reference samples according to research and motor methods, plotting calibration dependence of information parameters on octane number, and subsequent identification of octane number of test sample from this dependence. Information parameters utilized are (i) aromaticity index of tested product represented by proportion of area of a group of peaks for aromatic compounds on express chromatogram of product and (ii)density of product at 20ºC. Octane number of test sample (ON) is calculated from following dependence: ON = ON'+Kn(KaA+675-ρ20), where ON', Kn, and Ka are calibration parameters, A aromaticity index, %, and ρ20 density of sample at 20°C, kg/m3.
EFFECT: simplified and accelerated octane number determination.
FIELD: petroleum product investigation methods.
SUBSTANCE: in the method of invention, which can be used in carrying out of qualification tests and identification of fuels, 5 cm3 of gasoline sample is mixed with water at volume ratio 2:1, to resulting mixture is added 3 cm3 of 0.2 N potassium bichromate solution and sulfuric acid with density 1.8 g/cm3 taken at ratio 2:1, after which mixture is stirred and presence of alcohol in motor gasoline is judged of from green or blue coloration appeared in lower layer.
EFFECT: accelerated assessment procedure and avoided need in complex laboratory equipment.
1 tbl 2 ex