Source of reference voltage determined through energy gap doubled width

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: device contains five transistors, three resistors and a current source which is coupled between the power supply bus and output terminal; the first resistor is coupled by its first output to the common bus, the second and third resistors are connected by their first outputs to the output terminal; bases of the first and the second transistors are connected to collectors of the first and fifth transistors and bases of the fourth and fifth transistors; the second output of the first resistor is coupled to emitter of the second transistor; emitters of the first and third transistors are connected to the common bus; collector of the third transistor is connected to the output terminal; the base of the third transistor is connected to collectors of the second and fourth transistor; emitter of the fourth transistor is connected to the second output of the second resistor; emitter of the fifth transistor is connected to the second output of the first resistor.

EFFECT: receipt of thermally stable output voltage, which value is close to doubled energy gap width of the used semiconductor.

3 dwg

 

The device relates to the field of electrical engineering and can be used as a temperature-stable reference voltage (ION).

Known temperature-stable reference voltage sources, defined twice the bandgap of the semiconductor, to which disadvantage is the excessive complexity caused by the use of a large number of elements [U. S. Patent 4380706. Voltage reference circuit / Robert S. Wrathall. - Dec. 24, 1980], and the need for additional connections to the power supply voltage, and not only to the current source [Soclof C. Analog integrated circuits: TRANS. from English. - M.: Mir, 1988. - S. 240, Fig.33.27], which makes them difficult to use as a reference diode.

The closest technical solution adopted for the prototype, ION is shown in Fig.1 [Patent RU 2488874 C1 IPC G05F 1/56; H03F 1/30 (2006.01). - Publ. 27.07.2013, bull. No. 21]. The disadvantage of the prototype is a relatively high temperature drift of output voltage (10 mV to 100°C).

The task to be solved by the invention, is to provide the claimed technical result is the decrease of temperature coefficient of output voltage ION.

To achieve the claimed technical result in the scheme of the prototype, containing a current source connected between the bus Pete the Oia and the output terminal, a first resistor connected to the first output to the shared bus, the second and third resistors connected to the first conclusions to the output terminal of the first transistor, the emitter of which is connected to a common bus, a second transistor, the emitter of which is connected to the second output of the first resistor, the third transistor, the collector of which is connected to the output terminal, and the emitter - to a common bus, the fourth and fifth transistors, bases of which are connected to the collector of the fifth transistor is connected to the collector of the first and the bases of the first and second transistors, the emitter of the fourth transistor is connected to the second output of the second resistor, the emitter of the fifth transistor is connected to the second output of the third resistor, the collector of the fourth and second transistors is connected to the base of the third transistor, entered the connection base of the fourth transistor to the collector of the first transistor.

The outline of the prototype is shown in Fig.1. Diagram of the inventive device shown in Fig.2. In Fig.3 shows the simulation results.

The inventive ION (Fig.2) includes five transistors (first to fifth), denoted, respectively, by the numerals 1-5, and three resistors (one through three), denoted, respectively, by the numerals 6, 7 and 8, and the current source 9 is connected between the power bus and the output terminal, the resistors 6 and 7 is connected to the first pins to output the terminal, bases of the transistors 1, 2, 4 and 5 are connected with the collectors of the transistors 1 and 5, the resistor 8 connected between the common bus and the emitter of the transistor 2, the emitters of transistors 1 and 3 are connected to a common bus, the collector of transistor 3 is connected to the output terminal, the base of transistor 3 is connected to the collectors of transistors 2 and 4, the emitter of transistor 4 is connected to the second output of the resistor 7, the emitter of the transistor 5 is connected to the second output resistor 6.

Before considering the operation of the claimed device, consider the schematic of the prototype (Fig.1) because it is necessary for comparative analysis. Thus, assume that the currents bases of the transistors are negligibly small, and the load current is absent. The output voltage Uothe prototype is determined by the sum of the voltage base-emitter voltage Ubeand Ubetransistors VT3 and VT4, and the voltage drop UR2resistor R2, which can be described by the following expression:

where φt≈26 mV - temperature potential; I2and I3currents to the emitters of transistors VT2 and VT3, respectively; Isthe saturation current back-biased p-n junction, is proportional to its square; R2the resistor R2.

To find the current I2consider the voltage base-emitter voltage Ubeand Ubeaccordingly, transistors VT1 VT2 and the voltage drop U R1resistor R1by writing the expression:

or

where R1the resistor R1; I1- current of the emitter of the transistor VT1; N is the ratio of the areas of the emitters of transistors VT2 and VT1.

The approximate relation (2) is true if equal currents I1and I2. From here you can determine the current

Differentiating the expression (3), we can determine the dependence of the increment of the current I2temperature T:

where φt=kT/q; k - Boltzmann's constant; T - absolute temperature; q is the electron charge.

Differentiating the expression (1), we obtain

For finding increments dUEBshould take into account the dependence of

where C is a constant factor determined by the production technology of integrated transistor; E is the energy width of the forbidden zone at absolute zero, obtained by linear extrapolation from room temperature to absolute zero, equal to silicon 1,205 Century

It can be shown that expression (5), taking into account(1), (3), (6), given to the form

The first and the second term in the expression (7) is caused, respectively, by changing the voltages Ubeand Ube.

Since the total current I1, I2The I 3constant, the increment dl3=-dI1-dI2and when equal currents I1, I2, I3and the approximate equality of the increments dI1and dI2with regard to (4), we obtain

Expression (7), taking into account (8), can lead to the following:

Equating (9) to zero, we obtain the condition in which the instability of the output voltage on temperature is close to zero:

The operation of the claimed device similar to the prototype. However, the output voltage is determined by the sum of the voltage base-emitter voltage of the transistors 1 and 4, which is described by the following expression:

where R7the resistor 7; I1and I2currents to the emitters of the transistors 1 and 4, respectively.

Current I1and I2equal to the current of the emitter of the transistor 2 and is determined by the expression:

where R8the resistor 8; N is the ratio of the areas of the emitters of the transistors 2 and 1.

Differentiating equation (10), one can deduce equality:

Differentiating the expression (11), taking into account (6), (12) and (13), we obtain:

Where should the condition settings:

Comparing expression is possible (10) and (15), the conclusion can be made about the proximity of the temperature-stable output voltage to twice the width of the forbidden zone for both schemes. And since the voltage base-emitter voltage of the transistor 3 has virtually no effect on the output voltage, diagram of the inventive device provides a higher stability of the output voltage than the outline of the prototype.

Presented on Fig.3 the simulation results show the dependence of the output voltage of the prototype (out1) and the claimed device (out2) on temperature. For the convenience of comparison voltage out2 increased by 64 mV (bottom chart). The upper diagram presents the corresponding relative instability of the output voltage.

Thus, analysis, and data circuit simulation confirm that the claimed device is achieved by the claimed technical result is obtained temperature-stable output voltage at values close to twice the width of the forbidden zone.

The voltage stabilizer containing a current source connected between the power bus and the output terminal, the first resistor connected to the first output to the shared bus, the second and third resistors connected to the first conclusions to the output terminal of the first transistor, the emitter of which is connected to a common bus, a second transistor, Amy is Ter of which is connected to the second output of the first resistor, a third transistor, the collector of which is connected to the output terminal, and the emitter - to a common bus, the fourth and fifth transistors, bases of which are connected to the collector of the fifth transistor is connected to the collector of the first and the bases of the first and second transistors, the emitter of the fourth transistor is connected to the second output of the second resistor, the emitter of the fifth transistor is connected to the second output of the third resistor, the collector of the fourth and second transistors is connected to the base of the third transistor, wherein a base of the fourth transistor is connected to the collector of the first transistor.



 

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