Method of control over program turn of accelerating unit

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for control over program turn of accelerating unit with the help of fixed constant-thrust engines of orientation. Angular velocity is increased at acceleration and inertial flight and decreased to zero at deceleration and pulsed initiation of orientation engines. Level of fuel component in the tank that brings about the most tangible effect on turn dynamics is measured Angle mismatch and acceleration unit angular velocities are intermittently measured at turn as well as deflection of said fuel level from acceleration unit lengthwise axis Orientation engine are shut down at the ends of acceleration path and switched on at deceleration start path.

EFFECT: acceleration unit turn with damping of fuel components oscillations at ramming engine operation path section.

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The invention relates to rocket and space technology, and in particular to methods of traffic control booster blocks (RB), providing dovodjenje SPACECRAFT) from the reference orbit to the target (usually geostationary) orbit, the implementation of the interorbital transitions and other operations with the SPACECRAFT.

In space technology known selected as a prototype method for managing software turn upper stage using a stationary engines orientation constant thrust, which consists in performing a set of angular velocity - acceleration, coasting, reducing the angular velocity to zero - braking and pulse enable engines orientation with decreasing angular velocity below a specified level (see [1]).

There is a method of managing software turn allows flat software reversal of the Republic of Belarus at a given angle at a given time with the lowest possible fuel consumption, engine orientation. Thus, the program spread, as a rule, is performed on the passive trajectory of the launch, when the components of the fuel in the tanks of the Republic of Belarus are in a state of weightlessness and not have a significant impact on the dynamics of the spread. However, the known method of control does not provide the desired quality control on the active sites when the engine is preload, creates thrust in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the Republic of Belarus. Sequence diagram of the operation of RB results in frequent inclusion of engines preload for the deposition of components of the fuel to the bottoms of the tanks for draining tanks and run engines. Often there is a necessity of implementation of a reversal of the Republic of Belarus on the flight with the engine running preload. In this case, the large mass of the propellant components are tucked to the lower ends of the fuel tanks and run-time software reversal perform transverse oscillations, providing on side walls of the tanks considerable force. Usually tanks are located in the rear part of the Republic of Belarus, the center of mass of RB are shifted to the bow, which is displayed on the orbit of the massive SPACECRAFT. Therefore, transverse vibrations of the fuel components create significant disturbing moments, the magnitude of which is comparable with the magnitude of the steering torque generated by the engine orientation. As a result, the process of turning when using the known method of control is accompanied by a significant "throw" on the corner (overshoot) and increased oscillatory, resulting in increased fuel consumption, engine orientation.

The task of the invention is to develop methods for the and management of the programme turn the upper stage, providing at the site of the work of engines preload execution of the reversal of the Republic of Belarus at a given angle without overshoot with simultaneous damping component fuels that have the greatest impact on the dynamics of software spread. For example, for the present and developed cryogenic upper stages such component of the fuel is an oxidizer (liquid oxygen), the mass of which is several times greater than the mass of fuel, in this case, because of the specifics of the design location of the tank oxidizer creates a large shoulder hydrodynamic forces about the center of mass of the Republic of Belarus.

The technical result of the invention is to optimize the timeline functioning of the Republic of Belarus due to the expansion capabilities of the control system in terms of combining various flight operations.

This technical result is achieved in that in the method of control software by reversal the upper stage using a stationary engines orientation constant thrust, which consists in performing a set of angular velocity - acceleration, coasting, reducing the angular velocity to zero - braking and pulse enable engines orientation with decreasing angular velocity below a specified level, in accordance with the invention, in the case of programmes is on spread, combined with the engine preload, before reversing measure the level h has the most impact on the dynamics of the spread component of fuel in the tank, and in the process of turning periodically measure the misalignment angle Δϑ and angular velocityϑturn the upper stage, the angle sϑand angular velocity ofsϑthe deviation of a surface of the specified component in the fuel tank from the longitudinal axis of the upper stage, while the off orientation engines in the late part of the acceleration is carried out at the achievement of the parameter x the values of f1(x'), starting the engines orientation at the beginning of the plot braking is carried out at the achievement of the parameter x the values of f2(x'), wheref1(x')=-4πx'+x'|x'|2;f2(x')=-x'|x'|2 - switching functions, and the parameters x and x' is set as a linear function of the measured angles and angular velocities x=k(k1Δϑ+k2sϑ),x'=k1ϑ+k2sϑwith coefficients k, k1, k2determined according to a pre-calculated dependency of the level h of the component of fuel in the tank.

The essence of the invention is illustrated in Fig.1-4.

Fig.1 - scheme of the upper stage during the implementation of the programme of turn.

Fig.2 - Program management reversal in function of dimensionless time τ.

Fig.3 - Line switching control in the phase plane of the dimensionless variable x and its derivative x' on the dimensionless time τ.

Fig.4 - Typical transient processes when implementing software reversal in accordance with the proposed control method.

Management software spread, combined with the engine preload, in a mathematical model of the control object, it is necessary to take into account fluctuations of the liquid fuel components. As an example, consider the mathematical model of the plane of the reversal of the Republic of Belarus on the pitch with the use of the pendulum is th model, describing the fluctuations of the oxidizer in the tank. The spatial equation of motion of RB as a rigid body with n mathematical pendulums are derived in [2]. In this case, a flat turn with one pendulum these equations have the form (under the assumption of smallness of the angle of deviation of the pendulum from its equilibrium position)

ϑ+a1sϑ=μ1u(1)

sϑ+a2sϑ=μ2u,(2)

where

ϑ is the angle of pitch of the Republic of Belarus;

sϑ- the angle of deviation of the pendulum from the longitudinal axis of the Republic of Belarus, equal to the deviation angle between the normal to the surface of the oxidizer from the longitudinal axis of the tank;

u - switch on the control motors of the Republic of Belarus, taking values of 1, 0, 1;

a1=-mP0d(m0+m)I Z;μ1=P(xT-xD)IZ;(3)

a2=P0l(1m0+md(d+l)(m0+m)IZ);μ2=-Pl(1m0+(xT-xD)(d+l)IZ).(4)

Here (see Fig.1)

m0- the mass of RB without taking into account the mass of the oscillating oxidant (weight solids);

IZ- moment of inertia of a rigid body;

m is the mass of the mother is through the point of pendulum equal to the mass of the oscillating oxidant;

P0- thrust preload directed along the longitudinal axis of the Republic of Belarus;

P - thrust per engine orientation, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the Republic of Belarus;

d - the distance from the suspension point of the pendulum to the center of mass of a rigid body;

l is the length of the thread of the pendulum;

xT- longitudinal coordinate of the center of mass of a rigid body in the base coordinate system;

xD- longitudinal coordinate of the points of application of the tractive force control motors in the base coordinate system.

The system of equations (1)-(2) has the following initial and final conditions

ϑ(0)=ϑ0;ϑ(0)=0;sϑ(0)=0;sϑ(0)=0(5)

ϑ(tK)=ϑK;ϑ( tK)=0;sϑ(tK)=0;sϑ(tK)=0,(6)

where ϑ0, ϑKrespectively defined initial and final values of the pitch angle;

tKthe time of completion of rotation.

Will pass to dimensionless variables

t=kt;(7)x=k(k1Δϑ+k2sϑ);(8)x'=k1ϑ+k2sϑ;(9)

Δϑ=ϑ-ϑK;(10)y=a2sϑμ2;(11)y'=a2sϑμ2,(12)

wherek=a2;k1=a2a2μ1a2-μ2a1;k2=-a1a2μ1a2-μ2a1.( 13)

The system of equations (1)-(2) and boundary conditions (5)-(6) can be represented in the form

x"=u;y"+y=u(14)

x(0)=x0;x'(0)=0;y(0)=0;y'(0)=0(15)

x(2T)=0;x'(2T)=0;y(2T)=0;y'(2T)=0,(16)

where the characters ' and “ mean respectively the first and second derivatives of the dimensionless time τ, and 2T is the dimensionless time reversal.

Keeping known in the prototype method, the sequence of operations during execution of the program spread (acceleration, coasting, braking), will choose a temporary control program as shown in Fig.2. The system (14) for the dimensionless time 2T will move from the initial conditions (11) in the final terms, determined by the formula

x(2T)=x0-σ(T2-ξ2);y(2T)=2σcos(t-T)(cosT-cosξ),(17)

where σ=signx0. To ensure that the final conditions (16), it is enough to choose as the dimensionless time T one of the values

T=|x 0|4πi+πi,(18)

where i=1, 2, 3,..., while

ξ=||x0|4πi-πi|(19)

The minimum dimensionless time reversal is provided byi*=[|x0|+π2+π2π]where the square brackets denote the integer part of the number. However, when i=i*, the amplitude of the transition process on the deviation angle of the pendulum simulating oscillations of liquid in the tank can reach unacceptable values. For typical values of the parameters considered in the example of the upper stage, it is advisable to choose a value of i=2.

The obtained values of the parameters T and ξ enable management software spread, shown is a of Fig.2, as a function of time. However, for the technical implementation is desirable to provide the same control as a function of the state variables x and x', i.e. to carry out the synthesis of feedback control. The presence of feedback, as it is known, allows to compensate the influence of the disturbances associated with the influence of external factors, inaccurate knowledge of the parameters of the control object and the controller, the account in the mathematical model of secondary factors, etc. In the proposed method of control software by reversal the upper stage, just used the principle of feedback. For this purpose we have derived equations of lines switching in the phase plane (x, x'). When the engine is off orientation at the end of the segment acceleration and turning the opposite engine orientation at the beginning of the plot braking is carried out when the parameter x in the phase plane, respectively, first and second line switching (see Fig.3). The first equation of the line switch has the form (typical for this RB values of the dimensionless initial conditions|x0|<16π2)

f1(x')=what is 4πx'+x'|x'|2(20),

and the equation of the second line switch

f2(x')=-x'|x'|2(21).

To implement this control in advance before the flight RB calculate dependency ratios (13) linear functions (8) and (9) from the level h of the oxidizer in the tank. For this, we first calculated or experimentally determined dependence on h dimensionless parameters pendulum model the behavior of the liquid: the square of the dimensionless frequency of oscillation of the pendulumω2, dimensionless mass of the material point of the pendulumm, the dimensionless distance from the lower pole of the tank to the point of suspension of the pendulumC' [3]. From these data, determine the thread length of the penduluml=Rω2the mass of the material point of the pendulumm=ρR3mand the distance from the point of suspension of the pendulum to the center of mass of a rigid bodyd=xT-x0-C'R-lwhere R is the characteristic size of the tank, ρ is the density of the oxidizer, xT-x0distance from the center of mass of a rigid body to the lower pole of the oxidizer tank. Finally, by the formulas(3), (4), (13) determine the dependencies of the coefficients k, k1, k2from the level h of the oxidizer in the tank. These pre-calculated dependencies are used in flight to determine the values of the coefficients. To do this, before implementation of policy reversal in accordance with the proposed method for measuring the level h of the oxidizer in the tank.

During execution of the software spread periodically measure the angle ϑ and the angular velocity ofϑ turn the upper stage, and the angle sϑand angular velocity ofsϑdeviations of the surface of the oxidizer in the tank from the longitudinal axis of the upper stage, which by the formulas (8)-(10) are converted into control parameters x and x'. Measurement of the angles of deflection of the surface of the oxidizer in the tank in two planes can be realized, for example, using three radio wave gauges located on the side wall inside the cylindrical tank at angles of 120°. In particular, can be used transmitters "Microradar-N" [4], with a mass not exceeding 3 kg and provide measurement of the liquid level in the range of 0.5 m to 4 m with a precision of ±2.5 mm and a frequency of issuance of the measured values of the minimum level of 10 1/s is the Angular velocity of the deflection surface of the oxidizer in the tank from the longitudinal axis of the upper stage can be obtained by numerical differentiation of the measured angle.

The results of mathematical modeling of process management software spread using the proposed method, shown in Fig.4 (a, b, C) show a good quality of management as at nominal values of the characteristics of the upper stage (a), and 5% of the energy dispersion in the values of the moments of inertia of the Republic of Belarus and t is GI engines preload (b, b).

Thus, thanks to the implementation of the proposed invention, the technical solutions, the task management software spread booster unit, providing at the site of the work of engines tucked up execution of the reversal of the Republic of Belarus at a given angle without overshoot with simultaneous oscillation components of the fuel in the tanks.

Sources of information

1. B. C. Rauschenbach, E. N. Turner. Attitude control of a spacecraft. M., "Nauka", 1974, pages 191-194.

2. A. W. Altshuler, B. A. Lobanov. The mathematical model of the spatial fluctuations of the liquid components of the fuel in the tanks of a space rocket on the active phases of flight. Aerospace equipment and technology. 2010, No. 2, pages 39-46.

3. K. S. Kolesnikov. The dynamics of the missile. M. "engineering", 2003

4. The radio wave transmitter "Microradar-21611" TU BY 190460725.003-2009. Manual REN.000-06. http://www.microradartest.com, , market@microradar.com.

The way to control software by reversal the upper stage using a stationary engines orientation constant thrust, which consists in performing a set of angular velocity - acceleration, coasting, reducing the angular velocity to zero - braking and pulse enable engines orientation with decreasing angular velocity is below the predetermined level, characterized in that in the case of Khujand is the software implementation of the spread, combined with the engine preload, before reversing measure the level h has the most impact on the dynamics of the spread component of fuel in the tank, and in the process of turning periodically measure the misalignment angle Δϑ and angular velocityturn the upper stage, the angle sϑand angular velocitythe deviation of a surface of the specified component in the fuel tank from the longitudinal axis of the upper stage, while the off orientation engines in the late part of the crackdown carried out when the x parameter values ƒ1(x'), starting the engines orientation at the beginning of the plot braking carried out when the x parameter values ƒ2(x'), where;switching functions, and the parameters x and x' is set as a linear function of the measured angles and angular velocities x=k(k1Δϑ+k2sϑ),with coefficients k, k1, k2determined according to a pre-calculated dependency of the level h of the component of fuel in the tank.



 

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4 cl

FIELD: astro-navigation, control of attitude and orbital position of spacecraft.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes control computer, star sensor, Earth sensor, storage and timing device, processors for control of attitude, processing angular and orbital data, inertial flywheels and spacecraft orbit correction engine plant. Used as astro-orienters are reference and navigational stars from celestial pole zone. Direction of spacecraft to reference star and direction of central axis of Earth sensor to Earth center are matched with plane formed by central axes of sensors with the aid of onboard units. Shift of direction to reference star relative to central axis of Earth sensor is considered to be latitude change in orbital position of spacecraft. Turn of navigational star around reference star read off sensor base is considered to be inertial longitude change. Point of reading of longitude is point of spring equinox point whose hour angle is synchronized with the board time. This time is zeroed upon completion of Earth revolution. Stochastic measurements by means of static processing are smoothed-out and are converted into geographic latitude and longitude parameters. Smoothed inertial parameters are compared with parameters of preset turn of spacecraft orbit found in storage. Revealed deviations of orbit are eliminated by means of correction engine plant.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determination of spacecraft attitude and orbital position; automatic elimination of deviation from orbit.

44 dwg

FIELD: spacecraft systems for supply of power with the aid of solar batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes turning the solar battery panels to working position corresponding to matching of normal to illuminated surface of solar batteries with plane formed by axis of rotation of solar battery panels and direction to the Sun. Proposed method includes also determination of moments of the beginning of solar activity and arrival of high-energy particles onto the spacecraft surface. Then, density of fluxes of said particles is measured and the results are compared with threshold magnitudes. When threshold magnitudes are exceeded, solar battery panels are turned through angle between the said normal and direction to the Sun which corresponds to minimum area of action of particle fluxes on solar battery surfaces at simultaneous supply of spacecraft with electric power. When action of particles is discontinued, solar battery panels are returned to working position. Angle between direction to the Sun and axis of rotation of solar battery panels is measured additionally. In case threshold magnitudes are exceeded, solar battery panels are turned to magnitude of angle between normal to their illuminated surface and direction to the Sun which corresponds to minimum area of action of said particle fluxes on spacecraft surfaces (provided the spacecraft is supplied with electric power). System proposed for realization of this method includes units and their couplings for performing the above-mentioned operations. System is additionally provided with unit for measurement of angle between direction to the Sun and direction of axis of rotation of solar battery panels, as well as unit for determination of maximum current.

EFFECT: avoidance of lack of electric power on board the spacecraft at performing the "protective" turn from high-energy particle fluxes; possibility of using these measures for arbitrary orientation.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: spacecraft systems for supply of power with the aid of solar batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes turning of solar batteries to the working position corresponding to matching of normal to their illuminated surface with plane formed by axis of rotation of solar battery panels and direction to the Sun. Proposed method includes also measurement of density of fluxes of solar electromagnetic radiation and high-energy particles determining the moments of beginning of solar activity and arrival of said particles to spacecraft surface. Additional measurement includes determination of appearance of signs of negative action of particle flux on spacecraft. During these moments, onboard solar batteries are charged to maximum level. When density of particle flux exceeds threshold magnitude, solar battery panels are turned through angle between said normal and direction to the Sun corresponding to minimum action of particle fluxes on solar battery surfaces. Discharge of storage batteries is hoped to close the energy gap on board the spacecraft. At minimum permissible level of storage battery charge, storage batteries are disconnected from load. When action of particles on spacecraft is discontinued, solar battery panels are returned to working position. System proposed for realization of this method includes units and their couplings for performing the above-mentioned operations. System is provided with unit for determination of current from solar batteries, unit for determination of moments of appearance of signs of negative action of high-energy particles on spacecraft and unit for setting the permissible level of charge of storage batteries.

EFFECT: reduction of negative action of high-energy particle flux on solar battery working surface due to maximum increase of angle of "protective" turn of solar batteries from direction of these fluxes to the Sun.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electric power supply for spacecraft with the aid of solar batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes turning the solar battery panels to working position corresponding to matching of normal to their illuminated surface formed by axis of rotation of solar battery panels and direction to the Sun. Proposed method includes also measurement of density of fluxes of solar electromagnetic radiation and high-energy particles followed by determination of moments of beginning of solar activity and arrival of high-energy particles to spacecraft surface. Method includes additionally measurement of spacecraft orbit altitude and angle between direction to the Sun and plane of spacecraft orbit. In case density of particle flux exceeds threshold magnitudes, solar battery panels are turned on illuminated surface of spacecraft orbit through angle (αs min) between said normal and direction to the Sun corresponding to minimum area of action of particle fluxes on spacecraft surfaces at supply of spacecraft with required amount of electric power. On shaded side of orbit, solar batteries are turned from direction of particle flux through maximum angle. When spacecraft escapes from shadow, reverse turn of solar battery panels is completed through said angle αs min. Upon completion of action of particle flux on spacecraft, solar battery panels are returned to working position. System proposed for realization of this method includes units and their couplings for performing the above-mentioned operations. System includes additionally unit for determination of intensity of spacecraft illumination, unit for measurement of spacecraft orbit altitude, unit for measurement of angle between direction to the Sun and spacecraft orbital plane, unit for control of turn of solar battery to position opposite to direction to the Sun, NO-gate and switch.

EFFECT: reduction of negative action of high-energy particle fluxes on solar battery working surface on shaded surface of orbit.

3 cl, 1 dwg

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