Method for dynamic biometric personal authentication based on handwriting features

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: database of users allowed to access a system is formed from sampled and quantised readings of handwriting samples of a matrix of two-dimensional discrete Haar transform coefficients. When allowing a new user into the system, a matrix of two-dimensional discrete Haar transform coefficients similar to the reference sample is formed from the sampled and quantised readings of handwriting samples of that user. Comparison is carried out and a decision is made to associate the obtained record to one of the reference records.

EFFECT: high reliability of authorised access in systems requiring use of personal identification means.

2 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to computing, methods of data processing for biometric measurement, in particular to methods of digital processing of handwritten text. The invention can be used in systems restrict access to protected information by means of biometric identification on the individual characteristics of handwriting in addition to existing means of identification or replacement of these facilities.

The progress made in the field of computer data processing [1], has removed many of the technical problems on the implementation of systems identification and monitoring by the motor (motor) mechanisms of man, manifested most fully in the process of writing and speech. Engine dynamic characteristics of the individual shall remain in full individuality in the process of functioning of a living organism, which is what makes them the most informative source of human individuality.

There is a method of identification by the peculiarities of the signature (RU # 2148274 from 27.04.2000, G06K 9/22, 9/62, G06F 15/18), namely, that enter in the computer is converted into digital form fluctuations pen reproducing handwriting identifiable person and its pressure on the tablet, calculate differential and integral parameters of the text, cu is IU, additionally calculates the correlation coefficients of these calculated parameters, and compute the estimates of the correlation coefficients, decide on personal identification by comparing the mentioned parameters calculated from their reference values. The main disadvantage of this technical solution is incomplete use of the received information in the form of the dynamic characteristics of vibration of stylus and pressure, which reduces the reliability of the decision.

The prototype of the claimed invention is a method of biometric authentication according to the handwriting in the computerized access control system (RU # 2469397 C1 from 10.12.2012, G06K 9/00) consists in the fact that multi-component analog signal is converted into digital form, forming the matrix of quantized samples, the values of its elements is calculated using two-dimensional discrete cosine transform matrix coefficients, the elements of which are used as identification parameters of the user, any user that logs access control, offer to perform in a similar way the pattern writing handwriting handwriting received multi-channel analog signal is converted into digital form, calculated using two-dimensional discrete cosine transform Mat the Itza coefficients, elements which are compared with the corresponding elements of the matrices of coefficients of two-dimensional discrete cosine transform of registered users in the database, which is recognized by the user is considered incidental reference recording, if the difference is minimal.

The main disadvantage of this method is that the Fourier transform, in particular two-dimensional discrete cosine transform is ill-suited to work with functions defined on a short interval argument, and functions whose value dramatically and significantly changed.

The analysis of the level of technology has allowed to establish that the analogues, characterized by a set of characteristics that are identical to all features of the claimed technical solution is available, which indicates compliance of the claimed method the condition of patentability "novelty".

The aim of the invention is to develop a method of dynamic biometric identity authentication on the peculiarities of the handwriting handwriting, allowing to increase the reliability of the verification of the user.

This objective is achieved in that the determination of the individual characteristics of handwriting produced by the identity matrix, obtained by two-dimensional discrete Haar transformation, this creates a base et the h-parameters of the samples of the handwriting of the user, made in the computerized system, in the form of interval changes each identification parameter, newly introduced to the system user identity is an identity matrix, obtained by two-dimensional discrete Haar transformation, thus calculate the maximum and minimum values of the identifiable parameters, and the decision on the admission of any user in the system is accepted, if the Hamming distance is minimum, which determine the total number of depositions of the identification parameters for the intervals of admissible values of the reference parameters of the samples of the handwriting of users admitted in the computerised system, otherwise form the message about unauthorized attempt logon, the intervals of admissible values of the reference parameters of the samples of the handwriting of users admitted in the computerised system, artificially increased by 20-40% compared with calculated values.

This set of essential features allows you to create a computerized system for the decision support using user authentication on the features of the handwritten text.

The implementation of the method is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 presents a conceptual model of the proposed method, Fig.2 - p is intitially scheme of processing of multidimensional analog signal, in Fig.3 shows an example of forming a matrix of two-dimensional discrete Haar transformation, Fig.4 - forming vector quantized samples from a single channel measurements.

The proposed method consists of three consecutive stages: the stage of creating a database of reference parameters of the handwriting of the users who have access to the computerized system, stage recording and processing parameters handwriting handwriting of any user included in the computerised system, and the stage of the decision on admission. These stages are shown in Fig.1.

The first stage envisages the creation of a database of the identification parameters of the samples of the handwriting of users admitted in the computerised system, this involves the following steps. Using a device for measuring motion parameters of stylus, such a device is described in patent RU №2475699 C2 from 20.02.2013, G01B 7/00), issued in the name of the applicant, it is recorded handwriting sample (Fig.2). This patent uses the maximum amount of initial information, analyzing the dynamics of writing handwriting (the trajectory of the writing unit for writing text - curves fluctuations writing site for axis Y(t), X(t), varying the pressure of writing unit for writing text - pressure curve P(t).

The multichannel processing the tax signal is carried out in accordance with patent No. 2469397, G06K 9/00 from 10.12.2012, issued in the name of the applicant. On the basis of a set of quantized discrete samples multichannel signal form the matrix of quantized samples (Fig.3, 4), bearing original information about the features of the writing of the text. For the formation of an identity matrix with the allocation of identification parameters spend two-dimensional discrete Haar transform, described, for example, in the book [2]. Thanks to a more complete representation of the local features of multidimensional signal, missing the Fourier series, wavelets, in particular, the Haar transform, have found practical application for analysis of subtle features of multidimensional signals. Two-dimensional discrete Haar transform includes the processing of the matrix is N×N values, where the first operations are performed with each row of the matrix, and then the same operation is performed for each column of the result. The conversion is performed according to the following method. For example, consider the matrix 4×4:

P=(1814124106881648012044 );

The first step of the two-dimensional discrete Haar transformation consists of a one-dimensional transform of each row by multiplying the matrix PW. Here we use the matrix W is orthonormal function Haar fourth order [2]:

PW=(1814124106881648012044)×14×(112011-201-1021-10-2)=(12424802073645 160);

The next step consists in performing a one-dimensional transform of each column. To do this, the transformation matrix columns transposed, then multiplied by the transform matrix, then the result is again transposed. With the same success it is possible to transpose convert matrix and multiply it by the matrix of the transformed columns:

T=((PW)T×W)T=WT×P×W.

Here the sign (...)Tmeans transpose. Thus, two-dimensional discrete transformation of the original matrix P will be:

T=WTPW=14×(111111-1-12-200002-2)×(1242480207364 5160)=(824220-2022021102).

The transformed matrix T contains the average of all elements of the original matrix in the upper left corner (8), and the remaining elements correspond to the differences. Elements, spaced further from the upper left corner correspond to more accurate level of detail, i.e. the higher frequency of elementary waves. The resulting transformations are matrix coefficients of two-dimensional discrete Haar transformation (DDP), which is used as the identification parameters for authentication. When you create a database of registered users in creation mode the master records the handwriting sample is introduced into the system access consistently specified number of times. Each of the entered tolerance handwriting analyze and memorize individually, the calculation parameter identification is carried out with the statistical eskay by validating that the received parameters in one sample. Once generated database scripts users admitted to the system - "Their", it is possible to implement authentication procedures. In the second phase, to verify the identity of any user that logs access control offer by using the above-mentioned device for measuring motion parameters of writing unit (RU # 2475699 C2 from 20.02.2013, G01B 7/00), to capture handwriting sample. Write handwriting sample is carried out repeatedly. The received multi-channel analog signal is converted into digital form. Then form the matrix of quantized samples, which is subjected to two-dimensional discrete Haar transform (detail as was shown above). The resulting matrix is used as the identity matrix and compare with identity verification with the reference matrix database users admitted to the system.

At the stage of decision on admission into the system, when performing authentication procedures as a decision rule we will use a measure of Hamming [3] the proximity of the identification parameters of the user who logs to the master database settings. The thing is that allowed in user - "My" rarely makes a mistake and, accordingly, a measure of Hamming is small. This is not the case is when trying to authenticate users, not contained in the database - "Other users". For "Stranger", unauthorized included in the system, errors are much more frequent. This allows you to decide on the admission of the audited entity in a computerized system.

After analyzing the current implementation of the vectors of the identification parameters, you can find typical user interval changes each specific identification parameter [min(xj), max(xj)]. Now if by ingestion parameter xjin the interval [min(xj),max(xj)] to assign ej=0, and on a roll of xjfrom the interval [min(xj), max(xj)] to assign ej=1, then we get a vector of Hamming [3]. For a user that is allowed into the system, this vector must be from almost all zeros. When an unauthorized entry into the system by the claimant other identification parameters, the vector of Hamming will have a lot of mismatches (many units). For this method of dynamic biometric authentication pattern recorded during multiple (more than 5-6 times) the verification procedure are the values of the minima and maxima of the measured identification parameters [3]. Then the absolute value of the Hamming distance-Ex to biometric reference user in the database, ledue is defined as the total number of deposition measurements at intervals of admissible values of the biometric pattern. It should be noted that the artificial narrowing of the intervals of admissible values leads to an increase in the probability of error of the first kind with an average size of 0.01 to 0.1, when admitted into the system the user is "Your" rejected the rule of tolerance [4]. It is also shown that the optimum is stretching the field "Your", so that it took from 20 to 40% of the region of possible values of the measure of Hamming. This ratio, on the one hand, allows to have a distribution of values of "Their" close to normal, and on the other hand, to correctly collect information security audit by observing the behavior of "us" and "them" users.

The main advantage of the proposed method in comparison with the known biometric authentication methods is as follows:

- authentication method signature is the usual way the motor manifestations of the dynamic characteristics of the individual;

the handwriting is not alienated from the person, since each person, as each character inherent in private individual features in terms of the peculiarities of handwriting;

- for authentication signature is not required expensive scanner biometric information;

- the possibility of application of a new class of devices dynamic Biomet the practical identity authentication, suitable for use in all areas where it is necessary to identify the person by his signature and retrieve information related to the physiological condition of the person.

In addition, the possibility of improving information security to protect information resources from unauthorized access in existing and new information systems.

The proposed signs are essential as they ensure the achievement of a new technical result, namely provide the opportunity to make the procedure of authenticating identity more credible, independent of the conditions of writing and exclude subjectivity upon admission to the system.

LITERATURE

1. S. M. Rusakova, A. S. Komarov. Intelligent system to solve the identification problem in graphology. Artificial intelligence and decision making, No. 4/2010, S. 49-54.

2. SMOLENTSEV, N. To. Fundamentals of theory of wavelets. Wavelets in Matlab. - M.: LVR Press, 2005. 304 S.

3. Computer-aided medical diagnosis http://dvo.sut.ru/libr/biomed/i 132maka/3.htm.

4. Measurement of the proximity of the image to a biometric reference measure Hamming, publ. 30.04.2010, http://razvedka.ru/catalog/582/609/15637.htm.

1. The way dynamic biometric identity authentication according to the features of handwriting, which consists in sampling the polynomial analogue of the first signal, reproducing the dynamics of reproduction of handwritten text, the quantization of discrete samples, the formation of the matrix of quantized samples, converting it to a digital mind, according to the values of its elements calculations identity matrix, characterized in that the determination of the individual characteristics of handwriting produced by the identity matrix, obtained by two-dimensional discrete Haar transformation, this creates a base reference parameters handwriting samples of users allowed in the computerized system, in the form of interval changes each identification parameter, newly introduced to the system user identity is an identity matrix, obtained by two-dimensional discrete Haar transformation, thus calculate the maximum and minimum values of the identifiable parameters, and the decision on the admission of any user in the system is accepted, if the Hamming distance is minimum, which determine the total number of depositions of the identification parameters for the intervals of admissible values of the reference parameters of the samples of the handwriting of users admitted in the computerised system, otherwise form the message about unauthorized attempt login.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the intervals on the permissible values of the reference parameters of the samples of the handwriting of the user, made in the computerised system, artificially increased by 20-40% compared with calculated values.



 

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