Method of regulating gas flow in reducer

FIELD: rescue equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reducers of breathing apparatus. The reducer has a housing and three chamber made in it separated by the walls: high-pressure chamber (HPC) and the reduced pressure chamber (RPC), separated by the first wall, the control chamber (CC) separated with the second wall from the RPC; the seat with a hole in the first wall; the partition with a movable plunger and a valve located in the RPC, separating the CC to piston and annular cavities; first channel connecting the RPC with piston cavity of the CC; the second channel connecting the annular cavity of the CC with the environment, the third channel with a throttle, which connects the RPC with the annular cavity of the CC, a check valve connected to the second channel. The method of regulating the gas flow in the reducer comprises supplying gas to the HPC, displacement of the plunger with the valve and forming a gap between the seat and the valve; entering the gas flow from the HPC and the RPC, accordingly, to the gas consumer; entering the gas flow from the RPC to the CC through the first channel; moving the partition with the plunger and the valve under the action of the gas pressure difference on them, changing the gap between the seat and the sealing element of the valve; flowing of gas from the HPC through the third channel with a throttle in the annular cavity of the CC, moving the partition with the plunger and the valve, and changing the gap between the valve and the seat, regulation of supply and pressure of the gas entering the RPC and the consumer.

EFFECT: providing regulation of a gas flow in the reducer with the given value of the reduced pressure of gas at small amplitude of the pressure oscillations.

8 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to gas pressure regulators, in particular the gears breathing apparatus intended for lowering the pressure of the gas fed from tanks confinement.

The known method of operation of the device, reducing the pressure of the gas in the first chamber, under pressure, higher than in the second chamber, into which flows a reducible device gas (US patent No. 7093605 05.12.2002, claim US No. 2011/0100474 from 30.08.2004). The device consists of a casing divided by a partition into two chambers: the high-pressure chamber and a chamber of reduced pressure; a partition provided with an opening which has a plunger that is movable relative to the septum. Between the part surface of the plunger and the hole in the wall there is a gap, providing pressure reduction of the gas flowing from the high-pressure chamber into the chamber of low pressure. Diameter portion of the plunger, located in front of the partition corresponds to the diameter of the holes in it, and approaching the wall, can reduce and even stop the flow of gas from the high pressure chamber into the chamber of low pressure. Luggage low pressure separated by a piston connected to the plunger, two-cavity piston and podporchennuyu. Under the action of the difference of the forces from the pressure of the gas on the piston and plunger are supported is in the lower position, and the gas flows from the high-pressure chamber into the chamber of low pressure. By lowering the gas pressure acting on the piston, and if no valid additional force, the plunger moves up and closes the hole in the wall, interrupting the gas flow. To resume the flow of gas through the gap between the opening in the septum and the plunger must move the plunger with the piston down, affecting the external force. To keep the gas flow through this device, you must save the external force on the plunger or piston.

The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of maintaining a continuous flow of gas under reduced pressure without application to the plunger external forces.

The known device (patent NL No. 1022455 from 01.09.2004, claim US No. 2002/0179634 from 30.01.2002) release gas under reduced pressure. For each device it is necessary to apply a force acting on the piston or plunger, and to hold it for the required time release gas from the container.

The known method of operation of the pressure reducing valve (M. D. Golubev. Gas pressure regulators. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1964, S. 40), consisting of a body having a chamber of high pressure gas (VD), the gas chamber of the reduced pressure (EP), a partition with a hole that separates the camera VD and RD; plunger, located on Vigna in the hole walls with a gap between the surface of the hole and part of the surface of the plunger; part of the plunger serving in the camera VD, with the possibility of overlap of clearance when moving the plunger to the wall; a control chamber separated by a piston with a diaphragm connected to the plunger, the piston cavity, closed the lid, and podporchennuyu cavity; a channel connecting the camera VD with podpornoy cavity, a second partition separating the chamber RD and podporchennuyu cavity.

With the known method of operation of a pressure reducing valve to open it

- served in the piston cavity control pressure from a special source,

- move the piston and the plunger under the force created by the governing pressure acting on the piston, reducing gas flowing through the clearance between the plunger and the wall of the camera VD in the camera, KMG,

to regulate the pressure in the chamber RD, changing the control pressure of the gas supplied into the piston cavity, moving the plunger and changing the gap between the plunger and the wall,

- stop flow of gas into the chamber RD supply the control pressure in the piston cavity and connecting it with the atmosphere.

The disadvantage of this method is the need to have special equipment for feeding and regulating the control pressure.

Known gas reducer (patent RU №51761 U1 from 26.07.2005, RU # 72937 U1 dated 25.12.2007, RU # 2089773 from 25.10.1993), comprising a housing, a cover of the high-pressure chamber (ARC) gas connections inlet with filter, the camera reduced pressure (MRC) gas, the modulation chamber separated by a piston with a plunger on a two-cavity piston cavity and the annular cavity. In the casing hole connecting ARCS with MRC with edge serving MRC in the form of a conical seat, and at the end of the plunger is pressed sealing washer in contact with the saddle. MRC is connected with the piston cavity CR channel in the plunger, and with the environment channel with non-return valve. In the annular cavity between the housing and the piston installed spring, the dewatering of the plunger with the sealing washer from the valve seat and providing a connection ARC and MRC through the gap between the seat and the sealing washer, the flow through which gas is choked and enters the MRC reduced. When increased pressure in the MRC gas flows through the channel in the piston cavity and moves the piston with the plunger, reducing the gap between the seat and the sealing washer and, accordingly, the pressure in the MRC. When the magnitude of the gas pressure in the MRC more valid adjustable check valve opens, releasing the gas into the environment. In the gas reducer (patent RU №2089773) the function of the piston performs the membrane, with the plunger.

The disadvantage of this gas reducer gas supply to consumers, beginning with the pressure jump due to the presence of the maximum gap between the saddle and the upl is titelnoj washer, available in the absence of pressure in the ARC, as the spring presses the piston with the plunger, and the reduction of the gap is possible only in the presence of the ARC and MRC gas under pressure.

A similar leap of gas pressure in the MRC and the consumer occurs when the method of operation of the pressure regulators (US patent No. 7418976 from 30.08.2006 and claim US No. 2006/0137745 from 05.12.2005) and due to the presence of springs, the dewatering of the piston with the plunger from the saddle in the absence of gas pressure in the ARC and its subsequent filing in the ARC.

Known control valve (patent FR No. 2695276 from 24.09.92), which in the absence of gas pressure in the ARC gap between the seat and the sealing element is missing, because the sealing element is drawn in to the saddle of the elastic membrane and out of the saddle with the formation of the gap when the gas in the ARC. The clearance is adjusted by the difference in gas pressures acting on the sealing element from the side of the ARC portion of which flows through the first channel with the throttle in the cavity toroidal membrane and in the MRC and the other part of the gas flows from the MRC through the second channel with the throttle in the Central cavity above the sealing element, and generates a force that counteracts the increase of the gap with increasing pressure in the MRC providing pressure reduction of gas to the consumer.

The disadvantage of this method of regulation on OSU valve, with the membrane - changing elastic properties and dimensions of the membrane, leading to changes in the initial gap between the sealing element and seat and change the parameters of the regulatory process.

Known gas regulators and pressure regulators (patent RU №72936 U1 from 17.12.2007; EN 2132509 from 20.01.1998, RU # 2206116 from 06.04.2006, RU # 2237919 from 27.05.2003) having a membrane with a plunger and a fixed valve with the annular sealing element placed in the ARC.

In the method of operation of such a gas reducer spring installed between the cover and the membrane presses the valve from the seat, increasing the gap between the seat and the sealing element, and a gas under pressure beneath the membrane of the MRC through the channel connecting the MRC and the cavity under the membrane, creates a force acting on the diaphragm against the force acting on the diaphragm by a spring between the seat and sealing element.

A disadvantage of such a method of regulation that when the pressure of gas supplied to the ARC, for example, from a cylinder, there is intense pressure of gas supplied to consumers from MRC.

The known method of regulating the pressure of the gas flow in the gearbox (patent EP No. 1151364 B1 from 15.12.1999, Fig.2, 3), with

- case and made it three divided by chamber walls:

- - high pressure chamber (HPC) and the camera -- the new pressure (MRC), separated first wall;

- camera control (CU), separated by the second wall from the MRC;

- hole with a saddle placed in the first wall;

- a partition that is connected with a movable plunger through a hole in the second wall separating the CU on the piston and the annular cavity;

- connected with the plunger and placed in MRC valve with a sealing element that interacts with the saddle;

the first channel connecting the MRC with the piston cavity KR;

a second channel connecting the annular cavity under reduced pressure gas from the environment;

the third channel with the throttle connecting ARCS with the annular cavity KR;

including

- the gas in the ARC, the displacement of the plunger with a partition and the formation of a gap between the seat and sealing element of the valve;

the gas flow through the channels in the cavity KR;

- move partition with the plunger and the valve under the influence of pressure difference of the gas, increasing the gap between the seat and sealing element of the valve;

- receipt of gas flow in the MRC and, accordingly, the gas consumer;

the gas flow through the second channel with the throttle in the annular cavity KR;

- the action of pressure difference of the gas barrier;

change (increase, decrease) the flow of gas to the consumer from the RD, and the gas pressure in the MRC, causing the flow of gas between the MRC and cavities CU, moving partitions with the plunger and the valve in the direction of the resultant of all forces acting on the wall and the plunger, the change in the value of the gap between the sealing element of the valve and seat, corresponding to the displacement of the septum, as well as pressure and gas supply to consumers;

the gas release into the environment of the chambers or cavities KR connected with the environment via a second channel exceeds a given magnitude of the reduced pressure.

The disadvantage of this method of regulation is that the gas under pressure in the piston cavity KR served from MRC and ARC through the first and second channels with chokes that requires equipping the channel pressure sensors and an electronic controller, which complicates the regulation method.

The technical problem of the invention is to regulate the flow of gas in the tank at a given value of the reduced pressure gas supplied from the source to the consumer, at low amplitude pressure fluctuations.

The technical problem solved in the design of the gearbox and the method of regulating the flow of gas in the tank, having

- case and made it three divided by chamber walls:

- - high pressure chamber (HPC) and the camera reduced pressure (MRC), divided the s the first wall;

- camera control (CU), separated by the second wall from the MRC;

- hole with a saddle placed in the first wall;

- a partition with a movable plunger through a hole in the second wall separating the CU on the piston and the annular cavity;

- connected with the plunger and placed in MRC valve with a sealing element that interacts with the saddle;

the first channel connecting the MRC with the piston cavity KR;

a second channel connecting the annular cavity of the KYRGYZ Republic through the check valve with the environment;

the third channel with the throttle connecting ARCS with the annular cavity KR;

when this check valve may be adjustable, the first channel may be located in the housing and having an adjustable throttle, the third channel may also have an adjustable choke; partition can be made in the form of a piston or diaphragm;

the method of regulating the flow of gas in the described gear includes

- the gas in the ARC;

- displacement of the septum with the plunger and valve, and the education gap between the seat and sealing element of the valve;

- receipt of gas flow from the ARC through the hole in the first wall in the MRC and, accordingly, the gas consumer;

- receipt of gas flow from the MRC in the piston cavity KR or in the reverse direction through the first channel;

- move partitions with p is unserem and the valve under the action of pressure difference of the gas, changing the gap between the seat and sealing element of the valve;

change (increase, decrease) the flow of gas to the consumer of the MRC, and the gas pressure in the MRC, causing the flow of gas between the MRC and the piston cavity KR, moving partitions with the plunger and the valve in the direction of the resultant of all forces acting on the wall and the plunger, the change in the value of the gap between the sealing element of the valve and seat, corresponding to the displacement of the plunger and the pressure and flow of gas to the consumer,

thus

gas flows from the ARC through the third channel with the throttle in the annular cavity KR, creating the difference of the pressures and forces acting on the partition, move partition with the plunger and valve, changing the gap between the sealing element and seat, providing a corresponding change in the regulation of the flow and pressure of gas in the MRC.

Exceeds a given non-return valve the pressure in the annular cavity KR gas intermittently flows into the environment through the second channel and attached valve.

The technical effect of providing automatic control of a given value of the reduced pressure gas supplied from the source to the consumer at low vibration amplitude is achieved through a new sookun the particular characteristics:

gas enters the annular cavity of CU ARCS through the third channel with the throttle;

- creates the difference of the pressures and forces acting on the wall, causing it to move with the plunger and valve, the change of the gap between the sealing element and seat and corresponding to this change in the regulation of the flow and pressure of gas in the MRC.

Periodic discharge of gas into the environment via a second channel with a check valve from the annular cavity exceeds a given adjustable non-return valve the pressure in the annular cavity KR.

The set of features of the method is not found when conducting a patent information search, therefore, the technical solution meets the criterion of "novelty" and not explicitly known from the prior art, the resulting comparative test gas regulators operating in accordance with different methods, so the technical solution meets the criterion of "inventive step".

In Fig.1 shows a gas reducer valve, placed in the MRC, and the third channel with an adjustable choke.

In Fig.2 - gas gearbox to valve located in the MRC, a check valve connected to the annular cavity, and a third passage in the plunger.

In Fig.3 - gas gearbox to valve located in MRC, bratim valve, connected to the annular cavity CU, and a partition is made in the form of a membrane.

The method of regulating the flow of gas in the tank, with (Fig.1-3):

the housing 1 and is made in three divided by chamber walls:

- camera 2 high pressure (CHP) and the camera 3 reduced pressure (MRC), separated by a first wall 4;

- camera 5 regulation (CR), separated by the second wall 6 from 3 MRC;

hole 7 with the seat 8, is placed in the first wall 4;

the partition 9 in the form of a piston (Fig.1, 2) or membrane (Fig.3) with a movable plunger 10 through a hole 11 in the second wall 6 dividing CR 5 on the piston cavity 12 and the annular cavity 13;

- connected with the plunger 10 and placed in MRC 3 valve 14 with the sealing element 15, which interacts with the saddle 8;

the first channel 16A (Fig.2) or 16 (Fig.1, 3) with adjustable choke 17 connecting MRC 3 with the piston cavity 12 CR 5;

the second channel 18 connecting the annular cavity 13 CR 5 through the check valve 19 with the environment;

the third channel 20 with the choke 21 connecting ARCS 2 with the annular cavity 13 CR 5;

including

- the gas in the cell 2, the offset of the partition 9 with the plunger 10 and the valve 14 and the education gap between the seat 8 and the sealing element 15 of the valve 14;

- receipt of gas flow from the ARC 2 through the opening 7 in the first wall 4 in MRC 3 and is therefore, its, the gas consumer;

- receipt of gas flow from the MRC 3 in the piston cavity 12 CR 5 or in the opposite direction through the first channel 16;

- move the partition 9 in the form of a piston (Fig.1, 2) or membrane (Fig.3) with the plunger 10 and the valve 14 under the action of pressure difference of the gas, changing the gap between the seat 8 and the sealing element 15 of the valve 14;

change (increase, decrease) the flow of gas to the consumer of MRC 3, and the gas pressure in MRC 3, causing the flow of gas between MRC 3 and the piston cavity 12 CR 5, move partition 9 with the plunger 10 and the valve 14 in the direction of the resultant of all forces acting on the partition wall 9 and the plunger 10, the change in the value of the gap between the sealing element 15 of the valve 14 and the saddle 8, corresponding to the displacement of the plunger 10, and the pressure and flow of gas to the consumer,

thus

gas flows from the ARC 2 through the third channel 20 with the orifice 21 in the annular cavity 13 CR 5, creating the difference of the pressures and forces acting on the partition wall 9, moves the partition 9 with the plunger 10 and the valve 14, by changing the gap between the sealing element 15 and the seat 8, and providing appropriate this change in the regulation of the flow and pressure of gas in MRC 3.

Exceeds a given adjustable non-return valve 19, the pressure in the annular cavity 13 CR 5 gas is uridicheski flows into the environment through the second channel 18 and attached a check valve 19.

1. Reducer containing
- case and made it three divided by chamber walls:
- - high pressure chamber (HPC) and the camera reduced pressure (MRC), separated by a first wall;
- camera control (CU), separated by the second wall from the MRC;
- hole with a saddle placed in the first wall;
- a partition with a movable plunger through a hole in the second wall separating the CU on the piston and the annular cavity;
- connected with the plunger and placed in MRC valve with a sealing element that interacts with the saddle;
the first channel connecting the MRC with the piston cavity KR;
a second channel connecting the annular cavity KR with the environment,
characterized in that
in case there is a third channel with throttle connecting ARCS with the annular cavity KR;
a second channel connected to the check valve.

2. The gearbox under item 1, characterized in that the check valve is adjustable.

3. The gearbox under item 1, characterized in that the first channel is located in the housing and has an adjustable choke.

4. The gearbox under item 1, wherein the third channel has an adjustable choke.

5. The gearbox under item 1, characterized in that the partition is made in the form of a piston.

6. The gearbox under item 1,characterized in that the partition is made in the form of a membrane.

7. The method maintains the existence of the gas flow in the gearbox, contains:
- case and made it three divided by chamber walls:
- - high pressure chamber (HPC) and the camera reduced pressure (MRC), separated by a first wall;
- camera control (CU), separated by the second wall from the MRC;
- hole saddle, acting MRC placed in the first wall;
- a partition that is connected with a movable plunger through a hole in the second wall separating the CU on the piston and the annular cavity;
- connected with the plunger and placed in MRC valve with a sealing element that interacts with the saddle;
the first channel connecting the MRC with the piston cavity KR;
the second channel with a check valve connecting the annular cavity KR with the environment,
the third channel with the throttle connecting ARCS with the annular cavity KR;
including
- the gas in the ARC, the displacement of the septum with the plunger and valve, and the education gap between the seat and sealing element of the valve;
- receipt of gas flow from the ARC through the hole in the first wall in the MRC and, accordingly, the gas consumer;
- receipt of gas flow from the MRC in the piston cavity KR or in the reverse direction through the first channel;
- move partition with the plunger and the valve under the action of pressure difference of the gas, changing the gap between the seat and the sealing ele is entom valve;
change (increase, decrease) the flow of gas to the consumer of the MRC, and the gas pressure in the MRC, causing the flow of gas between the MRC and the piston cavity KR, moving partitions with the plunger and the valve in the direction of the resultant of all forces acting on the wall and the plunger, the change in the value of the gap between the sealing element of the valve and seat, corresponding to the displacement of the plunger and the pressure and flow of gas to the consumer,
characterized in that
gas flows from the ARC through the third channel with the throttle in the annular cavity KR, creating the difference of the pressures and forces acting on the partition, move partition with the plunger and valve, changing the gap between the sealing element and seat, providing a corresponding change in the regulation of the flow and pressure of gas in the MRC.

8. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that exceeds a given adjustable non-return valve the pressure in the annular cavity KR gas intermittently flows into the environment through the second channel and attached valve.



 

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EFFECT: possibility quickly and accurately discover dangerous zones on the surface of details.

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: process of torque measurement is based on periodic impact of measured torque μ on resonance oscillating system with threshold of sensitivity μn and frequency equal to the system resonance frequency ω. So when μ<μn, the oscillating system is brought into excited state by external force much higher than μn, then it is brought into forced-oscillation regime by the measured torque μ with a lag between it and damping system oscillations consequently taking form of Δβ=nπ, where n=0, 1, 2, .... The sought torque value is defined by the amplitude difference of these phases, Δϕn, according to the formula: where k is stiffness coefficient of oscillating system, and α is its damping rate.

EFFECT: higher measuring sensitivity.

5 dwg

FIELD: physics; measurement.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to force-measuring technology. The load measuring device, working on three mutually perpendicular axes, and moments about these axes, comprises four elastic elements, fixed to a base at corners of a square, made in form of separate bars with a cannular cross-section, on which tensoresistors are put, a rigid force transmission plate and a base, joined by elastic elements. All tensoresistors are put on elastic elements along their formations. For each measured load, two tensoresistors are put on each elastic element. Tensoresistors are put on diametrically opposite sides of the elastic element. The centres of the tensoresistors for measuring loads, lying in the plane of the force transmission plate on all four elastic elements lie in the same plane, parallel to the plane of the force transmission plates. The centres of tensoresistors for measuring loads, perpendicular to the plane of the force transmission plate, as well, lie in the same plane, parallel to the plane of the force transmission plate.

EFFECT: increased accuracy and wider range of load measurements.

4 dwg

FIELD: physics, measurements.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to methods for detection of residual stresses in axisymmetric tubular products after plastic deformation. Available experimental method is used to identify tangential residual stress in surface layer of tubular product, value of which is used to detect distribution of residual stresses in the whole section of tubular product by the following formulas:

where σr, σθ, σz are accordingly radial, tangential and axial residual stresses; is value of tangential residual stress in surface layer of tubular product; R1 and R2 are accordingly external and internal radiuses of pipe; is nondimensional parametre, which characterises relative thickness of pipe wall; r is radial coordinate; µ is Poisson ratio of pipe material.

EFFECT: improved accuracy and expansion of method potential by determination of all components of residual stress tensor in the whole section of axisymmetric tubular products.

Dynamometre // 2370738

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: dynamometre has a torque sensor, a weighting device and a unit for connecting the sensor to the weighting device. The weighting device is in form of two support bearings, each with two rings. The support bearings are in line, the ring of one of them is in contact with the ring of the other and these rings are joined together, and the unit for connecting the sensor with the weighting device is on the joined bearing rings. The torque sensor can be made in form of a flexible rod, which grasps the joined bearing rings and is attached by one end to the said rings, and a dynamometre, connected to the second end of the rod. The dynamometre measures load on different types of mine working supports.

EFFECT: possibility of monitoring manifestation of rock pressure on places with combined support with high accuracy.

2 cl, 2 dwg

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