Combination tool for primary tillage
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agricultural engineering, in particular to the combination tillage tools with replaceable working bodies. The combined tillage tool consists of a frame (1) of hinged colter-mouldboard plough, a support wheel (2) with the mechanism (3) of tillage depth control, replaceable working bodies: blade cultivator hoes (4) or the plough housings. The operating width of the blade cultivator hoe (4) is equal to twice the operating width of the plough housing. The tool has a disc section (6). The disc section (6) has an operating width equal to the overall width of the plough housings. When the tool is equipped with the blade cultivator hoes (4) the additional disc section (7) is mounted behind them, as well as the extender (11) of the frame with the additional odd-numbered bracket for mounting the last blade cultivator hoe (4). The disc sections are mounted on the offset beams (8) and rigidly fixed relative to the frame (1). The disc sections (6 and 7) have the tillage depth control mechanism (9) and the mechanism (10) of changing the angle of attack.
EFFECT: design implementation of tool provides high quality of primary soil tillage and enables to improve the energy efficiency of the basic treatment due to the more efficient use of power of traction vehicle.
3 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to agricultural machinery, in particular to a combined tillage tools with interchangeable working elements.
Known combined instrument for primary tillage on the basis of the hinged Lemeshko-dump plow MO-8-35, comprising a frame, a plow body, the support wheel with a mechanism for regulating the working depth, disk partition located behind the removable working bodies for primary tillage and attached to the chassis by a hinge. On the frame of the gun instead of the plow packages can be installed soil working bodies for subsurface soil. The depth of tillage is regulated by changing the position of the wheels relative to the frame of the plow (Mazitov N. To. Machine Pochvovedenie agriculture. - M.: Rosselchozizdat, 1987. - S. 84-5).
The lack of guns is the instability of the depth of stroke of the working bodies in the subsurface soil, as in the field, different uneven microrelief surface, due to gaps in the system mounting the guns on the tractor when there is a single point of support (the support wheel of the plow and the hinge mounting on the frame of the disk partitions periodically is invalid for the agricultural requirements of meglumine or the depth of the working bodies, because of which the quality of the subsurface formation is otci is unsatisfactory, when using the working bodies for subsurface treatment on heavy compacted soils impossible to achieve the desired according to agroterrorism on the main tillage degree crumbling soil without additional operations to be processed by the upper layer of the soil. In addition, when installing the working bodies for subsurface soil reduced the capacity level of the traction means, which increases the specific fuel consumption.
The closest in technical essence and essential features of the claimed device is a tillage tool that contains a frame mounted Lemeshko-dump plow with the hinge device, the support wheel with a mechanism for regulating the working depth, exchangeable bodies: the plow body or ploskostnye feet with width equal to twice width of the plough body that makes better use of the pulling power of the tractor, so as subsurface soil treatment less energy-intensive (korshikov A. D. techniques and technologies for slope lands. - Kirov: agricultural research Institute of the North-East, 2003. - S. 98-9).
The disadvantage of this gun is the low quality of soil as in no-till system processing due to the instability depth course ploskoreznyh paws, as in field conditions, different uneven ICRI is the elevation of the surface, because of gaps in the system mounting the guns on the tractor when there is a single point of support (the support wheel of the plow) periodically is invalid for the agricultural requirements of meglumine or the depth of the working bodies, and when plowing, due to the fact that the layers of the soil after treatment Lemeshko-otvajnym plow, especially on heavy loamy, clayey and Saturnalia soils, to give them the required degree of crumbling under the agricultural requirements require additional processing (including the harrowing disc harrow). In addition, when used as the frame of the instrument frame Lemeshko-dump plow with an even number of affected buildings is impossible to achieve an acceptable load factor power traction means due to the fact that subsurface soil treatment one-third less energy-intensive than plowing, and to fully utilize the power of the tractor width guns with ploskoreznyh legs must be greater than the width of the capture gun, equipped with a snow plow buildings.
The invention is aimed at solving the following tasks: improving the quality of primary tillage combined instrument on the base frame Lemeshko-dump plow and energy efficiency primary tillage combined instrument with ploskoreznyh legs due to more complete COI is whether the power of the traction device.
The problem is solved due to the fact that the combined tillage tools, containing a frame mounted Lemeshko-dump plow, a supporting wheel mechanism to adjust the depth with interchangeable attachments: plow body or ploskostnye feet, while the width ploskoreznaja feet equal to twice width of the plough body, according to the invention, behind the plow buildings installed disk section lumiline, the width of which is equal to the total width of the plow blocks, and the disk unit of lumilikha rigidly fixed relative to the frame and has a mechanism for adjusting the depth and angle of attack, when using instead of snow buildings ploskoreznyh paws on the frame of the gun is attached extra storage section, the width of which is equal to the difference between the total width of ploskoreznyh feet and a width of the main disk partition lumilikha. When using as a frame of the combined frame guns mounted Lemeshko-dump plow with an even number of working bodies of her set the extension frame with additional odd bracket last ploskoreznaja paws.
The main tillage ploskoreznyh paws improved because of the increased stability of the working stroke the authorities depth as the combined instrument is equipped with disk partitions lumilikha a total width of not less than the total width ploskoreznyh legs rigidly fixed relative to the frame, which due to the vertical reaction of the soil, push the spherical disks from the soil, are the second anchor point tools along with the supporting wheel, and also carry out additional loosening of the top soil layer, which is particularly useful when processing heavy dry soil. The main tillage plow buildings is improved due to the additional destruction of the layers of the soil disk partition, which significantly increases the degree of crumbling soil.
Installation the instrument is equipped ploskoreznyh paws in addition to basic disk partition used in conjunction with plow buildings, additional sections, the width of which is equal to the difference between the total width of ploskoreznyh feet and a width of the main disk partition lumiline, ensures compliance of the width of the main tillage ploskoreznyh feet width processing topsoil disk partitions, thereby improving the quality of treatment in General, due to the impossibility of motion of the disk partitions on untilled field, which leads to villablino guns, or re-grinding of the upper layer, di is the same sections.
When the primary tillage combined instrument with ploskoreznyh paws produces deep loosening of soil and surface processing layers loosened soil disk partitions. When rigid fixation disk partitions with respect to the frame of the plow specified depth of soil and the stability of the progress on the depth of interchangeable working bodies for subsurface soil provides support wheel of the plow and disk sections lumilikha. The presence of two points of support located on both sides of the frame of the plow, can significantly reduce fluctuations in the depth of stroke of the working bodies. The position change disk partitions vertically relative to the frame and change their angle of attack relative to the direction of motion of the combined tools allow optimal selection of buoyancy disk partitions required to improve the stability of depth course ploskoreznyh paws. In addition, the presence of disk partitions provides additional process steps of loosening the topsoil. Depending on the type of disk working bodies installed on disk partitions and disk angle of attack of the section is carried out, in addition to primary tillage, shelling or harrowing the soil, which improves soil treatment in General, you can reduce the quantity is STV weeds, and contributes to a better decomposition of plant residues.
When the primary tillage combined instrument with plow buildings produces otvalnuyu tillage and additional cutting layers of soil disk partitions, which significantly increases the degree of crumbling soil, i.e. the quality of the soil. This is particularly necessary on heavy loamy, clayey and Saturnalia soils, where to make them appropriate agronomic requirements of the degree of crumbling necessary to carry out additional processing of the plowed soil.
The combination of the above essential features provides a solution to the task and determines the high quality primary tillage carried out by a combination tillage tool.
Due to the fact that the main tillage ploskoreznyh paws less energy-intensive than tillage plow buildings, using as a frame of combined tillage implements frame mounted Lemeshko-dump plow with an even number of working bodies, width guns with ploskoreznyh paws increased due to the installation of the extension frame with additional odd bracket ploskoreznaja paws. This makes better use of the pulling power of the tractor, which significantly increases the energy efficiency of primary tillage is kombinirovannym instrument with ploskoreznyh paws.
Thus, the set of essential features with regard to private predominant form of constructive execution frame of the instrument will result in the preferred form of execution of the combined tillage tools that will provide high quality primary tillage combined instrument on the base frame Lemeshko-dump plow and energy efficiency primary tillage combined instrument with ploskoreznyh legs due to more fully utilize the capacity of the traction device.
In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of a combined tillage tools, equipped ploskoreznyh paws, Fig. 2 - scheme of combined tillage implements, plow equipped buildings.
Combination tillage tool consists of a frame 1 mounted Lemeshko-dump plow, supporting wheels 2 with a mechanism for regulating the depth of tillage 3, shift working bodies: ploskoreznyh paws 4 (Fig. 1) or plow buildings 5 (Fig. 2). Disk section 6 and additional disk section 7 installed when the primary tillage tool with ploskoreznyh paws to ensure full coverage of disk partitions width ploskoreznyh feet, are located behind the removable working bodies on external beams 8 and rigidly fixed attributes is the super frame of the plow 1. Disk sections 6 and 7 have a mechanism for regulating the working depth of 9 to change the position of the disk section vertically relative to the frame of the plow and the mechanism for changing the angle of attack of 10 relative to the direction of movement.
When using as a frame of the combined frame guns mounted Lemeshko-dump plow with an even number of working bodies for the implementation of subsurface primary tillage is placed on it the extension 11 of the frame with additional odd bracket last ploskoreznaja paws.
Combination tillage tool works in the following way. Depending on the type installed on the frame 1 interchangeable working bodies is the appropriate form of primary tillage. When installed on the frame 1 plough buildings 5 is main moldboard tillage with additional cutting layers of soil disk section 6. When installed on the frame 1 ploskoreznyh paws 4 is the primary tillage in the form of loosening the soil to a predetermined depth with surface tillage disk section 6 and additional disk section 7.
The depth of primary tillage is set by the position of the supporting wheels 2 through the mechanism of regulation of depth 3 depth disk harrowing or peeling - mechanismo the regulation of the working depth 9, and the angle of attack of disk partitions - mechanism changes the angle of attack of 10. In addition, rigidly fixed relative to the frame 1 disk partitions 6 and 7 are additional support combined tools that significantly improves the uniformity of the depth of tillage ploskoreznyh paws 4.
Thus, the use of combined tillage tools in comparison with the prototype allows to improve the quality of primary tillage combined instrument on the basis of a frame mounted Lemeshko-dump plow and to improve the energy efficiency of primary tillage combined instrument with ploskoreznyh legs due to more fully utilize the capacity of the traction device.
1. Combination tillage tool that contains a frame mounted Lemeshko-dump plow, a supporting wheel mechanism to adjust the depth of processing, which has exchangeable bodies: the plow body or ploskostnye feet, while the width ploskoreznaja feet equal to twice width of the plough body, characterized in that behind the plow buildings installed disk section lumiline, the width of which is equal to the total width of the plow blocks, and the disk unit of lumilikha rigidly fixed relative to the frame and has a mechanism for adjusting the depth of the soil is s and angle of attack.
2. Combination tillage tool under item 1, characterized in that when using instead of snow buildings ploskoreznyh legs of the frame has extra storage section, the width of which is equal to the difference between the total width of ploskoreznyh feet and a width of the main disk partition lumilikha.
3. Combination tillage tool on p. 2, characterized in that when using a frame mounted Lemeshko-dump plow with an even number of working bodies of her set the extension frame with additional odd bracket last ploskoreznaja paws.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises milling the soil as strips. The soil of milled strip is subjected to separation. Unseparated part of the soil is subjected to impact action, followed by separation, accompanied by crushing of undisrupted clumps of soil on the rods and pushing them into the gaps between the rods of the separating grid. The device comprises a milling drum, a rear rotor the separating grid located behind it. The working bodies of the rear rotor are made in the form of rubber blades. The blades strike the clumps falling on a wide plate fastening the rods of the separating grid.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of agronomically valuable aggregates over the entire thickness of the treated land.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: rotary subsoil cultivator comprises a frame with a connecting device, the driveless ripper working bodies installed in series, forcibly rotating rotor with teeth on the horizontal shaft, the rotor drive mechanisms, and a compactor. The ripper working bodies are made in the form of spherical discs. The discs are mounted with an angle of attack in front of the rotor teeth and are facing with the convex to the longitudinal axis of the subsoil cultivator. The diameter of the rotor is at least one and a half times greater than the diameter of the discs. The discs are arranged above the lower line of the rotor body of revolution by an amount exceeding not less than half the radius of the disc. The devices for connection of the discs with the frame are made with elastic elements. The compactor is made with adjustable limitation of lifting height. The rotor teeth are provided with replaceable cutting devices. The discs are made adjustable in height and fixed on the spring-loaded or spring racks.
EFFECT: reduction of energy consumption of loosening the soil by rotary subsoil cultivator and cost of power to the rotor drive, providing sustainable performance of processing the agricultural backgrounds with weed vegetation.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to vegetable farming. The method is implemented by means of laying of milled soil for the formed furrows to the surface of unprocessed soil. For long-term provision of cultivated crop with accessible (capillary) water entering the soil mass with capillary porosity, formed within a long period after qualitative autumn treatment the dried surface layer of this mass id destructed and removed. Meanwhile newly formed surface layer additionally compacted, that prevents to excessive loss of capillary water. The soil with non-capillary porosity hard-worked on the usual mass making side slopes and sowing layer, forming the hole soil mass as a furrow slice. The device includes the power shaft, fixed on the frame, with interspaces between milling drums with covers, shaping furrow slices. Meanwhile it is equipped with chains fixed on the driving shaft in interspaces between the milling drums.
EFFECT: group of inventions allows to prevent an excessive loss of capillary water and for a long time to provide the cultivated crops with accessible water.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises cutting, crumbling of the treated soil layer, the layer turnover, the destruction of "plough pan" and formation of slits with the inter-slit distance of 70-90 cm. When crumbling the upper part of the treated layer its turnover is carried out in both directions with respect to the rack of the working body and movement to the field surface with the formation of cavities in the passage ways of the working bodies to form a ridge on the untreated part of the field surface. Then with the working bodies of the second row the process of formation of cavities is repeated. Then with the working bodies of the following rows cutting, crumbling of the untreated surface of the field to greater depth is carried out, moving it into the formed cavities and forming slits. Then the surface of the field is levelled. The tool comprises a frame consisting of longitudinal and transverse beams. The frame is provided with replaceable working bodies located to form parallel rows, enabling treatment of soil over the entire working width of the tool. The working bodies are made in the form of removable A-blades mounted on the rack, consisting of right and left ploughshares in the direction of motion. The ploughshares are made of triangular or quadrangular form, located with displacement of the cutting edges and have mouldboards. The working bodies are fixed to the longitudinal beams of the frame using the racks. The left and right ploughshares are mounted with displacement of 0.5-1.5 width of the ploughshare relative to each other horizontally and are located at an angle of 20-35° to the horizontal and 30-55° to the vertical planes. The cutting edges of the ploughshares are formed with displacement of 0-30 mm relative to each other vertically. On the rack of the working body over the ploughshares the right and left mouldboards are mounted at an angle of 25-50° relative to the side part of the rack in the horizontal plane and at an angle of 25-40° relative to the front part of the rack in the vertical plane. The lower edges of the mouldboards are made with the cutting at an angle of 20-40° relative to the horizontal plane. In the front part of the rack at the junction place of the left and right mouldboards the fairing is mounted made of a rod with the cross-section of a circle or part of a circle, corresponding to the length of conjugation of the mouldboards from the upper part of one of the ploughshares to the upper part of conjugation of the mouldboards. Two last rows of the working bodies consist of a rack, a fairing and a chisel, fixed through the side slot on the front part of the rack of the working body, which is attached to the equalizer by means of brackets. The working bodies of each of the next row are located with displacement with respect to the working bodies of the previous row.
EFFECT: technology and constructive implementation enable to improve the quality of soil treatment and to reduce the tractive resistance.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: tool comprises a first row and a second row, located behind it, of earthmoving working bodies and at least one row of discs for forming soil. The adjacent working bodies of the first row are located at a first distance from each other, and the adjacent working bodies of the second row are located at a second distance from each other. The row of discs for forming soil is located behind the second row of earthmoving working bodies. The adjacent discs are located not at equal distance. The distance between the adjacent discs is greater or smaller depending on the fact whether the distance is located between the adjacent discs behind the working body of the first row or behind the working body of the second row. According to a second embodiment the tools of the earthmoving working bodies of the first and second rows are located at a predetermined distance from each other. The third embodiment of the tool provides location of the earthmoving working bodies of the first and second rows at equal distance, designed to form the first and second groups of recessions and groups of berms in the soil, at equal distance from each other. Each of the recesses in the second group of recesses is located approximately centrally of the corresponding berm from the group of berms and between the adjacent recesses of the first group of recesses. The second group of recesses is deeper than the first group of recesses. The discs for forming soil are designed for forming the first and second groups of recesses and berms to ensure the equal release of soil.
EFFECT: constructive implementation enables to ensure uniformity of location of recesses on the surface of the treated area, which enables to retain moisture in the soil and to facilitate sowing of seeds.
20 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: on the frame the working members for soil treatment are fixed. The support wheels have swing arms and are equipped with ground cleaners in the form of the metal plates. The swing arms of support wheels are equipped with brackets with holes. Cleaners are installed on brackets with a possibility of regulation through the holes in brackets of the angle of their setup with reference to the direction of the unit motion. The value of the angle of setup of the cleaners with reference to the direction of the unit motion does not exceed the value of the angle of steel-soil friction with the humidity.
EFFECT: lowering of traction resistance of the unit.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agricultural machine industry, in particular to rotary tillers. The tiller contains hinge, rotor, central conic and board reducers, protective cover, holding tank. The holding tank is made as a lattice bucket. In the bottom of the tank an unloading hatch and support beam with raning roller on hallow stands. Inside the hollow stands the pushers with springs are installed. On the roller axle the protuberances are provisioned. The protuberances interact with pushers and shake the holding tank at motion.
EFFECT: qualitative loosening of soil and its solid lamps, and also their final elimination from the field surface is ensured.
SUBSTANCE: multifunctional plow for primary tillage comprises a frame with support height-adjustable wheels, a hinge system. The frame comprises a carrier beam fixedly located at an angle of 45° to the direction of movement, with chisels mounted on it. The chisels are made in the form of a circular pipe with the end and the cut curved radially, closed by chisel of elliptical shape with hard-alloy welding. Parallel to the carrier beam an additional beam is located. On the platform of the additional beam welded on the edge the electrical drive is mounted. The electrical drive is kinematically connected to the racks placed with the ability of rotation on the additional beam, located behind the chisels. The racks are welded to the spherical discs equipped with eccentricities and rings with a parallelogram cross-section. The rings are sharpened and mounted on circumference of the spherical disc and with the ability of rotation on its axis.
EFFECT: enhanced functionality and performance capabilities of the device, reducing labour costs for re-equipment, reduction of energy costs, and improvement of quality of soil treatment.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: tiller comprises frame with trailer supported by two rear pneumatic wheels. Fenders are articulated with the frame while packing sections are staggered with frontal overlap. Packing sections consists of frames with bearing assemblies and shafts. Two pneumatic wheels are fitted on the frame via levers secured to the frame from below and interconnected by the beam. Fenders are arranged at the frame to displace upward. Wheels are fitted at outer ends of the fenders. Fenders are connected with the frame via suspensions and lifting levers. Lifting levers are connected via hydraulic cylinders with levers of the wheels. Frame lifting relative to pneumatic wheels is limited by posts with the frame retaining pins at transport position. Packing section shafts are equipped with helical strips of width a secured at spacing C and pitch t to make angle δ with generatrix describing the cylindrical surface of packing section in diameter D. Inclination of helical strip projection on whatever surface extending through section axis to their axes makes β. Section frames are mounted on the frame and fenders via parallelogram mechanisms and turn-buckles and crossbars to make packing sections located behind the fenders to cover the wheels fitted at edges of said fenders. All packing sections are located at angle α between tiller direction and perpendicularly to section axes diverted to the side of angle β for complete compaction of field under crop. Angle α is defined by relationship:
EFFECT: higher quality of tillage.
SUBSTANCE: tiller comprises a frame with milling drum fixed on it. The milling drum consists of sections with cutting knives. Behind the milling drum the sieving grid is mounted. The tiller is equipped with an additional milling drum with sections of ripping chisel blades. The additional milling drum is mounted in front of the main milling drum. The tiller is equipped with a smooth roller-compactor mounted behind the main milling drum. The main milling drum sections are formed with L-shaped long and short blades. The blades of additional milling drum sections are placed evenly in chequered order under acute differently directed angle to the horizontal plane in the vertical-transverse plane to the surface of the field.
EFFECT: improved performance capabilities.
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves shallow plowing, deep basic tillage and surface tillage (cultivation) of soil by cutting furrows; after harvesting of cereals, performing simultaneously shallow plowing, surface tillage of soil to depth of up to 16 cm, crushing of soil lumps, compacting, leveling and mulching of soil top layer; in September, providing deep tillage of soil on fields arranged on slopes with gradient exceeding 5 deg while forming vertical slits to depth of 40 cm and inclined slits; simultaneously with slitting procedure, forming water-accumulating vessels, holes and intermittent furrows. Apparatus has hitch, carrier wheels, bearing system and replaceable working tools in the form of disk batteries, flat narrow hoes, rippers with chisel, ring-and-serrated roller, and leveling drum. Blades of leveling drum are arranged at an angle α=30 deg relative to drum axis.
EFFECT: reduced soil erosion and provision for retention of moisture in soil root layer.
3 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, minimal tillage of soil for cultivation of farm crops on farm and home plots.
SUBSTANCE: method involves deep mellowing, disking and rotavation of surface layer by combining local deep mellowing of soil to 25-32 cm depth and disking by semi-helical mellowing by means of out-of-phase spherical half-disks of intermediate mid layer disposed at 14-32 cm depth and rotavation of upper layer by means of L-shaped knives to 8-12 cm depth, said processes being effectuated in single cycle. Disking is provided by shifting of layer under process at an angle of attack in direction opposite to direction of backward motion of unit by means of one "from the right to the left" type half disk and backward motion by means of other "from the left to the right" type half disk from mid portion of full width of paired half disks. Deep mellowing is provided along longitudinal axis of symmetry of tractor in front of one pair of paired half disks, which is united with L-shaped cutter knives, and along passage tracks of tractor propeller before batteries of two pairs of paired out-of-phase half disks.
EFFECT: improved quality of soil tillage, substantially reduced draft and stabilized depth of advancement of tillage tools in longitudinal-vertical plane of movement of tillage unit.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, presowing tillage of soil.
SUBSTANCE: combined tillage tool has frame equipped with transport and carrier wheels and composed of central and side sections connected with one another through mechanism providing transfer from operating position to transport position and vice versa. Working tools are mounted in succession on frame, said tools are A-hoes, paired disk-type levelers and spiral-rod multithread paired front and rear rollers. Front rollers are pivotally connected with frame central and side sections for adjustment of their position in vertical plane. Rear rollers are pivotally connected with front roller bars and spring-loaded. Combined tool of such construction allows soil to be prepared for sowing of cereal crops.
EFFECT: provision for employment of tillage tool on different types of soils without necessity of additional readjustment, improved preparing of soil, increased efficiency, reduced labor intensity and power consumption, and reduced metal usage.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, agricultural engineering, pharmaceutical, confectionery, canned food, chemical, perfume, food-processing, tobacco industry and some special branches of industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mowing and grinding licorice vegetative buds and accompanying plants in association of low-productivity licorice undergrowth by means of haying machines to produce cuttings; while mowing, uniformly distributing ground mass over surface of mown strip; providing marker lines and placing planting material in narrow strips at predetermined spacing, with high-quality cuttings of 4-5 years licorice rootages of 12-18 mm diameter and 18-25 cm length being used as planting material; mellowing strips and cutting inclined slits by means of tillage tool; during advancement of machine, moving planting material into inclined slits; simultaneously with planting of cuttings, providing grooves for receiving of mineral fertilizer in surface of inclined wall of slit by means of slitter tine equipped with tiered cutters made in the form of rectangular parallelepipeds; placing nitrogenous fertilizer at norm of 0.2-0.6 kg/running meter in upper tier and phosphorous fertilizer at norm of 1.3-1.8 kg/running meter in middle tier; introducing into lower layer potash fertilizer at norm of 0.8-1.6 kg/running meter for development of plants at second and third years of life; after introducing of mineral fertilizer and placing of cuttings, compacting mellowed strips above inclined slits by means of ring-lug roller sections. Nozzle of pneumatic pipeline is arranged above each cutter. Each pneumatic pipeline is individually connected with seeding unit for withdrawal from fertilizer box of nitrogenous, phosphorous or potash fertilizer. Seeding units are kinematically connected with supporting wheel. Each pneumatic pipeline of tine-cutter is connected with pressure cavity of high-pressure fan equipped with hydraulic drive.
EFFECT: increased yield of green mass and provision for applying of mineral fertilizer to different soil depth.
3 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, soil tillage equipment used for cultivation of farm crops.
SUBSTANCE: tillage machine has frame, rake-type grid adapted for distributing straw over field in windrow spacings. Supporting-driving roller is arranged behind rake-type grid and is adapted for cutting part of straw by means of spines and for deepening cut straw into soil to plowing depth. Upon exit from under roller, straw is ground and mixed with soil. Rotavation drum knives provide for mellowing of soil behind roller. During operation with wet soil, roller spines and rotavation drum knives are mutually cleaned since said knives are positioned between said spines. Roller spines are made in the form of triangles whose one side is oriented in radial direction and other side is extending tangentially to roller circumference.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, uniform distribution of straw from straw windrows followed with grinding and embedding of ground straw, and improved quality of tillage.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for basic cultivation of solonetz soil in closed furrow mode and for surface cultivation of soil by rotavation method.
SUBSTANCE: tillage tool has frame, share, tiered rotavation drums disposed behind share and equipped with knives, drive mechanism made in the form of reducer and adapted for driving of rotavation drums, and seeding unit. Lower part of reducer is deepened into soil together with rotavation drums, which are adapted for rotation in opposite directions. Rotavation drums are arranged in spaced relation with respect to one another, rotate at equal angular speeds and have unequal diameters, with total value of diameters exceeding thickness of soil layer under tillage process. Share is positioned in front of rotavation drums and is deepened to depth equal to half the thickness of soil layer under tillage process. Gas distributing device disposed immediately behind share is connected through filter with exhaust pipe of tractor engine. Ratio of rotavation drum diameters, distance between axes of rotation of rotavation drums and angular offset are set in accordance with respective dependence.
EFFECT: improved quality of basic tillage of solonetz soil.
FIELD: agriculture and agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves compacting soil and imparting rough surface thereto during licorice postharvest period; cutting into agronomically valuable fractions of large lumps and soil aggregates while continuously advancing on strip surface and on slopes in the vicinity of ditch; moving soil therefrom into mid portion of ditch during strip soil compaction and forming groove-type drain with water-distributing slot along its axis; during extraction of licorice raw material, grinding 3-7% of root mass into 10-25 cm long pieces with one-five dormant auxiliary buds and leaving in mid portion of layer of strip to be harvested. Machine for extraction of licorice roots has frame, carrier wheels and undercutting device mounted on H-shaped bar and coupled to frame for automatic displacement into transport position. Drive members are disposed in longitudinal beams of H-shaped bar, which is additionally fixed on frame through variable length tie-rods. Machine is further equipped with toothed rotor driven from tractor. At least one of teeth located on mid portion of rotor is provided with replaceable knife, which is arranged on peripheral part of tooth, is made of inversion type and is provided with blade. Ratio of blade and rotor lengths is within the range of (0.03-0.07):1. Knife is mounted at tooth end by means of shaft and cut-off pin.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in rehabilitating population of licorice of local ecotypes in natural brushes and on long-term licorice plantations, reduced time intervals between harvesting periods, increased yield of epiterranean buds and improved productivity of raw licorice material.
7 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, tools for continuous tillage of soil.
SUBSTANCE: tillage tool has hitch tongue, frame, carrier wheels, levelers, two-raw covering rollers, mechanism for turning of transport wheels, and frame folding device. Transport wheel turning mechanism has hydraulic cylinder fixed on rotary bracket with adjustable thrust and connected with wheel crank shaft. Crank shaft is coupled to double-armed lever through bar, intermediate lever and tie-rod of adjustable length. Double-armed lever is coupled to hitch tongue through bar. Frame folding device is composed of hydraulic cylinder, lever and bar of variable length. The latter is connected through elongated slot to side section of frame.
EFFECT: improved quality of soil tillage and wider operational capabilities.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for interrow cultivation and feeding of tilled crops.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has wheeled tractor and cultivator-hiller connected to tractor. Hiller has hitch, wheeled frame and sections provided with wheels and working tools and attached to frame. Tractor has synchronous drive for power shaft. Transmission mechanism mounted on frame is adapted for transmitting torque from power shaft to sections wheels. Transmission ratio of transmission mechanism complies with dependence w1/w2=d2/d1, where w1 is angular velocity of tractor drive wheels; w2 is angular velocity of sections wheels; d1 is rolling diameter of tractor drive wheels; d2 is rolling diameter of sections wheels. Sections wheels are equipped with blades defining double-sided angle with plane extending through blade base tangential to section wheel, and disks dividing blades into two in vertical plane. During advancement of apparatus, reactive force is applied to blades by soil in direction of advancement of apparatus, said force forming motive force on sections wheels, which is transmitted to hitch. Such construction reduces resistance of soil to advancement of apparatus owing to transverse dividing of soil by means of blades and dividing of soil along spacing by means of disk. The result is that draft of apparatus is reduced to widen capabilities of pull-type tractors of class 0.9 or lower class on combining of said tractors with sectioned cultivator-hiller.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, wider operational capabilities, the ability of increasing the number of sections, and provision for avoiding slippage of tractor drive wheels.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for soil tillage.
SUBSTANCE: combined tillage tool has front and rear modules with batteries of spherical and needle-type disks longitudinally arranged in pairs on pivotal three-sectioned frames. Needle-type disks are mounted on rear module. Frame module connection is formed as pivotal spherical joint adjustable in vertical plane. Flat hoes are staggered behind spherical disks in three rows, with minimal admissible distance between disk battery and flat hoe being determined from equation:
where Vm is velocity of machine; g=9.81 m/s; fs is soil friction coefficient; α is angle of attack of battery disks; ψ is soil shear angle; a1 is disk battery depth; a is flat hoe depth. Rear module is provided with second pair of supporting wheels adjustable in vertical plane and arranged between needle-type batteries.
EFFECT: reduced power consumption and improved quality of soil tillage.
2 cl, 2 dwg