Plasma accelerator

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: plasma accelerator is designed to generate traction when moving space objects and for producing composite powders, sputtering and processing materials. Sections of the anode of the accelerator are made from flat pipes with outlets for feeding a working medium through the anode. The pipes are arranged with the width in a radial plane with a gap between each other and are directed along an axis. The outlets are directed an angle of less than 90° to the axis of the accelerator. The working surface of the anode is formed by ends of the outlets with openings. The bases of the pipes are hermetically connected to a collector. The collector and the inlet of the working medium are mounted on a current lead. The distance from the face of the cathode to the outlets is greater than half the diameter of the anode. A neutral shield is mounted outside the anode.

EFFECT: high efficiency of the accelerator.

6 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of space technology and can be used as electroplasma motor for moving space objects and plasma technology for the production of powders, spraying and materials processing plasma.

Known accelerator plasma Ion and plasma installation, GOS. Committee on atomic energy of the USSR, Collections No. 20, 21 "electric motor with high specific impulse" (review of the foreign press since 1958 till 1964); Ducati, A. C."Study of the Factors Affecting the Efficiency in Termal Acceleration of Propellants", Sixth Quarterly Technical Report No. 6GS-113-1161 to AFOSR under contract 49(698)-l 161.oct 1963; "High Speciefic Impulse Termo-Jonic Acceleration PRe-114-a, G. Giannini Scientific Corporation, Dec. 1963 (a recent abstract has, ban published asa technical note in the AIAA Journal August 1964) (similar); containing a centrally located cathode, radially segmented anode with an adjustable supply current to each section, a supply of the working fluid through the cathode and insulators.

The disadvantage of this accelerator are the impossibility of overcoming the crisis of the regime, which is characterized by a surge voltage discharge, low efficiency, specific impulse and low resource. The large size of the sections and adjustable current supply to each section make it difficult to achieve uniform current distribution across the working surface of the anode. The deficiency of the working fluid in the area of the anode current increases when the result in localization of the discharge within one section, the proportion which is sufficient for its destruction, which reduces the resource of the accelerator. Compulsory regulation of the current through the ballast resistor on each section of the anode complicates the design of the accelerator and reduces its reliability.

Known plasma accelerator "research and Development of promising electrode assemblies magnetoplasma engines", 2009, MAI, Moscow; PhD K. T. N. Sysoev, D. C., Major 05. 07. 05 (prototype) containing a centrally located cathode with a supply of the working fluid, a tungsten anode, consisting of external monolithic part and the inner section in the form of wires directed free ends in the direction of the cathode, with a supply current to them on a section of the anode through an external monolithic piece, the delivery system of the working fluid in the form of plasma through the gaps between the anode wires and insulators.

The disadvantage of this accelerator are the inability to work on a crisis mode, which is characterized by a sharp increase in the voltage of the discharge, low efficiency, specific impulse and low resource. With increasing current, the plasma is supplied through the gaps between the sections of the wires of the anode to the base of the cathode, is implemented at the beginning of the cathodic plasma column, which tends to compress. The concentration of particles in the area of the anode is reduced. Distributed discharge is not charged on the sections of the wire is to be brought for a slice of the anode, located on a monolithic part of the anode and destroys the current supply to sections of the wires. It is therefore impossible to reach crisis mode with a higher voltage, without which it is impossible to achieve high specific impulse and efficiency of the accelerator.

The aim of the invention is to improve the efficiency, specific impulse and resource accelerator plasma by switching to a crisis mode. This is achieved by the fact that the sections of the anode is made of directed along the axis of the accelerator flat tubes with branches located wide part in a radial plane with a gap between them; the branches are angled at less than 90° to the axis of the accelerator; the free ends of the branches with holes formed discrete, for example, a cylindrical working surface of the anode; a first branch with a length equal to its width, installed at a distance of more than half of the diameter of the anode from the cathode cut, length of the remaining branches is increased in proportion to their number; the flow area of the orifice tube is equal to or greater than the sum of the flow areas of inlets; the base of the tubes are sealed and connected with the reservoir, the housing of which a supply of the working fluid thereto executed by supplying current to the anode; the outside of the anode has a neutral screen. To accommodate the maximum number of partitions on the anode and the necessary strength of the relationship is the thickness of pipes and bends to the width made in the range of from 1/1 to 1/30, the cross section of the tube wall and taps from 0.1 mm2up to 30 mm2, the wall thickness of the variable. To ensure an even distribution of current through the tubes of anode length of tubing to a thickness greater than 100/1. To avoid contact, the gap between the tubes is installed not less than 0.1 mm in order to increase the volumetric acceleration under the action of electrodynamic forces, through the distribution of discharge over the taps along the anode, the number of taps on each tube from 1 to 5, and more. Outside of the anode has a neutral screen. To ensure the free passage of flow of the working fluid through the bends, the cross section of the holes is in the range from 0.03 mm to 1.0 mm is determined by the formula:

Sabouttin=kIpp.T2ξeνptmtabouttin.,where

Srespthe cross - section of holes bends [m2];

k - Boltzmann constant [j/K];

ICR- current limit [A], corresponding to the beginning of a sharp increase in the voltage of the discharge;

T is the temperature of the bends of the tube [K];

ξ=MeIpp. mΣ- parameter exchange [dimensionless quantity], where

M is the mass of the ion;

e - the electron charge [Coulomb];

mΣ- the total flow of the working fluid [kg/s];

v is the flow velocity of the working fluid to drain [m/s];

p is the pressure in the pipe [N/m2];

tt- number of tubes [PCs];

trespthe number of taps [pieces].

The formula is derived under the condition that through the anode serves half of the total consumption of the working fluid. Other ratios instead of the factor 2 in the denominator set to an appropriate value. The number of tubes, their sizes and the distances between these limits are chosen according to the power and the discharge current, which can vary widely depending on the destination of the plasma accelerator. In this case, the maximum current density at discrete working surface of the anode should not exceed 20 A/mm2.

In Fig.1 shows the structure of a plasma accelerator of Fig.2 - image of the end of the working accelerators; Fig.3 is a drawing of the shape of the discharge arc at the same time with two plasma flows from the cathode and the anode; Fig.4 is a graph of voltage-current characteristics and dependencies of the thrust from the square of the current, and Fig.5 is a graph showing the distribution of the mass flow along the radius; Fig.6 is a waveform operating accelerators.

The device comprises a cathode 1, input 2 current to the cathode, anode 3, input 4 power supply to the anode inlet 5 of the working fluid in the cathode 1, allotment 6, neutral screen 7, tube 8 of the anode 3, the collector 9 of the anode supply 10 of the working fluid in the collector 9 of the anode, the hole 11 of the tube 8, the holes 12 of outlets 6, outer shield 13. The device operates as follows.

Serves voltage (Fig.1) on the cathode 1 through the current supply 2 and the anode 3 through the current supply 4. Connected 5 serves the working fluid in the cathode 1 and light the discharge between the cathode 1 and the discrete surface of the anode 3 formed by the ends of the bends 6. Neutral screen 7 protects the base of the tubes 8 of the anode 3 from the bindings of discharge. By adjusting the flow rate and voltage, specify the allowable discharge current and forming a cathode of the plasma column. Tube 8 and the outlets 6 of the anode 3 is heated by the current, and discharge, and the manifold 9 by radiation from the cathode 1 and thermal conductivity of the tubes 8. Using the property of a material tungsten anode to change the resistance when the temperature changes, the discharge current is distributed evenly through the tubes 8 of the anode 3 and inversely proportional to the length of the bends 6. Through supply 10 working medium is fed to the collector 9. Collector 9 evenly distribute the working fluid through the holes 11 of the tube 8, the heated discharge and shock. From the holes 11 of the tube 8 of the working body spread on the holes 12 6 taps. The flat shape of the tubes 8 of the waters 6 with the ratio of thickness to width is from 1/1 to 1/30 selected for placement on the anode 3 wide side in a radial plane with a minimum clearance of 0.1 mm maximum number of tubes with 8 outlets 6, to evenly distribute the current discrete surface of the anode. Pictures of the working end of the accelerator show the effect of frequent partition on the azimuthal uniformity of the discharge on the anode, Fig.2 (compare: a - major partitioning, b - without partitioning, with frequent partitioning). The shape of the tubes, the cross section of the tube wall and taps from 0.1 mm2up to 30 mm2and variable wall thickness ensure the sustainability of the tube against the force of the reaction expiring jets and electrodynamic forces between the cathode pole tubes 8 from flowing through him shock, removes excess heat from the working surface of the anode to the periphery and resets its radiation. A gap of at least 0.1 mm between the tubes eliminates contact with thermal expansion to a temperature of 3000 K and deformation under the action of inertial forces. Calibrated holes 12 taps 6 is inversely proportional to their length to create a jet with a given distribution of flow along the accelerator. The taps are set at an angle less than 90° to the axis of the accelerator, in order to obtain simultaneously two plasma flow in the cathode pillar and jets with the anode. For the smooth supply of the working fluid flow rate through the outlets 6 must be substantially less critical. When calculating the hole bends it is taken from 2 m/s to 10 m/sec. Soon the th stream, expiring in vacuum, depends on the temperature of the working fluid and can reach values of the order of 1000 m/s, which is enough to obtain the effect of two colliding jets, Fig.3. Current limit and parameter exchange for a particular working fluid is determined by the moment of the beginning of the sharp rise in the voltage of the discharge (the beginning of the crisis mode) from the plot of the voltage from the square of the current, Fig.4. The temperature of the working fluid is assumed to be equal to the temperature of taps, which is due to the high emission efficiency of the outer ribbed surface of the anode does not exceed the range from 1700 K To 2500 K. the Process of expanding gas in pipes and taps are assumed Isobaric, so the pressure is assumed normal, equal to 105PA, and for condensing the working fluid, for example lithium vapour pressure of 1,577·105PA. Through the short, the first outlet 6 of the anode 3 is fed to the greater consumption. It is located on the lower half of the diameter of the anode 3 from the edge of the cathode 1. This distance must be greater than the free path length of the particles. At this distance is formed cathode plasma column with the desired value of the magnetic field on the boundary is greater than 100 OE. As the neutralizing cathode plasma column with accelerated ions from the anode 3, the magnetic field strength decreases. Reduced intensives the ü selection and acceleration of ions from the anode 3. To avoid wasting the working fluid through the following outlets 6, the flow rate is reduced in inverse proportion to their length. After the filing of the flow through the anode 3 adjust the discharge current by creating a deficit of flow through the cathode 1 and increase the discharge voltage. Deficit to flow through the cathode 1, the pressure in the plasma column decreases. The force of interaction of the current with its own magnetic field directed to the axis of the plasma column, compress post [L. A. Artsimovich, "Elementary plasma physics", ed. 2nd, Atomizdat, Moscow, 1966]. If the plasma pressure is small, the compression force is not fully balanced. Under the influence of excessive electrodynamic forces the plasma generated in the anode jets, increasing speed to be carried away to the axis and to accelerate. In the graphs of Fig.5 shows, as by increasing the discharge current or the flow decreases, there is a redistribution of the mass flow from the periphery to the axis of the accelerator and Vice versa.

In high-current plasma arcs devices are formed, the plasma flows from the electrodes, directed normal to the working surface. The nature of threads is determined by the processes in areas close to the electrode surface. Properties of plasma flows from the electrodes depend on the supply of energy from the arc due to the receipt of the plasma particles on the active spots of the electrodes, electrons at the anode and ions on atod. In electric arc always have the conditions for the occurrence of plasma flows with both electrodes. Physical processes in the cathode region of the arc provide a greater chance of education under equal conditions plasma flows greater velocity head. Conditions for the existence of flow from the anode can be provided at relatively low current densities due to the greater mobility of electrons, the low intensity of the ablation process of the anode. The shape of the discharge depends on the direction of flow from the electrode surface and the ratio of their velocities. Under certain conditions, can be obtained such forms of discharge, when there will be two plasma flow, regardless of their speed heads. This is achieved by changing the angle between the directions of flows from the electrodes, for example, by analogy with welding electrodes, Fig.3 [G. B. Serdyuk, "Welding production", 1965,, 10,1]. Electrodes located at an angle of 125°, determine the shape of the arc in the form of two opposing streams formed by anodic flow with a speed of 15 m/s to 40 m/s and the cathode with a velocity of 50 m/s to 200 m/sec. In a vacuum, applied to the plasma accelerator, the role of the ablation process with electrodes is greatly enhanced. The main factor causing the acceleration of the axial flow of plasma from the cathode in the coaxial accelerator PLA is we is the pressure, created in the plasma column due to the magnetic "pinch effect". To compensate for the deficiency of the plasma in the anode zone, without destroying the anode ablation process, through the openings of the outlets 6 serves the working fluid in the form of a controlled and properly directed jets. To do this, the taps are installed at an angle less than 90° to the axis of the accelerator. In this case, the role of active spots instead of ablation in the bends 6 carry out the holes a specific section from 0.03 mm2to 1.0 mm2that is calculated by the formula. The creation of counter-flows in the form of a plasma cathode pole with one hand and jets with the anode 3 on the other reduces the anode potential drop, reaching for obtaining plasma from the material of the anode 3. To increase the overall voltage of the discharge is used to obtain useful power of the accelerator. High parameters of the accelerator are achieved at a lower discharge current and high voltage, which significantly reduces the heat load on the electrodes. The discharge is transferred in crisis mode by adjusting the ratio of flow through the electrodes and voltage to maintain the required current and power. The amount of current determines the speed of the plasma in the cathode pole through the magnetic "pinch effect" and creates a magnetic field abroad cathode plasma column. In the crossed electromagnetic field between Kato is the major plasma column and anode accelerates the jet streams of plasma from the anode. The magnetic field at the boundary of the cathode post should not be less than 100 OE, which can be attained already at a current of 1000 a and a power of 30 kW. To prevent care of the working fluid through the gaps between the tubes on the outside of the anode is selected screen 13.

The combination made significant changes in the accelerator design has allowed to obtain a stable symmetric shape of the discharge with a given current distribution along the working surface of the anode and cathode. To solve the problem of the crisis in the high-current plasma accelerators. Increasing the voltage does not occur unstable mode oscillations (Fig.6, compare a character line voltage & power: a - anode monolithic, b, C - anode with a flow through it of the working fluid). Implement the process with accelerated two opposing streams in the form of cathode plasma column and jets with the anode in an electromagnetic field. Preliminary results of the plasma accelerator as electroplasma engine with the flow of the working fluid through the anode at a current 3340 And the voltage 33,2, the consumption of lithium (Li) 0.4·10-4kg/s have the following characteristics: thrust 2,3 N, the efficiency of 59%, the specific impulse 57000 km/s, destruction and sublimation of the anode is not detected. Resource accelerator plasma in this case is determined by the life of the cathode. The level of modern technology it can reach from 10000 to 50000 hours.

1. At coritel plasma, containing coaxially located radially sectionrary anode, a cathode, a supply of working fluid to the cathode, the delivery system of the plasma through the anode, neutral box between the electrodes and insulators, characterized in that section of the anode is made of directed along the axis of the accelerator flat tubes with branches located wide part in a radial plane with a gap between them; the branches are angled at less than 90° to the axis of the accelerator; the free ends of the branches with holes formed discrete, for example, a cylindrical working surface of the anode; a first branch with a length equal to its width, installed at a distance of more than half of the diameter of the anode from the cathode cut, length of the remaining branches is increased in proportion to their number; the flow area of the orifice tube is equal to or greater than the sum of the flow areas of inlets; the base of the tubes are sealed and connected with the reservoir, the housing of which a supply of the working fluid thereto executed by supplying current to the anode; the outside of the anode has a neutral screen.

2. Accelerator plasma under item 1, characterized in that the ratio of the thickness of pipes and bends to the width of from 1/1 to 1/30, and the cross-section of the tube wall and bends made in the range from 0.1 mm2up to 30 mm2, the wall thickness of the predominantly variable.

3. Accelerator plasma under item 1, characterized in that the ratio of the lengths of the tubes to a thickness greater than 100/1.

4. Accelerator plasma under item 1, characterized in that the gap between the tubes is not less than 0.1 mm

5. Accelerator plasma under item 1, characterized in that the number of taps on each tube from 1 to 5, and more.

6. Accelerator plasma under item 1, characterized in that the cross section of the holes is in the range from 0.03 mm2to 1.0 mm2is determined by the formula
Sabouttin=kIpp.T2ξeνptmtabouttin.,where
Sresp.the cross - section of holes bends [m2];
k - Boltzmann constant [j/K];
ICR- current limit [A];
T - temperature of the working fluid in the bends [];
ξ - parameter exchange [dimensionless quantity];
e - the electron charge [Coulomb]
v is the flow velocity of the working fluid in the outlet [m/s];
p is the pressure in the pipe [N/m2];
tm- number of tubes [PCs];
trespthe number of taps [PCs].



 

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SUBSTANCE: invention relates to beam engineering and can be used to compensate (neutralise) for spatial charge of a beam of positive ions of electro-jet engines, particularly for use in propulsion devices of micro- and nanosatellites. The method of neutralising spatial charge of an ion stream of an electro-jet propulsion device by emitting electrons through multiple autoemission sources. Sources are placed around each of the electro-jet engines of said device. Emission currents of separate autoemission sources or groups of said multiple autoemission sources are controlled independent of each other.

EFFECT: reduced consumption the working medium of an electro-jet engine, including a multimode electro-jet engine or a multi-engine apparatus, minimum time for switching to neutralisation operating mode and fast switching of electron current according to the operating mode of said electro-jet engine, optimising transfer of electrons into the neutralisation region in order to reduce divergence of the ion beam or deviation thereof, thereby changing the direction of ion thrust.

6 cl

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering, particularly, to electric jet engines and is designed to control space craft of low thrust (up to 5 N). Cyclotron plasma engine comprises plasma accelerator housing, solenoids (inductors) and electric circuit with compensating cathodes. Note here that self-contained ion source, electron and ion flow splitter. Asynchronous cyclotron makes said plasma accelerator. Cyclotron is divided into dees by two coaxial pairs of parallel grids with clearances. Said dees make homogeneous, identical and invariable electric fields of opposite-direction of electric-field vectors. Cyclotron comprises the ferromagnetic adapters with inductors in quantity complying with the number of plasma accelerator outlet channel thrust development directions. Outlet straight gas dielectric channels of this engine communicate with said main adapters via pass electric valves. Said channels are communicated via ferromagnetic adapters wit inductors.

EFFECT: higher specific burn, decreased weight and overall dimensions, lower power consumption.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: cathode (1) and anode (2) of an eroding pulse plasma accelerator (EPPA) are of flat shape. Between discharge electrodes (1 and 2) there are two dielectric pellets (4) made of ablating material. An end wall insulator (6) is installed between the discharge electrodes in the area of dielectric pellets (4) placement. An electric discharge initiator (9) is connected to electrodes (8). A capacitive storage (3) of the power supply unit is connected through current leads to the electrodes (1 and 2). The EPPA discharge channel is shaped by surfaces of the discharge electrodes (1 and 2), the end wall insulator (6) and end walls of the dielectric pellets (4). The discharge channel is made with two mutually perpendicular middle planes. The discharge electrodes (1 and 2) are mounted symmetrically in regard to the first middle plane. The dielectric pellets (4) are mounted symmetrically in regard to the second middle plane. A tangent to the surface of the end wall insulator (6) faced to the discharge channel is oriented at an angle from 87° up to 45° in regard to the first middle plane of the discharge channel. In the end wall insulator (6) there is a well with (7) a rectangular cross-section. In the well (7) from the cathode (1) side there are electrodes (8). A tangent to the front surface of the well (7) is oriented at an angle from 87° up to 45° in regard to the first middle plane of the discharge channel. The well (7) along the surface of the end wall insulator(6) has a trapezoid shape. The larger base of the trapezoid is located near the anode (2) surface. The lesser base of the trapezoid is located near the cathode (1) surface. At the end wall insulator (6) surface there are three straight-line grooves oriented in parallel to surfaces of the discharge electrodes (1 and 2).

EFFECT: increase in service life, reliability, pulling efficiency, efficiency of the working agent use and stability of the EPPA pull characteristics due to even evaporation of the working agent from the working area of the dielectric pellets.

9 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises at least: one primary ionisation and acceleration circular channel 21 with open end, anode 26 accommodated inside said channel, cathode 30 located outside said channel, at its outlet, and magnetic circuit 4 to induce magnetic field in a portion of said circular channel. Magnetic circuit comprises at least circular inner wall 22, circular outer wall 23, and bottom 4 connected said walls to make magnetic circuit outlet part. Note here that said circuit 4 can induce magnetic field at circular channel outlet 21 independent of azimuth.

EFFECT: increased probability of ionising collisions between electron and inert gas atoms.

46 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: space engineering; ground tests and operation in space of plasma jet engines and electric jet engine plants.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes performance of shortened endurance tests which are part of total service life; in conducting these tests, erosion of discharge chamber (δt), change in thrust at the beginning (Fo) and in the course (ft) of shortened endurance tests are measured, regressive analysis for determination of approximating dependences is performed in form of monotonic function of erosion of discharge chamber and thrust versus time of operation; prediction of behavior of thrust is performed by definite dependence Ft=f(Fo, t), at the beginning of shortened tests and in the course of conducting these tests erosion areas (So, St) are additionally determined; approximating dependence of erosion area versus time St=f(t) and functional dependence of thrust versus erosion area F=f(k,S) are determined by regressive analysis, where k is proportionality factor between thrust and erosion area which are taken into account in prediction of thrust behavior during total service life; thrust is determined by dependence Ft=f(Fo, k,.St, So)

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of prediction of parameters of stationary plasma jet engine.

2 dwg

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