Method of soil treatment and device for its implementation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises milling the soil as strips. The soil of milled strip is subjected to separation. Unseparated part of the soil is subjected to impact action, followed by separation, accompanied by crushing of undisrupted clumps of soil on the rods and pushing them into the gaps between the rods of the separating grid. The device comprises a milling drum, a rear rotor the separating grid located behind it. The working bodies of the rear rotor are made in the form of rubber blades. The blades strike the clumps falling on a wide plate fastening the rods of the separating grid.

EFFECT: uniform distribution of agronomically valuable aggregates over the entire thickness of the treated land.

2 cl, 4 dwg

 

Patentable invention relates to a process of formation of solid soil consisting mostly of agronomically valuable aggregates through processing milled soil.

Known gun - prooobably forming strips of crumbly soil components through active working bodies of the screws on the background of the pre-treated soil Lancet paws (and.with. 175324 A01B, 45a, 39/00, 1964). This reduces the energy consumption for the grinding of the soil in the generated pages.

However, bands with shallow soil particles do not contribute to the potential cultivation kernelupdate plants, namely the obtaining of root and tuber crops is their characteristic shape, aligned by mass.

A method of processing heavy soil for sowing and harvesting of crops and device for its implementation (patent RU NO. 2305388 A01B..... - prototype), when pre-treated soil Lancet paws through additional impact is destroyed by a separating conveyor.

There is a method allows to form an array of soil aggregates easily separated at the time of harvest of crops.

However, it is not agronomically valuable aggregates soil and this affects the friendliness shoots, vyravnennoe root mass, size, naturoli.

The technical purpose of the patented invention was the creation of the soil massif, consisting not only of easily separated for cleaning of root and tuber crops, but also maximize it agronomically valuable aggregates of the soil, which contributes to the production of large quantities of commercial products. This soil array provides good water-physical conditions for root development and the formation of roots.

The technical result in the implementation of the invention regarding the method and the device was the formation of the array containing agronomically valuable aggregates soil throughout its thickness.

On how this is achieved in that the milled strip of soil, which then goes to the separating grate, where neodiprion clods fall on a fairly wide metal strip, fastening in the transverse direction of the bars separating grates. Clods of soil in the time of finding this band are subjected to shock rubber blades of the rear rotor, as the time of leaving the band, the soil gets on the separating grate, where intact clods of soil razduplyayutsya on the rods, and forced into the gaps between the bars separating lattice rubber blades of the rear rotor.

Regarding the device, this is achieved by h what about under the rear rotor set separating grate, profiled in cross section so that the rubber blades tangentially mounted on the rear surface of the rotor, the entire working surface hit the entire width of the metal strip, fastening rods separating lattice in the transverse direction. The width of the working surface of the rubber blade is the width of the metal strip. The breaking of clods of soil on the metal strip provides a substantial increase of agronomically valuable aggregates of the soil in the upper part of the array of the soil.

The presence of the reflector above the output part of the cutter above the entrance part of the separating grid allows you to direct the entire flow of milled soil for additional processing of the rear rotor.

Patentable invention meets the requirement of unity, since the method and the device is aimed at solving the same problem - the formation of an array of soil containing agronomically valuable aggregates throughout its thickness.

Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the prior art, including searching by the patent and scientific and technical information sources, and identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed method and device for its implementation, has allowed to establish that the applicant had not discovered analogues, as for a method and device, characterized by the signs of all the essential features of the claimed method and device.

Thus, patentable invention meets the criterion of "novelty". For checking the conformity to each object patentable invention, the criterion of "inventive step", the applicant conducted an additional search of the known solutions on patents and scientific and technical information sources. The search results showed that the method and the device for its implementation patentable the invention, the set of distinctive features is not subject to the known technical solutions and does not flow to the expert in the obvious way from the prior art.

In Fig.1 shows a cross-section pocinho array passes for propulsion machinery.

In Fig.2 - a device for implementing the method, side view.

In Fig.3 - the same, top view.

In Fig.4 - separating grille, top view.

The device for implementing the method (Fig.2 and 3) includes a frame mounted on 1 in the technological sequence of the cutter 2, the reflector 3 (Fig.2) mounted behind the milling drum and over the front part of the separating grille, rear rotor 4 with a fixed rubber blades 5 (tangentially), under the rear rotor posted by separating grate 6, consisting of rods 7 and the wide metal strip 8, the locking rods in a predetermined position.

The method of formation of soil array assests what is your device and is implemented in the following sequence.

When moving the machine knives milling drum pulverized soil formation on small soil clumps, with milled soil in the form of stripes was injected at the receiving part of the separating grid, separated from the soil falls on the metal strip, where it is subjected to shock rubber blades of the rear rotor blades and is discharged to the separation, where not destroyed clods razduplyayutsya blades on the rods, and forced into the gaps between the bars separating grates.

The rear rotor is held in operating position under the influence of a spring, in case of contact separating bars is not destructible objects, such as stone(natural), springs are also compressed and the stone passes into the increased clearance between the rear rotor and separating grate, the unit continues operating cycle.

Sources of information

1. A. C. the USSR №175324 A01B, 45a, 39/00, 1964

2. Pat. RU # 2305388 A01B.

1. Method of soil treatment, including milling soil strips, characterized in that the soil milled strip is subjected to separation, while neodiprion part of the soil is subjected to shock with subsequent separation by crushing nerazrushaushsii lumps of soil on the bars separating grates and dents in the gaps between the rod is I.

2. Device for soil processing, including milling drum, located behind the drum rear rotor separating grating, characterized in that the working bodies of the rear rotor is made in the form of rubber blades to ensure impact on the lumps of soil that falls on the metal band that secures the bars separating grates.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to the technologies of precision agriculture. The device comprises a bearing frame connected to the means of moving on the field, a support element mounted on the frame and determining its position above the ground, the knife-milling chisel plough placed on a frame, creating longitudinal slit channel in the soil during motion, a measuring unit with the measuring sensors, made elongated along the direction of motion, of the same thickness with the knife-milling chisel plough and mounted behind it in the direction of motion, the assembly of stepped depth adjustment of the position of the measuring unit in the longitudinal slit channel when moving on the field, the assembly of protection of the measuring unit from damage by collision of the knife-milling chisel plough to the obstacles, the control unit of measurements, collection and conversion of the measurement information, the on-board computer and the receiver of the geopositioning system for registering measurement information and mapping. And the housing of the measuring unit is made in the form of a monolithic metal plate with a pointed and bevelled downwards and backwards frontal anterior edge and is fixedly connected to the bearing frame by the front and rear racks. The sensors are embedded in the measuring unit and located on its side walls along the common straight line with the same depth of location of the sensing elements from the soil surface. The support element is made in the form of a support skid located under the measurement unit, pivotally connected with the rack mounted on the bearing frame. And this rack is mounted on the bearing frame with the ability of a stepped change in the given distance between the sole of the support skid and the straight horizontal line with the same depth of location of the sensing elements in the measuring unit from the soil surface. The said knife-milling chisel plough mounted on the frame in front of the measuring unit, has an axial connection with the frame, ensuring the formation of a common vertical longitudinal plane of symmetry with the measuring unit and made with the ability to control the angular position of the knife-milling chisel plough in this plane. The knife with the cutting edge has a length that ensures creation of the slit channel in the soil with the depth enough for embedding the measuring unit until it stops of the support skid on the surface of the soil at any given distance between the sole of the skid and the horizontal line of position of the sensors and any specified angle of the knife-milling chisel plough mounting. The upper end part of the knife-milling chisel plough, located on the other side of the axial connection, is fixed by the safety shear bolt in the assembly of stepped fixing of the angular position of the knife-milling chisel plough located on the frame, and this assembly is equipped with a stop for fixing the position of the blade of the knife-milling chisel plough along the frontal measuring unit when collision to the stone and cutting the safety shear bolt, moreover, to retain the measuring unit in the vertical plane of symmetry coinciding with the direction of movement of the device. The bearing frame is provided with a rigid drawbar to connect with the vehicle for motion on the field.

EFFECT: unit provides measurement efficiency of agrotechnological characteristics.

17 cl, 24 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to vegetable farming. The method is implemented by means of laying of milled soil for the formed furrows to the surface of unprocessed soil. For long-term provision of cultivated crop with accessible (capillary) water entering the soil mass with capillary porosity, formed within a long period after qualitative autumn treatment the dried surface layer of this mass id destructed and removed. Meanwhile newly formed surface layer additionally compacted, that prevents to excessive loss of capillary water. The soil with non-capillary porosity hard-worked on the usual mass making side slopes and sowing layer, forming the hole soil mass as a furrow slice. The device includes the power shaft, fixed on the frame, with interspaces between milling drums with covers, shaping furrow slices. Meanwhile it is equipped with chains fixed on the driving shaft in interspaces between the milling drums.

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2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises cutting, crumbling of the treated soil layer, the layer turnover, the destruction of "plough pan" and formation of slits with the inter-slit distance of 70-90 cm. When crumbling the upper part of the treated layer its turnover is carried out in both directions with respect to the rack of the working body and movement to the field surface with the formation of cavities in the passage ways of the working bodies to form a ridge on the untreated part of the field surface. Then with the working bodies of the second row the process of formation of cavities is repeated. Then with the working bodies of the following rows cutting, crumbling of the untreated surface of the field to greater depth is carried out, moving it into the formed cavities and forming slits. Then the surface of the field is levelled. The tool comprises a frame consisting of longitudinal and transverse beams. The frame is provided with replaceable working bodies located to form parallel rows, enabling treatment of soil over the entire working width of the tool. The working bodies are made in the form of removable A-blades mounted on the rack, consisting of right and left ploughshares in the direction of motion. The ploughshares are made of triangular or quadrangular form, located with displacement of the cutting edges and have mouldboards. The working bodies are fixed to the longitudinal beams of the frame using the racks. The left and right ploughshares are mounted with displacement of 0.5-1.5 width of the ploughshare relative to each other horizontally and are located at an angle of 20-35° to the horizontal and 30-55° to the vertical planes. The cutting edges of the ploughshares are formed with displacement of 0-30 mm relative to each other vertically. On the rack of the working body over the ploughshares the right and left mouldboards are mounted at an angle of 25-50° relative to the side part of the rack in the horizontal plane and at an angle of 25-40° relative to the front part of the rack in the vertical plane. The lower edges of the mouldboards are made with the cutting at an angle of 20-40° relative to the horizontal plane. In the front part of the rack at the junction place of the left and right mouldboards the fairing is mounted made of a rod with the cross-section of a circle or part of a circle, corresponding to the length of conjugation of the mouldboards from the upper part of one of the ploughshares to the upper part of conjugation of the mouldboards. Two last rows of the working bodies consist of a rack, a fairing and a chisel, fixed through the side slot on the front part of the rack of the working body, which is attached to the equalizer by means of brackets. The working bodies of each of the next row are located with displacement with respect to the working bodies of the previous row.

EFFECT: technology and constructive implementation enable to improve the quality of soil treatment and to reduce the tractive resistance.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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EFFECT: improving the quality of treatment of soil contaminated with radionuclides and heavy metals by avoiding mixing of the contaminated and uncontaminated soil layers in the process of their moving.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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EFFECT: method enables to enhance replenishment of perennial grasses by discontinuous chisel ploughing of soil.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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EFFECT: inventions enable to increase the density of the walls of the cavities in the lower part and increase the cross section of the cavity by giving it a rectangular shape.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

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EFFECT: use of said compositions improves the environment.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

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3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: rotary subsoil cultivator comprises a frame with a connecting device, the driveless ripper working bodies installed in series, forcibly rotating rotor with teeth on the horizontal shaft, the rotor drive mechanisms, and a compactor. The ripper working bodies are made in the form of spherical discs. The discs are mounted with an angle of attack in front of the rotor teeth and are facing with the convex to the longitudinal axis of the subsoil cultivator. The diameter of the rotor is at least one and a half times greater than the diameter of the discs. The discs are arranged above the lower line of the rotor body of revolution by an amount exceeding not less than half the radius of the disc. The devices for connection of the discs with the frame are made with elastic elements. The compactor is made with adjustable limitation of lifting height. The rotor teeth are provided with replaceable cutting devices. The discs are made adjustable in height and fixed on the spring-loaded or spring racks.

EFFECT: reduction of energy consumption of loosening the soil by rotary subsoil cultivator and cost of power to the rotor drive, providing sustainable performance of processing the agricultural backgrounds with weed vegetation.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to vegetable farming. The method is implemented by means of laying of milled soil for the formed furrows to the surface of unprocessed soil. For long-term provision of cultivated crop with accessible (capillary) water entering the soil mass with capillary porosity, formed within a long period after qualitative autumn treatment the dried surface layer of this mass id destructed and removed. Meanwhile newly formed surface layer additionally compacted, that prevents to excessive loss of capillary water. The soil with non-capillary porosity hard-worked on the usual mass making side slopes and sowing layer, forming the hole soil mass as a furrow slice. The device includes the power shaft, fixed on the frame, with interspaces between milling drums with covers, shaping furrow slices. Meanwhile it is equipped with chains fixed on the driving shaft in interspaces between the milling drums.

EFFECT: group of inventions allows to prevent an excessive loss of capillary water and for a long time to provide the cultivated crops with accessible water.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises cutting, crumbling of the treated soil layer, the layer turnover, the destruction of "plough pan" and formation of slits with the inter-slit distance of 70-90 cm. When crumbling the upper part of the treated layer its turnover is carried out in both directions with respect to the rack of the working body and movement to the field surface with the formation of cavities in the passage ways of the working bodies to form a ridge on the untreated part of the field surface. Then with the working bodies of the second row the process of formation of cavities is repeated. Then with the working bodies of the following rows cutting, crumbling of the untreated surface of the field to greater depth is carried out, moving it into the formed cavities and forming slits. Then the surface of the field is levelled. The tool comprises a frame consisting of longitudinal and transverse beams. The frame is provided with replaceable working bodies located to form parallel rows, enabling treatment of soil over the entire working width of the tool. The working bodies are made in the form of removable A-blades mounted on the rack, consisting of right and left ploughshares in the direction of motion. The ploughshares are made of triangular or quadrangular form, located with displacement of the cutting edges and have mouldboards. The working bodies are fixed to the longitudinal beams of the frame using the racks. The left and right ploughshares are mounted with displacement of 0.5-1.5 width of the ploughshare relative to each other horizontally and are located at an angle of 20-35° to the horizontal and 30-55° to the vertical planes. The cutting edges of the ploughshares are formed with displacement of 0-30 mm relative to each other vertically. On the rack of the working body over the ploughshares the right and left mouldboards are mounted at an angle of 25-50° relative to the side part of the rack in the horizontal plane and at an angle of 25-40° relative to the front part of the rack in the vertical plane. The lower edges of the mouldboards are made with the cutting at an angle of 20-40° relative to the horizontal plane. In the front part of the rack at the junction place of the left and right mouldboards the fairing is mounted made of a rod with the cross-section of a circle or part of a circle, corresponding to the length of conjugation of the mouldboards from the upper part of one of the ploughshares to the upper part of conjugation of the mouldboards. Two last rows of the working bodies consist of a rack, a fairing and a chisel, fixed through the side slot on the front part of the rack of the working body, which is attached to the equalizer by means of brackets. The working bodies of each of the next row are located with displacement with respect to the working bodies of the previous row.

EFFECT: technology and constructive implementation enable to improve the quality of soil treatment and to reduce the tractive resistance.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: tool comprises a first row and a second row, located behind it, of earthmoving working bodies and at least one row of discs for forming soil. The adjacent working bodies of the first row are located at a first distance from each other, and the adjacent working bodies of the second row are located at a second distance from each other. The row of discs for forming soil is located behind the second row of earthmoving working bodies. The adjacent discs are located not at equal distance. The distance between the adjacent discs is greater or smaller depending on the fact whether the distance is located between the adjacent discs behind the working body of the first row or behind the working body of the second row. According to a second embodiment the tools of the earthmoving working bodies of the first and second rows are located at a predetermined distance from each other. The third embodiment of the tool provides location of the earthmoving working bodies of the first and second rows at equal distance, designed to form the first and second groups of recessions and groups of berms in the soil, at equal distance from each other. Each of the recesses in the second group of recesses is located approximately centrally of the corresponding berm from the group of berms and between the adjacent recesses of the first group of recesses. The second group of recesses is deeper than the first group of recesses. The discs for forming soil are designed for forming the first and second groups of recesses and berms to ensure the equal release of soil.

EFFECT: constructive implementation enables to ensure uniformity of location of recesses on the surface of the treated area, which enables to retain moisture in the soil and to facilitate sowing of seeds.

20 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: on the frame the working members for soil treatment are fixed. The support wheels have swing arms and are equipped with ground cleaners in the form of the metal plates. The swing arms of support wheels are equipped with brackets with holes. Cleaners are installed on brackets with a possibility of regulation through the holes in brackets of the angle of their setup with reference to the direction of the unit motion. The value of the angle of setup of the cleaners with reference to the direction of the unit motion does not exceed the value of the angle of steel-soil friction with the humidity.

EFFECT: lowering of traction resistance of the unit.

2 cl, 3 dwg

Rotary tiller // 2535745

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agricultural machine industry, in particular to rotary tillers. The tiller contains hinge, rotor, central conic and board reducers, protective cover, holding tank. The holding tank is made as a lattice bucket. In the bottom of the tank an unloading hatch and support beam with raning roller on hallow stands. Inside the hollow stands the pushers with springs are installed. On the roller axle the protuberances are provisioned. The protuberances interact with pushers and shake the holding tank at motion.

EFFECT: qualitative loosening of soil and its solid lamps, and also their final elimination from the field surface is ensured.

6 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: multifunctional plow for primary tillage comprises a frame with support height-adjustable wheels, a hinge system. The frame comprises a carrier beam fixedly located at an angle of 45° to the direction of movement, with chisels mounted on it. The chisels are made in the form of a circular pipe with the end and the cut curved radially, closed by chisel of elliptical shape with hard-alloy welding. Parallel to the carrier beam an additional beam is located. On the platform of the additional beam welded on the edge the electrical drive is mounted. The electrical drive is kinematically connected to the racks placed with the ability of rotation on the additional beam, located behind the chisels. The racks are welded to the spherical discs equipped with eccentricities and rings with a parallelogram cross-section. The rings are sharpened and mounted on circumference of the spherical disc and with the ability of rotation on its axis.

EFFECT: enhanced functionality and performance capabilities of the device, reducing labour costs for re-equipment, reduction of energy costs, and improvement of quality of soil treatment.

3 cl, 4 dwg

Wide-cut tiller // 2525160

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: tiller comprises frame with trailer supported by two rear pneumatic wheels. Fenders are articulated with the frame while packing sections are staggered with frontal overlap. Packing sections consists of frames with bearing assemblies and shafts. Two pneumatic wheels are fitted on the frame via levers secured to the frame from below and interconnected by the beam. Fenders are arranged at the frame to displace upward. Wheels are fitted at outer ends of the fenders. Fenders are connected with the frame via suspensions and lifting levers. Lifting levers are connected via hydraulic cylinders with levers of the wheels. Frame lifting relative to pneumatic wheels is limited by posts with the frame retaining pins at transport position. Packing section shafts are equipped with helical strips of width a secured at spacing C and pitch t to make angle δ with generatrix describing the cylindrical surface of packing section in diameter D. Inclination of helical strip projection on whatever surface extending through section axis to their axes makes β. Section frames are mounted on the frame and fenders via parallelogram mechanisms and turn-buckles and crossbars to make packing sections located behind the fenders to cover the wheels fitted at edges of said fenders. All packing sections are located at angle α between tiller direction and perpendicularly to section axes diverted to the side of angle β for complete compaction of field under crop. Angle α is defined by relationship: α=arctg(t2nDHH21tgβ), where n is the number of helical strips in packing section. H=Hmax-Hmin, where Hmax is maximum depth of packed soil above crops; Hmin is minimum admissible depth of soil packing. Maximum HmaxB, and minimum HminB thickness of additionally ground and loosened soil above packed soil are defined by expressions: HmaxB where Hr is sawing depth while HminB .

EFFECT: higher quality of tillage.

5 dwg

Rotary tiller // 2524088

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: tiller comprises a frame with milling drum fixed on it. The milling drum consists of sections with cutting knives. Behind the milling drum the sieving grid is mounted. The tiller is equipped with an additional milling drum with sections of ripping chisel blades. The additional milling drum is mounted in front of the main milling drum. The tiller is equipped with a smooth roller-compactor mounted behind the main milling drum. The main milling drum sections are formed with L-shaped long and short blades. The blades of additional milling drum sections are placed evenly in chequered order under acute differently directed angle to the horizontal plane in the vertical-transverse plane to the surface of the field.

EFFECT: improved performance capabilities.

3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: combined plough comprises a frame with ploughshare bodies, a disc blade, joggers, subsoilers with rotary body in the form of a ribbed cone. Each rotary body is a multi-start screw and mounted behind the bodies.

EFFECT: reduction of energy intensity of tillage and improving the quality of its crumbling.

4 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves shallow plowing, deep basic tillage and surface tillage (cultivation) of soil by cutting furrows; after harvesting of cereals, performing simultaneously shallow plowing, surface tillage of soil to depth of up to 16 cm, crushing of soil lumps, compacting, leveling and mulching of soil top layer; in September, providing deep tillage of soil on fields arranged on slopes with gradient exceeding 5 deg while forming vertical slits to depth of 40 cm and inclined slits; simultaneously with slitting procedure, forming water-accumulating vessels, holes and intermittent furrows. Apparatus has hitch, carrier wheels, bearing system and replaceable working tools in the form of disk batteries, flat narrow hoes, rippers with chisel, ring-and-serrated roller, and leveling drum. Blades of leveling drum are arranged at an angle α=30 deg relative to drum axis.

EFFECT: reduced soil erosion and provision for retention of moisture in soil root layer.

3 cl, 9 dwg

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