Method and device to control led dimming levels

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to lighting engineering. The device comprises a current controller configured to receive dimming input signal, which is a variable showing the percentage of maximum excitation current supplied to LED load and to output a signal with pulse-width modulation (PWM signal) and reference voltage, a current transducer configured to receive voltage supply and to ensure output current and a shunt switch connected to the current controller and current transducer and between the current controller and LED load. The shunt switch is configured to divert at least part of the output current from the current transducer and from delivery to the LED load when the shunt switch is conducting, at that the shunt switch is not conducting when the dimming input signal shows that the percentage exceeds the threshold level.

EFFECT: improving efficiency of LED current control based on dimming input signal.

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The technical FIELD

The present invention relates, in General, management levels reduce power light emitting diodes (LED). More specifically, various new methods and devices disclosed herein relate to controlling the excitation current above and below the threshold level.

PRIOR art

Digital lighting technology, i.e. lighting, based on semiconductor light sources, such as LEDs, offer a viable alternative to traditional fluorescent, gas discharge (HID) lamps and incandescent lamps. Functional advantages and benefits of LEDs include high energy conversion efficiency and optical performance, durability, lower operating costs and many other benefits. Recent improvements in led technology have provided effective and reliable full-spectrum light sources, which provide different lighting effects in many applications. Some of the devices that implement these sources have a lighting module that includes one or more LEDs capable of producing different colors, for example red, green and blue, and a processor for independent control of output power of the LEDs to generate plural is and the colors and lighting effects, changing the colors, for example, as described in detail in U.S. patent No. 6016038 and 6211626, incorporated herein by reference.

Significant improvements have been made in the manufacture of LEDs emitting white light. Currently on an industrial scale available LEDs white light, which generate more than 100 lumens/watt. This is comparable to the performance of fluorescent and hid lamps. In addition, these LEDs have other advantages, such as longer service life, resistance to shocks/vibrations and structural adaptability due to their small size. As a result, the LEDs white light are recognized as a substitute for traditional sources of incandescent, compact fluorescent and hid sources for applications in lighting, such as identification, selection and path lighting, local lighting, roads and Parking lots. White LEDs can be used alone or in conjunction with colored LEDs to achieve a particular effect.

Electrical characteristics of the LEDs such that small changes in the voltage applied to the led lamp, causing a noticeable change of the current. In addition, changes in ambient temperature will also lead to changes in the led current due to the change of the direct p is ahead of the voltage on the LEDs. In addition, the output aperture of the LEDs depends on the led current. Existing sources of supply for led light sources are designed with fine adjustment of the led current to prevent changes in light intensity due to changes of the input AC voltage and the ambient temperature. The operation of led lamps with excessive direct current for a long period of time can cause harmful changes in light intensity and even catastrophic damage. In addition, existing sources of supply does not minimize power consumption to maximize energy savings.

It is often desirable to provide the possibility of reducing the light intensity of LEDs and lighting devices using LEDs. Known methods of reducing the light intensity of LEDs include "interrupt" the wave shape of the current pulse-width modulation (PWM) and analog decreasing the amplitude of the waveform of the current. Unfortunately, when using known analog reduce the amplitude and PWM reduce the strength of the light is difficult to get good efficiency and good performance across the range of reduction of light intensity from 0% light output (no light output) to 100% light output (full light output). Many well-known high is effektivnye device excitation LEDs use the Converter switching mode to control the current to the LEDs. To achieve "deep reduce the power of light (for example, reduction to levels of less than 5% and up to 30%) is commonly used PWM ripple of the led current to ensure proper operation of the LEDs. Output source current PWM power reduction light requires a shunt switch that bypasses the led current during pulses "off" cycle of the PWM. Essentially, the relatively high losses occur in the main Converter and shunt switch, because the current to the LEDs is at a relatively high level, even if it is only part of the current. Accordingly, the known shunt switches and methods of their use are relatively inefficient in applications of LEDs, including the reduction of light intensity. In addition, the efficiency (lumens/watt) LEDs is relatively high at low values of the excitation current and the known methods of PWM reduce the forces of light are less efficient than known methods analog reduce the strength of the light. However, the analog power reduction light also has some disadvantages at low levels, reducing the force of light. For example, if the led current is less than about 5% and greater than 30% of the total value of the output signal, the light levels can be needing is established among the different LEDs, can lead to bias colors and at very low levels of current values of the efficiency of LEDs are also relatively low. In addition, device electronics excitation becomes more complicated when falling current levels below 1%, bias voltage and electrical noise in the circuits of the read current becomes a big problem. With decreasing levels of light intensity below 0.1% of these problems make the analog power reduction unwanted light.

A BRIEF STATEMENT of the substance of the INVENTION

Thus, there is a need in the art to provide a means of reducing the light intensity of LEDs, which overcomes at least the shortcomings of known methods of reducing light intensity, as described above.

The present invention relates to new methods and devices to control the decreasing levels of light intensity. Applicants understand and believe that is primary to provide a more effective reduction of the light intensity of the LEDs in the whole range of reduction of light intensity from 0% to 100% in a way that overcomes certain disadvantages in analog and PWM power reduction light. Applicants further understand and believe that is primary to provide analog reducing the light intensity to a certain level of reduction of light intensity and to provide a PWM power reduction light is below a certain level of reduction of light intensity.

In accordance with one aspect of the present invention discloses a scheme of reduction of light intensity for the led contains a current controller configured to take input decreasing light intensity and to provide a signal with pulse-width modulation (PWM) and the reference voltage. A scheme for the reduced power light also contains a current transducer configured to provide an output current, and a shunt switch connected to the controller and the Converter current between the current controller and LEDs, and the shunt switch is non-conductive when the input signal is decreasing light intensity exceeds the threshold level.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention discloses a scheme of reduction of light intensity for the led containing a controller, configured to accept input decreasing light intensity and to provide a signal with pulse-width modulation (PWM) and the reference voltage. A scheme for the reduced power light also contains a current transducer configured to provide an output current, and booster Converter connected between the LEDs and the current transducer and booster Converter comprises a shunt switch that I have is non-conductive, when the input signal is decreasing light intensity less than the threshold.

When used in this document for the purposes of this disclosure, the term "led" should be understood as comprising any electroluminescent diode or other type of system based on the injection/transfer media which is capable of generating radiation in response to an electrical signal. Thus, the term "led" includes, but is not limited to, various patterns, based on semiconductors that emit light in response to current, light emitting polymers, organic LEDs (OLED), electroluminescent tape and the like. In particular, the term "led" refers to the LEDs of all types (including semiconductor and organic light-emitting diodes) that can be configured to generate radiation in one or more of the infrared spectrum, ultraviolet spectrum and other parts of the visible spectrum (generally including radiation with a wavelength from about 400 nanometers to about 700 nanometers). Some examples of LEDs include, but are not limited to, various types of infrared LEDs, ultraviolet LEDs, red LEDs, blue LEDs,greenLEDs, yellow LEDs, amber LEDs, op is niewyk LEDs and white LEDs (optional see below). It should also be understood that the LEDs can be configured to and/or operated to generate radiation having different bandwidth (for example, full width at half maximum or FWHM) for the spectrum (for example, narrow bandwidth and wide bandwidth) and many of the dominant wavelengths within this overall color classification.

For example, one embodiment of an led configured to generate essentially white light (e.g. white light), can include a set of crystals, which respectively emit different spectra of electroluminescence, which, in combination, are mixed to form, essentially white light. In another embodiment, the led light can be associated with a phosphor material that converts the electroluminescence having a first spectrum, the second spectrum to another. In one example of this embodiment, the electroluminescence having a relatively short wavelength and a narrow spectrum bandwidth, "pumps" phosphor material, which, in turn, emits waves of greater length, with a somewhat wider range.

It should also be understood that the term "led" does not limit the physical or electrical type of the led housing.For example, as described above, the led may refer to a single radiant light device with multiple crystals, which are configured to respectively emit different spectra of radiation (e.g., which may or may not be individually managed). Also, the led may be associated with phosphor, which is considered as an integral part of the led (for example, some types of white LEDs). In General, the term led may refer to pressurized light-emitting diodes, nekobus led, surface-mounted LEDs, pripevami on Board the LEDs installed the LEDs, having a housing in the form of a T, the LEDs having a radial body force pressurized light-emitting diodes, LEDs, includes some type of shell and/or optical element (e.g., scattering the lens) and so on.

The term "light source" should be understood as referring to one or more of a variety of radiation sources, including, but not limited to, the sources based on LEDs (including one or more LEDs, described above), incandescent sources (e.g., incandescent lamps, halogen lamps), fluorescent sources, phosphorescent sources, high-power gas discharge source is (for example, sodium, mercury and metal halide lamps), lasers, other types of electroluminescent sources, bioluminescent sources (e.g. torches), sociallyessential sources (e.g., gas mantle mesh, carbon arc sources of radiation), photoluminescent sources (for example, the source gas discharge), cathodoluminescence sources using electronic satiation, galvanoplasty sources, crystallochemistry sources, killminusnine sources, thermoluminescent sources, triboluminescent sources, sonoluminescent sources, radio-luminescent sources, and luminescent polymers.

This light source may be configured to generate electromagnetic radiation within the visible spectrum outside of the visible spectrum, or a combination of both. Therefore, the terms "light" and "radiation" are used herein interchangeably. In addition, the light source may include as an integral component of one or more filters (e.g., color filters, lenses or other optical components. Also it should be understood that the light sources can be configured for a variety of applications, including, but not limited to, indication, display and/or lighting. "Source OS is edenia" is the source of light, which, in particular, configured to generate radiation having sufficient intensity to effectively illuminate the inner or outer space. In this context, "sufficient intensity" refers to sufficient radiation power in the visible spectrum, generated in the space or environment (unit "lumens" is typically used to represent the total light output from the light source in all directions in the sense of the power of radiation or "light flow") for the provision of the ambient light (i.e. light, which can not be perceived directly and may, for example, be reflected from one or more of the multiple intermediate surfaces to apprehend fully or partially).

The term "range" should be understood as referring to one or more frequencies (or wavelengths) of radiation produced by one or more light sources. Accordingly, the term "spectrum" refers to the frequencies (or wavelengths) is not only the visible range, but also to the frequencies (or wavelengths) in the infrared, ultraviolet and other common areas of the electromagnetic spectrum. Also, this range may have a relatively narrow bandwidth (e.g., FWHM, having, essentially, a small number of components of the frequency or wavelength) or consider what Ino wide bandwidth (several components of frequency or wavelength, having different relative intensity). It should also be understood that this range may be the result of mixing two or more other spectrums (e.g., mixing of the radiation, respectively, emitted from multiple light sources).

In the present description, the term "color" is used interchangeably with the term "spectrum". However, the term "color" is used to refer mainly to the property of radiation that can be perceived by an observer (although this usage is not intended to limit the scope of this term). Accordingly, the term "different colors" implicitly refers to the set of spectra with different components of the wavelength and/or bandwidth. It should also be understood that the term "color" may be used in connection with the white and non-white light.

The term "color temperature" is used herein in connection with white light, although this usage is not intended to limit the scope of this term. Color temperature, essentially, refers to the specific content of the color or tint (for example, reddish, bluish white light. Color temperature of this sample radiation is usually characterized in accordance with the temperature in degrees Kelvin (K) of a black body radiator that radiates, there is, the same range that we consider a sample radiation. The color temperature of the black body radiator usually fall in the range from about 700 ° To (generally regarded as the first visible to the human eye) to more than 10,000 degrees K; white light, in General, is perceived when the color temperatures above 1500-2000 degrees K.

The term "lighting device" herein is used to refer to the implementation or arrangement of one or more lighting units in the building, Assembly or packaging of a particular form. The term "block light" is used herein to refer to a device that includes one or more light sources of the same or of different types. The lighting unit may have any of a variety of mounting configurations source (s) of light, layouts and forms of housing/casing, and/or configurations of the electrical and mechanical connection. Additionally, the lighting unit can optionally be associated with (e.g., to include, be associated with and/or collected together various other components (e.g., control circuit) related to the operation of the source (s) of light. "Led lighting unit" refers to a lighting unit that includes one or more led IP is full of light, as described above, alone or in combination with other nesuliginami light sources. Multi-unit lighting refers to led or nesvetailova the lighting unit, which includes at least two light source configured to respectively generate different radiation spectra, each different spectrum of the source can be called "channel" multi-unit lighting.

The term "controller" is used in the present description, in General, to describe the various devices related to the operation of one or more light sources. The controller can be done in different ways (for example, using specialized hardware) to perform various functions described herein. "Processor" is one example of a controller that uses one or more microprocessors that can be programmed using software (e.g., microcode) to perform various functions described herein. The controller can be implemented with or without the use of a processor, and may also be implemented as a combination of dedicated hardware to perform some functions and a processor (for example the EP, one or more programmable microprocessors and associated circuits) to perform other functions. Examples of the components of the controller, which can be used in different variants of implementation of the present invention include, but are not limited to, traditional microprocessors, integrated circuits (ASIC) for a special use and user-programmable gate arrays (FPGA).

The term "user interface" as used herein refers to an interface between a human user or operator and one or more devices that enables communication between the user and the device (devices). Examples of user interfaces that can be used in various implementations of the present invention include, but are not limited to, switches, potentiometers, buttons, dials, sliders, mouse, keyboard, keypad, various types of gaming controllers, such as joysticks, trackballs, displays, various types of graphical user interfaces (GUI), touch screens, microphones, and other types of sensors that can take some form of control action generated by the person, and to generate a signal in response to it.

It should be understood that all combinations of Visayas is the R concepts and additional concepts described in more detail below (provided that such concepts are not mutually exclusive) are treated as a part of the invention disclosed herein. In particular, all combinations of the claimed invention, provided at the end of the present description, are considered as part of the invention disclosed herein. It should also be understood that the terminology explicitly used in this document, which may be in any description, incorporated by reference, shall be agreed upon by value, the most compatible with the specific concepts described in this document.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

The invention is further explained in the description of the preferred embodiment variants of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig.1 depicts a simplified block diagram of the lighting device in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the invention;

Fig.2 depicts a simplified schematic diagram of the reduction of light intensity in accordance with the embodiment of the invention;

Fig.3 depicts a simplified schematic diagram of the reduction of light intensity in accordance with another embodiment of the invention.

DESCRIPTION of the PREFERRED embodiments of the INVENTION

In neither sleduushem detailed description for purposes of explanation, but not limited to disclosed embodiments of the invention, disclosing specific details, to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the present invention. Descriptions of known devices, materials and manufacturing methods can be omitted in order to avoid ambiguities in the description of the exemplary embodiments. Despite this, such devices, materials and methods, which are within the horizons of a person skilled in the art can be used in accordance with exemplary embodiments of the implementation.

Fig.1 depicts a simplified block diagram of the lighting device 100 in accordance with various embodiment of the invention. The lighting device includes a circuit 101 reduce the strength of the light that accepts an input voltage, such as voltage. On the basis of the desired installation reduce the strength of the light, the circuit 101 reduce power light provides specific excitation current to the led 102. In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the lighting device can be provided in a housing scheme for the reduced power light and led in General or separate Assembly housing.

Fig.2 depicts a simplified schematic diagram 200 of reduction of light intensity in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. Diagram 200 of reducing the light intensity is assumed for the conference is mainly defined as a schema 101 reduce the light intensity of the lighting device 100 of Fig.1. Diagram 200 of reducing the strength of the light contains a Converter 201 constant current ("Converter"), and the controller 202. The controller 202 receives the input signal to reduce the power of light, and the Converter 201 receives the input voltage. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverter 201 is a known power source, configured to accept input power from one of the many known power sources, which are illustrative source voltage AC (mains voltage), a source of DC voltage or source voltage AC to low voltage. The Converter 201 provides an output current based on an input voltage. As described more fully herein, the PWM signal 203 is provided on the bypass switch (for example, field-effect transistor (FET)) 110 (Q1).

In the embodiment, the controller 202 includes a known microprocessor, containing a storage device and a logical device, and configured to accept input decreasing light intensity and to provide a PWM signal 203 and the reference voltage 204 (Vref). The use of the microprocessor is only illustrative and the use of programmable logic devices (PLD), such as the program which has been created by the user, a gate array (FPGA) or integrated circuit special applications (ASIC), or discrete electronic components, it is also intended for use in the controller 202.

The reference voltage 204 (Vref) provides one input signal to the circuit 205 gain errors. The current to the LEDs passes through the readout resistor 211 (R1), which produces a voltage reading, which is provided as another input signal to the circuit 205 gain errors. Circuit 205 gain error compares the voltage signal read from the reference voltage 204 (Vref). Signal 206 feedback, which is based on the output signal circuit 205 gain error, is provided on the inverter 201. In response to the value of the signal 206 feedback inverter 201 increases or decreases the current to the LEDs up until a few voltage on the readout resistor 211 (R1) becomes essentially identical to a reference voltage 204 (Vref).

When the operation of the Converter 201 provides a relatively constant current to the first coil 207 inductance (L1). The current from the Converter 201, in turn, flows to the second coil 208 inductance (L2). The second coil 208 inductance (L2) in combination with capacitor 209 (C1) mainly reduces fluctuations in current and provides an essentially constant direct current or LEDs (not shown in Fig.2) or to the shunt switch is the breaker 210 (Q1). The capacitor 209 (C1) and the second coil 208 inductance (L2) have the respective meanings selected so that the switching shunt switch 210 (Q1) did not change significantly the voltage on the capacitor 209 (C1), and thus, the current in the second coil 208 inductance (L2) remains essentially unchanged. This almost constant current then flows either to the LEDs directly, or through a shunt switch 210 (Q1).

The current flows either to the LEDs directly, or shunt switch 210 (Q1) depending on the level of reduction of light intensity provided by the input signal to reduce the light intensity to the controller 202. Often, to avoid displacement of the color level and to provide the basic level of performance, sets the minimum current amplitude. This minimum current amplitude is usually expressed in percent of the maximum level of current or amplitude through the contact of the led. For example, the manufacturer of the led or the manufacturer of the lamp may specify the minimum amplitude of current required for light-emitting diodes as a percentage of the maximum current amplitude, which can be enjoyed on the LEDs.

For illustrative purposes it is assumed that this minimum is currently approximately 10% of the maximum amplitude of the current of the LEDs used in the lighting device 100. It is noted, stoprocent of the maximum current amplitude may be less than or greater than 10%, and this value is chosen only for ease of explanation. In accordance with an exemplary embodiment described in connection with Fig.2, when the input signal to reduce the power light on the controller 202 is between 100% of this maximum current level and 10% of the maximum level of current, the output PWM signal from the controller 203 202 is at a voltage that is inversely shifts the shunt switch 210 (Q1), so that it does not conduct and is "off", and the reference voltage 204 (Vref) is proportional to the input signal to reduce the power of light. The reference voltage 204 (Vref) is input to the circuit 205 gain errors and provides feedback 206 to the transmitter 201, which is proportional to the error signal between the installation point of the desired current reference voltage 204 (Vref) and the actual current led read out on the read resistor 211 (R1). Feedback 206 is input to inverter 201, and the output signal from inverter 201 is an analog output signal, which provides the desired level of current to the led.

In contrast, and following illustrative values when the input signal to reduce the power light on the controller 202 is approximately 10% or less (up to approximately 0%), the controller 202 provides the reference voltage 104 (Vref) is 10% (or less, as the selected maximum value. The PWM signal 203 to the shunt switch 210 (Q1) selectively moves the shunt switch 210 (Q1) at a given duty cycle. In the present exemplary embodiment, when the threshold level of 10% of the maximum excitation current of the led PWM signal 203 has a duty cycle off, which essentially coincides with the desired level of reduction of light intensity divided by 10 (because the average current is already reduced to 10%). For example, the duty cycle off PWM 1% corresponds to a reduction of the light power at 0.1%.

Mainly because the shunt switch 210 (Q1) is displaced forward (enabled) only when the current through the first coil 207 inductance (L1) and the second coil 208 inductance (L2) is reduced to or below the selected part (for example, 10% or less) of the maximum level of current losses in the shunt switch 210 (Q1) is minimized. In addition, circuit 200 allows the shunt switch 210 (Q1) having a relatively high resistance and, in turn, a relatively low capacity. This reduces the chances of loss when switching if desired relatively high PWM frequency. For this purpose, in the illustrative embodiment, the shunt switch 210 (Q1) is a eld-effect transistor with a MOS structure (MOSFET) with batteries the m value of the voltage 600 V (assuming what led system has a high output voltage) has a resistance of about 1.2 Ohms and the output capacitance of about 100 pF. If the shunt switch 210 (Q1) of the present example (i.e. MOSFET) spent the entire current (for example, 1A) from the Converter 201, the loss of conductivity in itself would be 1 watt when in the ' on ' state shunt switch 210 (Q1) is about 100%. It should be understood that such losses are not desirable. On the contrary, and in accordance with exemplary embodiments of the implementation, if the current through the shunt switch 210 (Q1) is limited to 10% or less of the maximum level of current losses on the electrical conductivity of the same MOSFET are substantially lower; illustrative, 0,012 W under the same conditions and parameters. Because of the significant reduction in the conduction losses, the resistance of the shunt switch 210 (Q1) can be selected higher. In continuing the same example, if the shunt switch 210 (Q1) would be a MOSFET with a higher resistance (e.g., 10 Ohms), the output capacity would be decreased (for example, 10 times in this example). Mainly, the loss of conductivity and loss when switching significantly reduced (10 times in this example), and the switching time is also reduced due to reduced capacity. In pH and decrease switching time of shunt switch 210 (Q1) may be particularly advantageous, because relatively precise control of the reduction of the light power benefits from a relatively fast switching transitions, which are caused by a software switch (e.g., shunt switch 210 (Q1)) with a relatively low capacity, approximate versions of the implementation. In addition, a MOSFET with increased 10-fold resistance in the on state is much less expensive than a FET with a lower resistance.

In particular, the frequency of the PWM signal 203 provided on the shunt switch 210 (Q1) may be selected to optimize the performance of the circuit 200. In practice, it is desirable to have essentially a constant current in the coil 207 of the inductance (L1) and essentially constant voltage at the capacitor 209 (C1), when the shunt switch 210 (Q1) turns on and off with a fixed duty cycle in response to the PWM signal 203. This ensures that the current in the LEDs is proportional to duty cycle shunt switch or reverse duty cycle. In accordance with an exemplary embodiment, these conditions are achieved by selecting a sufficiently high frequency PWM for shunt switch 210 (Q1). In an exemplary embodiment, the power sources are isolated, and mostly Converter 201, which PR is isolation, never ceases to switch and, therefore, continuously provides sufficient capacity for the additional winding of the power required for the excitation of the amplifiers current feedback controllers and interface reduce the light power when the minimum output current of the Converter is fixed at a non-zero minimum level (for example, 10% or less of the maximum in the above example). The frequency of the PWM signal 203 for LEDs is usually selected in the range from 200 Hz to 5 kHz. However, to reduce the size of the second coil 208 inductance (L2) and a capacitor 209 (C1) possible functioning of the shunt switch 210 (Q1) at still higher frequencies. This is particularly appropriate when the shunt switch 210 (Q1) is a device with a relatively high resistance and low capacitance, which provides fast switching transitions.

Fig.3 depicts a simplified schematic diagram 300 of reducing the light intensity in accordance with another exemplary embodiment. Diagram 300 of reducing the light intensity is assumed for use as circuit 101 reduce the light intensity of the lighting device 100 of Fig.1. Many of the details of the components described in connection with the implementation of the circuit 200 of reducing light intensity, is shown in Fig.2, are common variant OS is enforced schema 300 reduce the strength of the light. Many of these common components is not repeated to avoid complicating the description in the present described embodiments. In addition, like variants of the implementation described in connection with Fig.2, a diagram 300 of reducing power light provides effective reduction of the light intensity of the LEDs in the whole range of reduction of light intensity from about 0% to about 100%. Similar to the diagram 200 reduce the light power circuit 300 reduce power light provides analog reducing the light power from the Converter 201 to a threshold level, which ensures the correct operation of LEDs with minimal color shift.

Diagram 300 of reducing the strength of the light contains a Converter 201 and the controller 202. The controller 202 receives the input signal to reduce the forces of light and the Converter 201 receives the input voltage, such as voltage AC. In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, controller 202 contains a known microprocessor, containing a storage device and a logical device, and configured to accept input decreasing light intensity and to provide a PWM signal 203 and the reference voltage 204 (Vref). The use of the microprocessor is only illustrative and the use of programmable logic devices (PLD), such as p is grammarway user, a gate array (FPGA) or integrated circuit special applications (ASIC), it is also assumed for use in the controller 202. The reference voltage 204 (Vref) provides one input signal to the circuit 205 of the amplifier.

Diagram 300 of reducing the force of light contains the buck Converter 301, which pulse-width modulates the output current with a threshold level (for example, 10% of the maximum amplitude of the current on the led) to 0% current or 100% reduction in light power. Booster Converter 301 includes the first switch 302 (Q1) connected in parallel with the second switch 303 (Q2), the coil 304 inductance and resistor 305. Diode 306 (D1) is provided between the output of the second switch 303 (Q2) and the input circuit 205 gain errors. Booster Converter 301 can be described as in the publication of the application 20080278092 for U.S. patent filed by the present applicant, entitled "Devices and methods for lighting based on LEDs with high power factor", Lys, et al. Description this publication of the patent application is expressly incorporated herein by reference. In accordance with exemplary embodiments of the implementation of the buck Converter 301 can operate at a high frequency compared with the frequency of the PWM signal 203 and to use the known method of control or to use hysteresis or peak method of current control for the teachings relatively fast and relatively accurate current control. The switching frequency buck Converter 301 illustrative is in the range from about 100 kHz to about 500 kHz. Losses during switching are low, if the capacity of the second switch 303 (Q2) and diode 306 (D1) are relatively small (of the order of 101pF). This can be achieved, if the resistance in the on state of the second switch 303 (Q2) is selected high enough and the rated current of the diode 306 (D1) is selected low enough. Essentially, in accordance with exemplary embodiments of the implementation of the current through the buck Converter 301 is maintained at a sufficiently low amplitude (for example, 10% or less of the maximum led current) that allows you to choose a relatively high resistance in the on state of the second switch 303 (Q2) and that allows a relatively low current diode 306 (D1) without significant loss of conductivity. For example, a diode with rated current in 1 a may have a capacitance of 20-50 pF, whereas the diode (for example, the diode 306 (D1)) with a nominal current of 0.1 a can have a capacitance in the range of from about 1 pF to about 5 pF, which is a relatively low value. Loss proportional to the switching frequency, so that reduction in 10 times capacity leads to a decrease in 10 times the losses in the switch, which can be the very significant when the frequency of operation from 100 kHz to 500 kHz.

In accordance with the variants of the invention, the booster Converter 301 operates at relatively high switching frequencies to provide a low fluctuations of the output current on the LEDs (that is, essentially, a constant current led) with a low value of the coil 304 inductance (L2). In particular, the inclusion of inductance with a relatively small value in the coil 304 inductance (L2) will determine how quickly the coil 304 inductance (L2) may be discharged during the "off" cycle of the PWM. Essentially, the coil 304 inductance (L2) determines the speed of the switching cycle of the PWM, and, consequently, the maximum frequency of the PWM signal 203 and the rise time and the fall time of the PWM signal 203. Essentially, the coil 304 inductance (L2) of the booster Converter 301 determines the resolution of the decrease of light intensity and the minimum attainable level of reduction of light intensity in the diagram 300 of reducing the force of light.

It is noted, however, that the frequency of the PWM signal 203 may not be chosen arbitrarily small. At frequencies PWM of the order of about 100 Hz in the result, it is possible to obtain a visible flicker, and even the frequency of the PWM, as low as 500 Hz, can be a problem for photography. Essentially, in accordance with exemplary embodiments of the implementation to avoid program measures the project and ensure the best quality light output of the LEDs, the frequency of the PWM signal is set above the threshold level. In practice, the buck Converter 301 operates at a frequency of at least 100 times greater than the frequency of the PWM to provide a duty cycle PWM approximately 5% with acceptable accuracy. For lower levels reduce the light power required even higher injection frequency.

Adhering illustrative of the range described above, the analog reducing the light power can be realized from reducing the force of light from about 0% reduction in light intensity (that is, no reduction of the forces of light and 100% of the maximum amplitude of the current on the led) up to 90% reduction in light intensity (that is, 10% of the maximum amplitude of the current on the led). Decreasing the light intensity is below 90% of the high-frequency buck Converter 301 is used for PWM output current from 10% to 0%. It is noted, however, that the buck Converter 301 allows you to set the threshold level to a value in approximately 5% of the maximum amplitude of the current to the LEDs. As stated above, the booster Converter 301 can operate at a very high frequency compared with the frequency of the PWM and use a standard way of controlling or use hysteresis or peak method of controlling current to produce a very fast and accurate current control. Booster Converter 301 can b the th device is activated with a switch (FET or other) during part of the analog reduce the strength of the light, where used, the primary current control to minimize any additional losses at full output power. The first switch 302 (Q1), which is a bypass (bypass) switch, can be one of many managed switches (e.g., FET) and in the present embodiment, may be relatively slow switching device, since it must be switched on only above 10% reduction in light intensity (for example) and off below this level. The first switch 302 (Q1) can have a relatively low resistance in the on state. The capacity of the first switch 302 (Q1) is an insignificant factor in the design of the schema, as in the first switch 302 (Q1) there is a low loss switching. In particular, in exemplary embodiments, the implementation team reduce the light intensity is relatively fixed and is changed only when the user changes the set value. For example, in the continuation of this example, if given the command to reduce the light intensity in 11% of the maximum current, the first switch 302 (Q1) is turned on and the Converter 201 provides a constant current of 11% on the LEDs. It is noted that the first switch 302 (Q1) is never turned off in this state and the second switch 303 (Q2) is never included, so no sweat and switching. In contrast, for example, if given the command to reduce the light power in 9% of the maximum current, the first switch 302 (Q1) is turned off and the buck Converter 301 provides control of the constant current. In this range of operation of the first switch (Q1) is not switched, but turned off. Again there is no loss on the switch, make the first switch 302 (Q1).

When functioning on the basis of the input signal to reduce the light power controller 202 provides the reference voltage 204 (Vref) and the PWM signal 203. When the reference voltage 204 (Vref) exceeds the threshold decreasing light intensity (for example, 10% of the maximum amplitude of the current to the LEDs), the first switch 302 (Q1), which functions as a shunt switch buck Converter 301 is shifted conductivity (i.e. activated) Converter 201. Thus, for the input signal to reduce the power light on the controller 202 to 0% reduction in light intensity (that is, the maximum amplitude of the current to the LEDs) to the minimum analog reference reduce light power (10% of the maximum current amplitude, for example), the buck Converter 301 produces a regulated output current to the LEDs through the first switch 302 (Q1). All other components of the buck Converter 301, namely, the second switch 303 (Q1), coil 304 inductance (L2), resistor 305 (R3) and diode 306 (D1), are bridged to minimize losses. For input signals reduce the light intensity to the controller 202, smaller than a threshold value (for example, less than 10% of the maximum amplitude of the current on the led), the first switch 302 (Q1) is not conducting, and the Converter 201 regulates the voltage on the capacitance 307 (C1) to a voltage greater than the turn-on voltage of the led. Accordingly, the buck Converter 301 provides regulation of the led current 10% analog level. In addition, the second switch 303 (Q2) is turned on and off by the PWM 203 and, thus, the buck Converter 301 is then switched on and off at a relatively low frequency PWM (from 100 Hz to 1000 Hz, for example) by the controller 202. Duty cycle buck Converter 301 is then regulated on the basis of the PWM signal, essentially the same manner as in the circuit 200, in order to supply current from the PWM of the LEDs, which is proportional to the command reduction of light intensity (less during the on state with a small decrease in the forces of light and large during the off state).

In the embodiment, to avoid any problems of response of the control loop buck Converter 301 may have Rustica through hysteretic current control during the on state, that provides comparative fast response time, essentially without supplying excess current to the LEDs. However, alternative methods of current control, such as control of peak current, standard mode control current or control of a critical conduction current, can be used depending on the desired requirements. Since the booster circuit of the inverter 301 is active only during deep reduction of light intensity (less than 10%, for example), the second switch 303 (Q2), the diode 306 (D1) and the coil 304 inductance (L2) should be designed only to work with a 10% level of current, and not the full output current. It also allows you to select the switch (e.g. MOSFET) and a diode with a relatively low capacity, allowing fast frequency switching buck Converter 301 without excessive losses. Finally, the buck Converter 301 can be placed in the positive current connection of the led, as shown, or on the negative side, to make the excitation FET simpler (in relation to earth). Discusses other configurations within the horizons of a person skilled in the technical field.

While the present application has been described and illustrated several new implementation specialist in this on the region of the techniques can easily imagine a variety of other means and/or structures for performing the functions and/or obtaining the results and/or one or more advantages, described in this document, and each of such variations and/or modifications is expected within the volume of new embodiments of the invention described herein. More generally, specialists in the art will immediately understand that all the parameters, materials, and configurations described herein are exemplary and that actual parameters, materials and/or configurations will depend on the specific application or applications for which the invention is used. Specialists in this field technicians will be friendly, or they can be determined using no more than the usual experimentation, many equivalents of the specific new versions of the invention described herein. Therefore, it should be understood that the above described embodiments of the invention are presented only as examples and that within the scope of appended claims and its equivalents can be implemented new ways of carrying out the invention, other than those specifically described and claimed. New variants of the invention, the present description is directed to each individual feature, system, object, material, kit and/or method, described in this is the face of the document. In addition, any combination of two or more such features, systems, articles, materials, kits and/or methods, if such features, systems, articles, materials, kits and/or methods is not mutually exclusive, is included in the scope of the present description.

All of the definitions specified and used herein, should be understood as prevailing over dictionary definitions, definitions in the documents incorporated by reference, and/or typical values of the defined terms.

The singular is used herein in the description and in the claims, unless stated explicitly to the contrary, should be understood as meaning "at least one". The phrase "and/or" as used herein in the description and in the claims, should be understood as significant "either or both" of the element that are connected in such a way, that is, elements that together are present in some cases and separately present in other cases. Many items listed with "and/or" should be considered in the same way, that is "one or more" of the elements, thus United. Can optionally be present other items other than items that are expressly designated by the expression "and/or" related to or not related to explicit elements.

As indicated in the crust is present document in the description and in the claims, "or" should be understood as having the same meaning as "and/or", as defined above. For example, in the separation of elements in the list "or" or "and/or" should be interpreted as which includes, i.e. the inclusion of at least one, but also the inclusion of more than one set or list of elements and, optionally, additional non-specified elements. Only terms that clearly indicates to the contrary, such as "only one" or "exactly one" or, as used in the claims, "consisting of" refers to the inclusion of exactly one element from a set or list of elements. In General, the term "or" as used herein should be interpreted as indicating the exclusion of alternatives (i.e. "one or the other, but not both"), when in front of him are the terms of exclusivity, such as "or, or", "one", "only one" or "exactly one". "Consisting essentially of", as used in the claims, should have its usual value used in patent law.

Any symbols or other characters that appear in parentheses in the claims, are given only for convenience and are not intended to limit the claims in any way.

It should also be understood that, if avn is not specified, the in any of the ways stated in this document, which include more than one step or steps, the order of the steps or actions of the method is not necessarily limited as specified stages or steps of the method.

In the claims, as well as in the above description, all transitional phrases such as "comprising", "includes", "carrying", "having", "including", "holding", "comprising" and the like should be understood as open, i.e. implying the inclusion of but not the limitation. Only the transitional phrases "consisting of" and "consisting essentially of" shall be closed or semi-closed transitional phrases, respectively.

1. The scheme of reduction of light intensity for the led load that contains one or more LEDs, containing:
the current controller, configured to accept input decreasing light intensity, which is a variable indicating the percentage of maximum excitation current supplied to the led load, and output a pulse width modulation (PWM) and the reference voltage,
current transducer configured to accept a supply voltage and to provide the output current, and
a shunt switch connected to the controller and the Converter current between the current controller and modiodal load, moreover, the shunt switch configured to divert at least a portion of the output current from the Converter current from the supply to the led load when the shunt switch is conductive, and when the shunt switch is non-conductive when the input signal to reduce the power light indicates that the percentage exceeds the threshold level.

2. The scheme of reduction of light intensity under item 1, in which the shunt switch is conductive when the input signal is decreasing light intensity less than the threshold level.

3. The scheme of reduction of light intensity on p. 1, additionally containing a first inductor connected between the inverter current and shunt switch, and the current through the first inductor is proportional to the threshold level, when the shunt switch is non-conductive.

4. The scheme of reduction of light intensity under item 1, in which the controller includes a circuit configured to take input decreasing light intensity and output the PWM signal and the reference voltage.

5. The scheme of reduction of light intensity on p. 4, in which the controller includes a storage device containing the correlation between the input signal to reduce the power of light with a PWM signal and a reference voltage.

6. A scheme for the reduced power light is on p. 1, in which the controller includes a programmable logic device (PLD) configured to take input decreasing light intensity and output the PWM signal and the reference voltage.

7. The scheme of reduction of light intensity under item 1, in which the threshold level is in the range from about 0% of the maximum excitation current to about 10% of the maximum excitation current.

8. The scheme of reduction of light intensity for the led load that contains one or more LEDs, containing:
a controller, configured to accept input decreasing light intensity, which is a variable indicating the percentage of maximum excitation current supplied to the led load, and to provide a signal with pulse-width modulation and the reference voltage,
current transducer configured to accept input and provide output current, and
booster Converter connected between the inverter current and the led load, and booster Converter includes a first switch that turns on and off in response to the PWM signal, and additionally includes a shunt switch connected in parallel with the first switch, and which is non-conductive when the one signal to reduce power light indicates that percentage is less than the threshold level.

9. The scheme of reduction of light intensity on p. 8, in which the shunt switch is conductive when the input signal is decreasing light intensity greater than the threshold level.

10. The scheme of reduction of light intensity on p. 8, further containing a first inductor connected between the inverter current and booster Converter and the current through the first inductor is proportional to the threshold level, when the shunt switch is conductive.

11. The scheme of reduction of light intensity on p. 8, in which the controller includes a microprocessor configured to accept input decreasing light intensity and output the PWM signal and the reference voltage.

12. The scheme of reduction of light intensity on p. 11, in which the controller includes a storage device containing the correlation between the input signal to reduce the power of light with a PWM signal and a reference voltage.

13. The scheme of reduction of light intensity on p. 8, in which the controller includes a programmable logic device, configured to accept input decreasing light intensity and output the PWM signal and the reference voltage.

14. The scheme of reduction of light intensity on p. 8, in which the threshold level is in the range from about 0% of the maximum current who is here to about 10% of the maximum excitation current.



 

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