Method of control of orientation of space transport cargo ship with stationary solar battery panels during works in conditions of rotary motion

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to control of orientation of a space, in particular, a transport cargo ship (TCS) with stationary solar battery panels (SB). The method includes the rotation of TCS around a normal to the working surface of SB facing towards the Sun with an angular speed of at least 1.5 deg/sec. Meanwhile within the time interval of at least one round the components of the angular speed of TCS in a structural coordinate system are measured. Using the measured values, directions of the main central axes of inertia of TCS are determined. Among these axes an axis other than the axis of the minimum moment of inertia and making the minimum angle with the normal to the working surface of SB is found. The angle between the direction towards the Sun and the plane of the TCS orbit is determined. If this angle exceeds a certain value depending on the specified minimum angle and also - on the minimum and maximum SB currents, TCS is turned. Meanwhile the named found inertia axis is combined with the direction, perpendicular to the orbit plane and making a sharp angle with the direction towards the Sun. TCS is rotated around this axis towards the direction opposite to orbital rotation. During the rotation the current from SB is measured. At the achievement by the current of the minimum value TCS is again turned until the alignment of the named found axis of inertia of TCS with the named perpendicular direction and again the named rotation of TCS is performed.

EFFECT: ensuring of the necessary power return of SB in the mode of TCS rotation around one of its actual main central axes of inertia at maintaining of the axis of the minimum moment of inertia in the orbit plane.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of space technology and can be used for attitude control of a SPACECRAFT (SC) in the works in terms of rotational motion.

The rotary motion of the SPACECRAFT is used, for example, when conducting experiments and research in the field of microgravity and implemented spins around KA directions specified in the building coordinate system KA.

Consider what type of vehicle cargo ships (THC), undertaking missions to the space station - for example, to the international space station. Data KA convenient to carry out research at the stage of their Autonomous flight after undocking from the space station.

There is a method of attitude control of SPACECRAFT, including exhibition axes AC and maintaining the angular position of the engine orientation (Alekseev, K. B., byabenin,, office of space flight vehicles. M: Mechanical Engineering, 1974). However, to use this method you must consume a working medium, which causes, in addition unpredicted microcornea on Board the SPACECRAFT.

There is a method of attitude control of SPACECRAFT with a fixed solar panels when performing experiments on orbits with a maximum duration of shadow plot (Patent RF №2457158, priority from 22.09.2010, the PC (2006.01) B64G 1/24, 1/44), including the gravitational orientation of the SPACECRAFT and spin around its longitudinal axis corresponding to the minimum moment of inertia, when the Sun is near to the plane of the orbit combine this plane with the plane SAT by the passing of the morning terminator, measure and monitor the angle between the normal to the active (working) surface SB and the direction to the Sun, at the moment of passing of the morning terminator perform the spin of the SPACECRAFT in the direction corresponding to the reduction of the specified angle, and the angular velocity of the spin is chosen from a specified range of values. The method allows to provide some coverage of the SAT and the coming of electricity to conduct non-energy-intensive experiments. When solar radiation enters the SB with directions, substantially separated from the normal to the working surface SB, resulting generated by SB current is significantly different from the maximum current that can generate Coll. At the same time when performing several experiments, including crystal growth, it is necessary to provide a large eat electricity SB, because for conducting such experiments used energy-intensive equipment.

Closest to the proposed prototype is the way (Belyaev, M. Y. "Scientific experiments in space ships and space stations". M:Machinery, 1984), including the reversal of THC, the normal to the working surface SB of which coincides with one of the principal axes of inertia, to match the direction normal to the working surface SB with direction to the Sun and spin TGC around the given axis. Prototype method allows to provide the highest possible arrival of electricity from SAT to work with energy-intensive equipment.

TGC is used for cargo delivery to the space station and to remove the goods from the station. The distribution of masses of disposable cargoes within THC is poorly predictable and loaded THC is not accurately known inertial characteristics - their actual values differ significantly from the design or theoretically predicted estimates. Prototype method does not take into account the mismatch between projected and actual inertial characteristics of THC, including to determine the actual inertial characteristics of THC after downloading it to remove from orbital space station cargo. This leads to a management orientation TGC his servants (i.e. unreliable) inertial characteristics. While unmanaged rotational movement of THC in the process of spin, made around inaccurately defined the main Central axes of inertia, will have indignation, the cat is who are undesirable for experimentation and research in the field of microgravity.

In addition, in the General case, for a spin THC over time due to harmful effects on the orientation of THC external moments rotational movement of the THC will "fall apart", which will then decrease the advent of electricity from SB and worsen conditions for experiments.

Task to be solved by the present invention is directed is to provide attitude control of THC with fixed panels SAT in the works in terms of the rotational motion of THC around its main Central axes of inertia.

The technical result of the invention is to provide the necessary energoprivod from SAT in the spinning mode is loaded deleted orbital space station cargo THC.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of controlling the orientation space TGC with fixed panels SAT in the works in terms of rotational motion, including the reversal of THC to achieve a sharp angle between the normal to the working surface SB and the direction to the Sun and spin TGC around a given axis, additionally produce spin around THC direction normal to the working surface of the security Council aimed at the Sun, the angular velocity of not less than 1.5 deg/sec, in this twist on the time interval of a duration of at least about the nogo coils measure the components of the angular velocity of THC in the building coordinate system, on the measured values of the component of angular velocity of THC determine the directions of the principal Central axes of inertia of THC, determine the main Central axis of inertia of THC that is different from the axis of minimum moment of inertia component and the minimum angle with the normal to the working surface SB, determine the angle between the direction of the Sun and the plane of the orbit of THC and when exceeding this angle values of90°+g-arccosI*Imax,

where g is the angle between videopreteen principal Central axis of inertia and normal to the working surface SB,

I* is a minimal value of the current on SAT,

Imaxmaximum current from SA,

deploy THC to match videopreteen main Central axes of inertia in a direction perpendicular to the orbital plane and constituting an acute angle with the direction to the Sun, and produce the spin TGC around this axis in the direction against the orbital rotation during the spin measure the current from the SB, when reaching the measured value of the current solar minimum allowable values again deploy THC to match videopreteen main Central axes of inertia with the mentioned direction is m, perpendicular to the plane of the orbit, and re-produce the spin TGC around this axis in the direction against the orbital rotation.

The essence of the invention is illustrated in Fig.1 which shows a diagram of the orientation of THC in the process of spin TGC around the main Central axes of inertia.

In Fig.1 introduced the notation:

1 - the plane of the orbit of THC;

2 - the scope of the provisions of the normal to the working surface SB in the process of spin THC;

N is the direction normal to the working surface SB;

S - the direction to the Sun;

P - direction, perpendicular to the orbital plane of THC and forming an acute angle with the direction of the Sun;

x1x2x3axis parallel to the main Central axes of inertia of THC;

g is the angle between the normal to the working surface SB and the main Central axis of inertia of THC that is different from the axis of minimum moment of inertia and a component of the minimum angle with the normal to the working surface SB;

α is the angle between the normal to the working surface SB and the direction to the Sun;

β is the angle between the direction of the Sun and the plane of the orbit of THC.

Explain proposed mode of action.

Consider the stage of Autonomous flight THC. In the proposed method, deploy THC to match the direction normal to the working surface SB with direction to the Sun and producing the t spin around THC direction normal to the working surface SB with an angular speed of not less than 1.5 deg/sec.

In this orientation provides maximum arrival power from the SAT required for charging rechargeable batteries, the power supply system of THC.

In the course of execution of twist is measured components of the angular velocity of THC in the building coordinate system of THC on the time interval of a duration of at least one turn.

On the measured values of the component of angular velocity of THC determine the current actual values of the directions of the principal Central axes of inertia of THC in the building coordinate system.

The assay can be performed, for example, as follows.

Use the following coordinate system. Building system1the2the3rigidly connected with the body of THC. Consider, for example, that the y axis1parallel to the longitudinal axis of the ship and sent from the docking station to the aggregate compartment, the y axis2directed normal to the working surface SB. Axis system x1x2x3parallel to the main Central axes of inertia of THC. The position of the system x1x2x3regarding system1the2the3will ask angles γ, α and β, which will enter through the following conditions. System1the2the3can be transferred to the system x1x2x3three successive rotations: 1) the angle α of y 2, 2) the angle β around the new y3, (3) the angle γ around the new y1coinciding with the axis x1. The transition matrix from system x1x2x3to the system in1the2the3letwhereaijthe cosine of the angle between the axes yiand xj. The elements of this matrix are functions of the entered angles.

The components of the angular velocity of THC in the system x1x2x3denote ωi(i=1, 2, 3). To describe the time-dependent values of ωiuse dynamic Euler equations of a free rigid body, which is not acted upon by external mechanical things. These equations have the form

ω1=μω2ω3,ω2=μ'-μ1-μμ'ω3ω1,ω3=μ'ω1ω2, (1)

μ=J2-J3J1,μ'=J2-J1J3,

where Jithe moments of inertia of THC relative to the axes xi. The parameters µ, µ' and the angles γ, α and β for a particular phase of flight specific TGC have some project predicted values and actual values are determined from the data of measurements of angular velocity obtained during the execution of the spin THC.

Solving equations (1), describes the change of variables ωiduring these spins, expressed approximate formulas ω1=λ[Asinv(t-t0)+Bcosv(t-t0)],

ω2=Ω, (2)

ω3=Acosv(t-t0)- Bsinv(t-t0),

λ=μμ',v=Ωμμ'.

Here A, b and Ω are arbitrary constants. Formula (2) is the more accurate, the smaller the absolute value of the relationship A/Ω,/Ω.

During the twist is measured angular velocity of THC. Measurement data have the form

tn,Ω1(n),Ω2(n),Ω2(n)(n=1,2,3,...,N),the (3)

whereΩi(n)(i=1,2,3)- the measured values of the Ωithe angular velocity in the construction of the coordinate system at time tn:Ωi(n)Ωi(tn), t1<t2<...<tN. The processing of data relating to a specific twist of THC, is to find the solution of the equations (1), the best matching these data with their estimated counterparts

Ωi=k=13aikωk(i=1,2, 3).

Here ωkcan be specified as formulas (2) and exact solution of equations (1).

Processing of measurement data (3) is performed by the method of least squares is to minimize the expression

Φ=n=1Ni=13[Ωi(n)-Ωi(tn)]2.

By using formulas (2) the minimization is performed on eight parameters: a, b, Ω, λ, ν, γ, α and β, which are considered to be independent. After evaluation of these parameters is found, calculated µ=λµ/Ω, µ'=ν/λΩ. While minimizing f on exact solutions of equations (1) (this gives a somewhat more accurate estimates) used other eight parameters: ωi(t1) (i=1, 2, 3), µ, µ', γ, α and β. Characteristics accuracy of the found estimates are calculated under the standard assumptions of the least squares method.

The described data processing method of measurement (3), obtained for a particular spin con the specific THC, uploaded removed from the space station with cargo and making Autonomous flight after undocking from the station, are mentioned sets of eight parameters, which determine the actual direction of the main Central axes of inertia of THC in the construction of the coordinate system and the dimensionless combination of its principal Central moments of inertia.

To obtain an acceptable accuracy of determination of the main Central axes of inertia angular velocity of spin THC, is used to determine the principal Central axes of inertia, must be large enough. High speed twist parries the harmful influence of external moments, because the higher the speed of the spin, the greater the time interval of movement of THC can be considered to be free and to obtain the necessary measurements for subsequent target processing. Calculations and numerical estimates show that the lower the guaranteed value of the angular velocity of the spin performed to determine the principal Central axes of inertia of THC, is 1.5 deg/sec, with the duration of the measurement interval the angular velocity of not less than one revolution.

Thus, the above computational algorithm determines the actual values of the directions of the principal Central axes of inertia of THC in the building coordinate system.

After the distribution of the actual values of the component directions of the main Central axes of inertia of THC in the building coordinate system define the main Central axis of inertia of THC, different from the axis of minimum moment of inertia component and the minimum angle with the normal to the working surface SB.

Determine the angle β between the direction of the Sun and the plane of the orbit of THC. The value of the angle β in flight varies from zero to its maximum value, determined by the inclination of the orbit of THC.

Determine the point in time at which the condition

β>90°+g-arccosI*Imax,(4)

where g is the angle between videopreteen principal Central axis of inertia of THC and normal to the working surface SB,

I* is a minimal value of the current on SAT,

Imaxmaximum current from SAT (current produced when the orientation of the normal to the working surface SB in the direction of the Sun).

The value of I* limitI*Imaxcos(90°+g-βmax)where βmax- m is kimalee the value of the angle β, which is determined by the value of the orbital inclination of THC.

At the time, satisfying the condition (4), unfold the THC to match videopreteen main Central axes of inertia of THC direction perpendicular to the orbital plane and constituting an acute angle with the direction to the Sun, and produce the spin TGC around this axis in the direction against the orbital rotation. In this orientation, the axis of minimum moment of inertia of THC is in the plane of the orbit and spin turns steady.

The direction of twist against the speed of orbital rotation allows the use of lower speed twist that creates the best conditions to perform experiments in microgravity. For example, for THC type Progress vehicle speed of this spin can be selected about 0.2 deg/sec.

During this spin, the maximum value of the angle between the normal to the working surface SB and the direction to the Sun is 90°+g-β, while the actual current value from the SS will be the value of Imaxcosα. Condition (4) corresponds to the fact that in the process of this spin current measured current value from the SB is not less than I*.

However, despite the stability of such spin, due to the error of the initial conditions of angular velocities around the construction of the axes of the Ledger and due to the influence of external moments rotational movement of THC can evolve, in the result, the axis of minimum moment of inertia will deviate from the plane of the orbit.

The result is that the upper boundary of the range of variation of the angle between the normal to the working surface SB and the direction to the Sun will increase, which will lead to a reduction in current receipt of electricity from SAT.

During the spin measure the current from SB and compare it to a minimal value I*. Upon reaching the measured current value from SB minimal value I* deploy again TGC to match videopreteen main Central axes of inertia of THC with the said direction perpendicular to the plane of the orbit, and re-produce the spin TGC around this axis.

Describe the technical effect of the invention.

The proposed solution provides the necessary Energoproekt from SA loaded deleted orbital space station cargo THC when performing spinning mode TGC around one of the actual main Central axes of inertia, while maintaining the actual axis of minimum moment of inertia in the plane of the orbit, with the actual main Central axes of inertia of THC pre-determined by measuring the angular speed of rotation of THC.

Performing a spin around THC actual main Central axes of inertia providing the et the absence of perturbations of the rotational motion of THC, what is required for experiments and research in the field of microgravity, and the actual axis of inertia may differ significantly from their project estimates.

This ensures both precision control of spin and control to ensure the necessary energoprivod from SB by measuring in the process of spin current on SAT and restore all settings to twist when the measured current value PV becomes smaller than the minimum value.

The achievement of the technical result is achieved by constructing the proposed orientation of THC, in which the normal to the working surface SB is aimed at the Sun, and the proposed spin around THC direction normal to the working surface SB, the proposed measurement of the angular velocity of THC in the suggested times in the course of this twist and identify the current actual values of the inertial characteristics of THC, build in the proposed time of the proposed orientation of THC, which proposed a way selected the actual main axis of inertia TGC sent to the specified perpendicular to the orbit plane, and then perform a spin TGC around this axis, and by the proposed measure in the process of this spin current from the and restore all settings to twist in time when the measured current value PV becomes smaller than the minimum value.

Now technically ready to implement the proposed method on such as THC ship "Progress". For the implementation of u-turns, spin THC and the necessary calculations can be used regular controls of the ship "Progress" - the standard sensors of angular velocity (VCS), the system control the orientation of the spacecraft "Progress", the orientation engines, on-Board computer. For measuring and tracking angle between the orbit plane and the Sun and the angle between the normal to the surface SB and the direction to the Sun can be used in standard solar sensors and computing devices. The spin of the ship is for the time needed for experiments.

The method of controlling the orientation of cargo transport vehicle with a fixed solar panels in the works in terms of rotational motion, including the reversal of the ship to achieve a sharp angle between the normal to the working surface of the solar cell and the direction to the Sun and spin the ship around an axis, characterized in that produce the spin transport cargo ship around the direction normal to the working surface of solar panels aimed at the U is e, the angular velocity of not less than 1.5 deg/sec, in this twist on the time interval of a duration of at least one coil is measured components of the angular velocity transport cargo vehicle in the construction of the coordinate system on the measured values of the component of the angular velocity transport cargo vehicle, determine the direction of the main Central axes of inertia of the cargo vehicle, determine the principal Central axis of inertia of the cargo vehicle, other than an axis of minimum moment of inertia component and the minimum angle with the normal to the working surface of solar panels, determine the angle between the direction of the Sun and the plane of the orbit cargo vehicle and when exceeding this angle values
,
where g is the angle between the said certain main Central axis of inertia and normal to the working surface of solar panels,
I* - the minimum value of the current from the solar panels
Imaxmaximum current from the solar panels
deploy cargo vehicle to match certain specified main Central axes of inertia in a direction perpendicular to the orbital plane and constituting an acute angle with the direction to the Sun, and produce the spin transport cargo short is fucking around this axis in the direction against orbital rotation, within this measure the spin current from the solar panels, when reaching the measured value of the current solar minimum allowable values again deploy cargo vehicle to match certain specified principal Central axis of inertia with the said direction perpendicular to the plane of the orbit, and re-produce the spin transport cargo vehicle around this axis in the direction against the orbital rotation.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aerospace engineering. Proposed method comprises supply spaceship spinning around perpendicular to solar battery working surface directed to the Sun at angular velocity of at least 1.5 degree/s. During said spinning at time interval of duration making at least one circuit supply angular velocity components are measured in structural system of coordinates. Measured magnitudes are used to define the directions of the main central axis of inertia of supply spaceship. Angle between direction to the Sun and spaceship orbit plane is defined. Spaceship orbit height is defined to determine the half-angle of the Earth disc visible from spaceship. In case said angle exceeds said half-angle the spaceship gravity orientation is constructed at aligning the axis of its minimum moment of inertia that makes the minimum angle with perpendicular to solar battery working surface, with direction to the Earth centre. Spaceship gravity orientation is maintained by spinning it around the axis of minimum moment of inertia at angular velocity defined from the condition of stability of the given gravity orientation of spaceship.

EFFECT: higher power yield of solar batteries owing to radiation reflected from the Earth at spaceship gravity orientation with spinning with allowance for actual main central axes of inertia.

1 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aerospace engineering. Proposed method comprises supply spaceship spinning around perpendicular to solar battery working surface directed to the Sun at angular velocity of at least 1.5 degree/s. During said spinning at time interval of duration making at least one circuit supply angular velocity components are measured in structural system of coordinates. Measured magnitudes are used to define the directions of the main central axis of inertia of supply spaceship. Spaceship is turned to alignment of the central axis of inertia making the minimum angle with perpendicular to solar battery working surface with direction to the Sun. Spaceship is spun around spaceship around said axis to measure solar battery current. After current reaches minimum permissible magnitudes spaceship is, again, turned to align said axis of inertia with direction to the Sun. Again, spaceship is spun around said axis.

EFFECT: higher power yield of solar batteries owing to radiation reflected from the Earth at spaceship gravity orientation with spinning with allowance for actual main central axes of inertia.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics; control.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to controlling movement of a spacecraft fitted with a heat radiator and a solar panel. The method includes flying the spacecraft on an orbit around a planet and turning the solar panel in a position corresponding to the alignment of the normal to the working surface of the solar panel with the direction towards the Sun; performing orbital orientation of the spacecraft, where the plane of rotation of the solar panel is parallel to the plane of the orbit of the spacecraft and the solar panel is located relative to the plane of the orbit on the side of the Sun; determining the maximum value of the angle between the velocity vector of the spacecraft and the perpendicular to the transverse axis of rotation of the solar panel, passing through the surface of the radiator; determining the orbital altitude of the spacecraft and the angle between the direction towards the Sun and the plane of the orbit of the spacecraft; based on the orbital altitude and the angle, determining the orbit passes where the duration of the illuminated part of the pass exceeds the difference between the orbiting period of the spacecraft and the required duration of the heat release by the radiator on the pass; on the said orbit passes, when the spacecraft passes through the illuminated part of the pass, the solar panel is turned around the transverse axis of rotation until the intersection of the line passing through the region of the surface of the radiator facing the Sun and directed towards the Sun with the solar panel; turning the solar panel around the longitudinal axis of rotation until the angle between the normal to the working surface of the solar panel and the direction towards the Sun assumes a minimum value. The said solar panel rotations are performed within a calculated time interval.

EFFECT: high efficiency of the radiator by creating conditions for natural cooling thereof during eclipse of the solar panel for any altitude of an almost circular orbit of the spacecraft.

5 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to controlling orientation of an artificial earth satellite with solar panels. The disclosed method includes performing necessary turning of the artificial earth satellite along with solar panels and, separately, the solar panels about a first and a second axis. The antenna of the artificial earth satellite is directed towards the earth and the normal to the solar panels is directed towards the sun. Independent programmed turns about the first and second axes of the artificial earth satellite are performed in intervals of uncertainty of orientation of the artificial earth satellite on shadow orbits. In different versions of said turns, after the first turn, the artificial earth satellite is held in an intermediate position and normal orientation of the artificial earth satellite is then restored. This improves the accuracy of predicting movement of the artificial earth satellite on shadow orbits and accuracy of measuring the range to the artificial earth satellite.

EFFECT: high accuracy of determining navigation-time data on navigation artificial earth satellites by consumers.

4 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to in-flight control over spacecraft equipped with heat radiator and solar battery. Proposed process comprises spacecraft flight in orbit around the planet with solar battery turn to position corresponding to normal to solar battery working surface directed to the Sun. Spacecraft orbital orientation is constructed whereat solar battery spinning plate is parallel with spacecraft orbit plane while solar battery is located on the Sun side relative to orbit plane. Spacecraft orbit altitude and angle between direction to the Sun and spacecraft orbit plane are defined. Magnitude of said angle (β*) is defined whereat duration of turn shadow section equals the necessary time of radiator heat release in said turn. Orbit turns are defined wherein current magnitude of said angle is larger than β*. In said turns, solar battery is turned around crosswise and lengthwise rotation axes unless shadowing of solar battery radiator. Note here that minimum departure of orientation of solar battery working surface to the Sun. Spacecraft orbital flight is conducted in near-circle orbit at altitude not exceeding a definite design value.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of radiator with solar battery shadowed at whatever position of spacecraft on orbit turn.

3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spacecraft (SC) motion control using solar radiation pressure forces distributed over SC working zones. The latter are formed as flat parallel optically transparent droplet flows. Distance between droplets of R radius in each flow in its lengthwise direction (Sx) and frontal-lateral direction (Sy) is divisible by 2R. Number of flows is n=(Sx/2R)1. By mutual bias of flows in direction of their motion for 2R distance droplet mist flows are generated in number of m=(Sy/2R)1. Each of the mentioned flows is biased relative to previous flow for 2R distance in frontal-lateral direction. Thus opacity in frontal-lateral direction and transparency in direction of plane perpendicular to a flow is created. Unit distributed light pressure force is regulated by changing radius and number of droplets coming to point of it application in unit time. Total action value is regulated by changing number of droplet jets.

EFFECT: increase of efficiency of light pressure distributed external forces usage by means of decreasing their disturbing effect on relative SC motion.

3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: result is achieved by increasing strength of connection of shunting diodes and solar elements, increased repeatability of the process of manufacturing of the solar battery of spacecrafts due to optimisation of the technology of manufacturing of shunting diodes and solar elements of the solar battery, and also switching buses that connect the solar elements and shunting diodes, which are made as multi-layer. The solar battery for small-size spacecrafts comprises the following: panels with modules with solar elements (SE) adhered to them, a shunting diode; switching buses that connect the face and reverse sides of the shunting diodes with solar elements, at the same time the shunting diode is installed in the cut in the corner of the solar element, at the same time switching buses are made as multi-layer, made of molybdenum foil, at two sides of which there are serial layers of vanadium or titanium, a layer of nickel and a layer of silver, accordingly.

EFFECT: increased resistance of solar batteries to thermal shocks, to impact of mechanical and thermomechanical loads, increased manufacturability of design, extended active life of a solar battery of spacecrafts, increased functional capabilities due to expansion of temperature range of functioning and optimisation of design of a solar battery, simplification of a switching system.

7 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spacecraft electric power supply with the help of solar batteries. Proposed method comprises definition of preset angle of solar battery orientation to the Sun by measured angular position of normal to battery working surface and computation of design angle relative thereto. Solar battery is spinned in direction of decrease in mismatch between preset and design angles. Solar battery acceleration angle (αAC) and deceleration angle (αDEC) are defined. Design angle is corrected when angle transducer readings vary by discrete sector of solar battery turn. Threshold of operation and drop-away (αT) and (αD) are set to terminate battery spinning if mismatch between preset angle and current angle increases but not over αT. Solar battery angular velocity is set or the order and larger than maximum angular velocity of spacecraft revolution around the Earth while discrete sector magnitude is set to smaller than αT. Solar battery working angle (αW) is set provided that αT < αW < (α"ГОР" - 2·(αAC + αDEC)). Angular position of closest beam of angle αW is assigned to preset angle if direction to the Sun in projection to the plane of spinning of said normal is located outside of αW. Is angular position of said normal is outside αW to vary in direction of increase of angle relative to nearest beam of angle αW, failure warning is generated to terminate control over solar battery.

EFFECT: ruled out jamming and breakage of solar battery panels or spacecraft onboard hardware at turns from 90° to 180°.

3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spacecraft electric power supply with the help of solar batteries. Proposed method comprises definition of preset and current angles of solar battery orientation and solar battery angular velocity (ωSB). Design angle is computed to assign measured angle magnitude thereto and memorised prior to start of control over solar battery. Solar battery is spinned in direction of decrease in mismatch between preset and design angles. Defined are angles of solar battery acceleration and deceleration (tAC, αDEC) and threshold (tTHR, αTHR) and maximum tolerable angle of its deflection (αMAX) proceeding from minimum tolerable currents of solar battery. Said angles are used to set operation threshold (αS). The latter exceeded, said mismatch is generated. The latter is not taken into account if lower than drop-away threshold (αDROP). The latter reached, solar battery spinning is terminated. Solar battery design angle is corrected with the limits of one discrete sector of solar battery spinning circle. Discrete sector magnitude depends of angles αAC, αTHR and αS. Depending upon αS and ωSB threshold of the interval of control over continuous variation of data on solar battery angular position is set. Count of said interval is made if current measured angle differs from memorised one by more than one discrete sector and is terminated otherwise. Threshold of the time of control over solar battery spinning is set depending upon tAC, tTHR, αMAX, ωSB and discrete sector magnitude. This time is counted at zero time of control over continuity is sign of mismatch between measured and memorised angles dose not satisfy the solar battery preset direction of spinning. Otherwise, count is terminated to zero the time of control of spinning direction. Note here that when measured angle varies by one discrete sector, angular angle of boundary between discrete sectors is taken to be design angle to assign new measured angle to memorised angle. In case the time of control over continuity or that over spinning direction exceeds its threshold, failure signal is generated to terminate control over solar battery.

EFFECT: higher survivability and efficiency.

3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spacecraft electric power supply with the help of solar batteries. Proposed method consists in definition of preset angle of solar battery, measurement of its current angle and computation of design angle by angular velocity and spinning time. Solar battery acceleration angle (αAC) and deceleration angle (αDEC) are defined. Solar battery is spinned to threshold of drop-away (αDROP ≈ (αDEC) when mismatch between said preset and design angles is terminated. Before start of the control, preset angle is memorised to take initial preset angle as valid actual current angle. Mismatch threshold (αTHR) of said angles proceeding from angles αAC and αDEC, as well as minimum tolerable currents of solar battery. Angle transducer circle is divided into equal discrete sectors by magnitude a given the condition αAC + αDEC < σ < αTHR. Discrete sector bisectors are taken to be measured magnitudes. Period of valid current angle definition is set to the order and exceeding maximum duration of transducer data fault and smaller than minimum interval of faults train. Said interval is divided to four equal interval while analysis of measured and memorised magnitudes in said intervals are reset to generate validity signal. In the latter case, solar battery is spinned to mismatch between design and preset angles αDROP to set new preset angle magnitude.

EFFECT: higher survivability and efficiency.

4 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aerospace engineering. Proposed method comprises supply spaceship spinning around perpendicular to solar battery working surface directed to the Sun at angular velocity of at least 1.5 degree/s. During said spinning at time interval of duration making at least one circuit supply angular velocity components are measured in structural system of coordinates. Measured magnitudes are used to define the directions of the main central axis of inertia of supply spaceship. Angle between direction to the Sun and spaceship orbit plane is defined. Spaceship orbit height is defined to determine the half-angle of the Earth disc visible from spaceship. In case said angle exceeds said half-angle the spaceship gravity orientation is constructed at aligning the axis of its minimum moment of inertia that makes the minimum angle with perpendicular to solar battery working surface, with direction to the Earth centre. Spaceship gravity orientation is maintained by spinning it around the axis of minimum moment of inertia at angular velocity defined from the condition of stability of the given gravity orientation of spaceship.

EFFECT: higher power yield of solar batteries owing to radiation reflected from the Earth at spaceship gravity orientation with spinning with allowance for actual main central axes of inertia.

1 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aerospace engineering. Proposed method comprises supply spaceship spinning around perpendicular to solar battery working surface directed to the Sun at angular velocity of at least 1.5 degree/s. During said spinning at time interval of duration making at least one circuit supply angular velocity components are measured in structural system of coordinates. Measured magnitudes are used to define the directions of the main central axis of inertia of supply spaceship. Spaceship is turned to alignment of the central axis of inertia making the minimum angle with perpendicular to solar battery working surface with direction to the Sun. Spaceship is spun around spaceship around said axis to measure solar battery current. After current reaches minimum permissible magnitudes spaceship is, again, turned to align said axis of inertia with direction to the Sun. Again, spaceship is spun around said axis.

EFFECT: higher power yield of solar batteries owing to radiation reflected from the Earth at spaceship gravity orientation with spinning with allowance for actual main central axes of inertia.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aerospace engineering and can be used in spacecraft engines. Power plant comprises cryogenic tank with shield-vacuum heat insulation and channel with heat exchanger, flow control valve, booster pump, intake with capillary accumulator with heat exchanger and throttle and hydropneumatic system with pipeline. Channel cross-section sizes comply with maximum outer sizes of heat exchanger cross-section.

EFFECT: cooling of cryogenic component in capillary accumulator.

3 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spacecraft control in atmosphere of planet by adjusting its aerodynamics. Spacecraft velocity in atmosphere at initial flight part increases (spacecraft flies toward conditional orbit pericentre). Atmosphere density is low yet to cause notable spacecraft deceleration. As spacecraft reaches atmosphere dense layers its velocity decreases to reach atmosphere enter velocity for angle of roll (γ) γ=π to be changed to γ=0. This manoeuvre allows changing the spacecraft to flight part with maximum aerodynamic performances. In flight with γ=0 continuous skip path is maintained whereat spacecraft velocity decreases monotonously. Maximum skip height reached, angle of attack o spacecraft increases, hence, spacecraft intensive deceleration occurs.

EFFECT: decreased final velocity at soft landing system operation, fuel savings.

1 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spacecraft control in atmosphere of planet by adjusting its aerodynamics. Proposed method consists in selection of conditions for changing the angle of roll to zero at changing the spacecraft from isothermal descent section (IDS) to skip path. With spacecraft in IDS, angle of roll (γ) is, first, increased to decrease aerodynamic performances and to maintain constant temperature at critical area of spacecraft surface. As flight velocity decreases angle (γ) is decreased from its maximum. In IDS, increase in aerodynamics does not cause further temperature increase over its first peak. Therefore selection of the moment of changing to γ=0 allows efficient deceleration of spacecraft at the next step of flight. The best option is the descent of spacecraft of IDS when γ reaches its maximum. Here, angle of attack is set to correspond to maximum aerodynamic performances. This increases the duration of final flight stage and deceleration efficiency. Increase in angle of attach after descent from IDS and completion of climb results in increased in drag, hence, decrease in velocity at initiation of soft landing system.

EFFECT: minimised final velocity and maximum temperature at surface critical area, lower power consumption.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics; control.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to controlling movement of a spacecraft fitted with a heat radiator and a solar panel. The method includes flying the spacecraft on an orbit around a planet and turning the solar panel in a position corresponding to the alignment of the normal to the working surface of the solar panel with the direction towards the Sun; performing orbital orientation of the spacecraft, where the plane of rotation of the solar panel is parallel to the plane of the orbit of the spacecraft and the solar panel is located relative to the plane of the orbit on the side of the Sun; determining the maximum value of the angle between the velocity vector of the spacecraft and the perpendicular to the transverse axis of rotation of the solar panel, passing through the surface of the radiator; determining the orbital altitude of the spacecraft and the angle between the direction towards the Sun and the plane of the orbit of the spacecraft; based on the orbital altitude and the angle, determining the orbit passes where the duration of the illuminated part of the pass exceeds the difference between the orbiting period of the spacecraft and the required duration of the heat release by the radiator on the pass; on the said orbit passes, when the spacecraft passes through the illuminated part of the pass, the solar panel is turned around the transverse axis of rotation until the intersection of the line passing through the region of the surface of the radiator facing the Sun and directed towards the Sun with the solar panel; turning the solar panel around the longitudinal axis of rotation until the angle between the normal to the working surface of the solar panel and the direction towards the Sun assumes a minimum value. The said solar panel rotations are performed within a calculated time interval.

EFFECT: high efficiency of the radiator by creating conditions for natural cooling thereof during eclipse of the solar panel for any altitude of an almost circular orbit of the spacecraft.

5 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space cable systems (SCS) and can be used for the transfer of SCS to a spinning mode in the orbit plane without the application of jet engines. SCS development is executed from its initial compact state in the circular orbit by the repulsion of objects at a low relative speed. SCS end weights are connected by a cable, its length being varied by a cable feed-haul-in device arranged on one of the end objects. The objects are separated by a vector of local peripheral speed, for example, by a pusher. The objects are driven by a start pulse to separate the objects in practically free paths at the free feed of the cable. The cable development is terminated by the SCS transfer to a stable mode of associated pendulum motion at the stretched preset-length cable. At a definite range of angular phases of this mode the SCS objects are stretched by hauling in the cable at a definite constant speed. This results in changing the SCS into the spinning mode at a preset power integral and fixed final end of the cable.

EFFECT: relaxed weight-size constrictions of SCS, enhanced performances.

8 dwg

FIELD: physics, navigation.

SUBSTANCE: group of the inventions relates to control of angular motion of space vehicle (SV). The method includes additional generation of signals for assessment of orientation angle and angular velocity of rotation of space vehicle. Also the reference signals of the orientation angle, angular velocity and control assessment signal are generated. For the named orientation angle and angular velocity their differences with their assessed signals, and also the difference with their reference values are determined. The difference of control signal and its assessed value and, at last, the signal of correction of the signal of assignment of mathematical model and the signal of assessment of external noises using the respective formulas are determined. On this base the signals of assessment of orientation angle and angular velocity of space vehicle are determined, which are used for space vehicle control. The device in addition contains the reference model of the basic circuit of orientation of space vehicle and other necessary devices and connections.

EFFECT: improvement of orientation accuracy and operational reliability in case of failures of orientation angle sensor and sensor of angular velocity of space vehicle rotation.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to controlling orientation of an artificial earth satellite with solar panels. The disclosed method includes performing necessary turning of the artificial earth satellite along with solar panels and, separately, the solar panels about a first and a second axis. The antenna of the artificial earth satellite is directed towards the earth and the normal to the solar panels is directed towards the sun. Independent programmed turns about the first and second axes of the artificial earth satellite are performed in intervals of uncertainty of orientation of the artificial earth satellite on shadow orbits. In different versions of said turns, after the first turn, the artificial earth satellite is held in an intermediate position and normal orientation of the artificial earth satellite is then restored. This improves the accuracy of predicting movement of the artificial earth satellite on shadow orbits and accuracy of measuring the range to the artificial earth satellite.

EFFECT: high accuracy of determining navigation-time data on navigation artificial earth satellites by consumers.

4 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to in-flight control over spacecraft equipped with heat radiator and solar battery. Proposed process comprises spacecraft flight in orbit around the planet with solar battery turn to position corresponding to normal to solar battery working surface directed to the Sun. Spacecraft orbital orientation is constructed whereat solar battery spinning plate is parallel with spacecraft orbit plane while solar battery is located on the Sun side relative to orbit plane. Spacecraft orbit altitude and angle between direction to the Sun and spacecraft orbit plane are defined. Magnitude of said angle (β*) is defined whereat duration of turn shadow section equals the necessary time of radiator heat release in said turn. Orbit turns are defined wherein current magnitude of said angle is larger than β*. In said turns, solar battery is turned around crosswise and lengthwise rotation axes unless shadowing of solar battery radiator. Note here that minimum departure of orientation of solar battery working surface to the Sun. Spacecraft orbital flight is conducted in near-circle orbit at altitude not exceeding a definite design value.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of radiator with solar battery shadowed at whatever position of spacecraft on orbit turn.

3 dwg

FIELD: space engineering; designing spacecraft motion control systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is performed by information of orientation unit to Sun by introducing the orbit parameters into on-board computer followed by calculating the Sun position in observation field of orientation unit for each point of orbit for orientation of axes in orbital coordinate system; search angular velocity is set for spacecraft to ensure capture of Sun by observation field of orientation unit, after which angular velocity is decreased to zero ensuring position of Sun in observation field of orientation unit. Then spacecraft is turned in such way that Sun should move to required initial point; turning the spacecraft to preset points is continued for each orbital point.

EFFECT: reduced mass; simplified construction of spacecraft due to reduced number of instruments and units; extended field of application.

3 dwg

Up!