# Control over orientation of supply spaceship with stationary solar battery panels at jobs under conditions of spinning

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aerospace engineering. Proposed method comprises supply spaceship spinning around perpendicular to solar battery working surface directed to the Sun at angular velocity of at least 1.5 degree/s. During said spinning at time interval of duration making at least one circuit supply angular velocity components are measured in structural system of coordinates. Measured magnitudes are used to define the directions of the main central axis of inertia of supply spaceship. Angle between direction to the Sun and spaceship orbit plane is defined. Spaceship orbit height is defined to determine the half-angle of the Earth disc visible from spaceship. In case said angle exceeds said half-angle the spaceship gravity orientation is constructed at aligning the axis of its minimum moment of inertia that makes the minimum angle with perpendicular to solar battery working surface, with direction to the Earth centre. Spaceship gravity orientation is maintained by spinning it around the axis of minimum moment of inertia at angular velocity defined from the condition of stability of the given gravity orientation of spaceship.

EFFECT: higher power yield of solar batteries owing to radiation reflected from the Earth at spaceship gravity orientation with spinning with allowance for actual main central axes of inertia.

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The invention relates to the field of space technology and can be used for attitude control of a SPACECRAFT (SC) in the works in terms of rotational motion.

The rotary motion of the SPACECRAFT is used, for example, when conducting experiments and research in the field of microgravity and implemented spins around KA directions specified in the building coordinate system KA.

Consider what type of vehicle cargo ships (THC), undertaking missions to the space station - for example, to the international space station. Data KA convenient to carry out research at the stage of their Autonomous flight after undocking from the space station.

There is a method of attitude control of SPACECRAFT, including exhibition axes AC and maintaining the angular position of the engine orientation (Alekseev, K. B., byabenin,, office of space flight vehicles. M: Mechanical Engineering, 1974). However, to use this method you must consume a working medium, which causes, in addition, unpredictable microcornea on Board the SPACECRAFT.

The known method uniaxial orientation KA elongated shape (Patent RF №2457159, priority dated 30.08.2010, IPC (2006.01) B64G 1/34), including the gravitational orientation of the SPACECRAFT, after which produce a spin around KA exhibited in C the STD of the Earth axis of the SPACECRAFT angular velocity

where I_{X}the moment of inertia of the SPACECRAFT around the longitudinal axis;

I_{K}- average value close to the value of the moments of inertia about the transverse axes;

ω_{o}module absolute angular velocity of the orbital coordinate system.

This method can improve the accuracy of the uniaxial orientation of the SPACECRAFT and to reduce the level of microprogram acting on the SPACECRAFT in flight, but does not provide the light source SA to provide the necessary advent of electricity when conducting non-energy-intensive experiments.

There is a method of attitude control of SPACECRAFT with a fixed solar panels when performing experiments on orbits with a maximum duration of shadow plot (Patent RF №2457158, priority from 22.09.2010, MGI (2006.01) B64G 1/24, 1/44 - prototype), including the gravitational orientation of the SPACECRAFT and spin around its longitudinal axis corresponding to the minimum moment of inertia, when the Sun is near to the plane of the orbit combine this plane with the plane SAT by the passing of the morning terminator, measure and monitor the angle between the normal to Akti is Noah (working) surface SB and the direction to the Sun, at the moment of passing of the morning terminator perform the spin of the SPACECRAFT in the direction corresponding to the reduction of the specified angle, and the angular velocity of the spin is chosen from a specified range of values.

Prototype method allows you to provide some coverage of the SAT and the coming of electricity to conduct non-energy-intensive experiments. When solar radiation enters the SB with directions, substantially separated from the normal to the working surface SB, resulting generated by SB current is significantly different from the maximum current that can generate Coll. At the same time, while performing a number of experiments, including crystal growth, it is necessary to provide a large eat electricity SB, because for conducting such experiments used energy-intensive equipment.

On the other hand, THC is used for cargo delivery to the space station and to remove the goods from the station. The distribution of masses of disposable cargoes within THC is poorly predictable and loaded THC is not accurately known inertial characteristics - their actual values differ significantly from the design or theoretically predicted estimates. Prototype method does not take into account the mismatch between projected and actual inertia T Is To, including to determine the actual inertial characteristics of THC after downloading it to remove from orbital space station cargo. This leads to a management orientation TGC his servants (i.e. unreliable) inertial characteristics. While unmanaged rotational movement of THC in the process of spin, made around inaccurately defined the main Central axes of inertia, will have perturbations that are undesirable for experimentation and research in the field of microgravity.

Task to be solved by the present invention is directed is to provide attitude control of THC with fixed panels SAT in the works in terms of the rotational motion of THC around its main Central axes of inertia.

The technical result of the invention is to increase energoprivod from SAT through the use of reflected from the Earth's radiation in the spinning mode is loaded deleted orbital space station cargo THC.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of controlling the orientation space TGC with fixed panels SAT in the works in terms of rotational motion, including the gravitational orientation of THC and spin around THC exhibited at the center of the Earth about the THC, with angular velocity the value of which is determined from the condition of stability of the gravitational orientation of THC, additionally produce spin around THC direction normal to the working surface of the security Council aimed at the Sun, the angular velocity of not less than 1.5 deg/sec, in this twist on the time interval of a duration of at least one coil is measured components of the angular velocity of THC in the construction of the coordinate system on the measured values of the component of angular velocity of THC determine the directions of the principal Central axes of inertia of THC, determine the angle between the direction of the Sun and the plane of the orbit of THC, determine the height of the orbit of THC, which determine the angle of polarstar visible with THC disk of the Earth, and when exceeding the angle between the direction of the sun and the orbit plane angle polarstar visible with THC disk of the Earth shall build the gravitational orientation of THC by turning THC to align an axis of minimum moment of inertia THC minimum angle with the normal to the working surface SB, with the direction to the center of the Earth, followed by maintaining the gravitational orientation of THC by performing spin TGC around the axis of minimum moment of inertia with angular velocity value which is determined from the condition of stability of the gravitational orientation of THC.

The of the of Britania illustrated in the drawing, which shows the orientation of THC in the process of spin TGC around the axis of minimum moment of inertia.

In the drawing the above symbols:

1 - the plane of the orbit of THC;

2 - the scope of the provisions of the normal to the working surface SB in the process of spin THC;

3 - the surface of the Earth;

About the center of the Earth;

A_{1}, A_{2}position of THC in orbit;

L - direction from the THC in the center of the Earth;

Q - angle polarstar visible with THC disk of the Earth;

S - the direction to the Sun;

β is the angle between the direction of the Sun and the plane of the orbit of THC;

P_{s}- solar irradiance;

P_{o}- flux reflected from the earth surface radiation;

N is the direction normal to the working surface SB;

x_{1}the axis of minimum moment of inertia of THC, a component of the minimum angle with the normal to the working surface SB.

Explain proposed mode of action.

Consider the stage of Autonomous flight THC. In the proposed method, deploy THC to match the direction normal to the working surface SB with direction to the Sun and produce the spin TGC around the direction normal to the working surface SB with an angular speed of not less than 1.5 deg/sec.

In this orientation provides maximum arrival power from the SAT required for battery charging system power is nebunia THC.

In the course of execution of twist is measured components of the angular velocity of THC in the building coordinate system of THC on the time interval of a duration of at least one turn.

On the measured values of the component of angular velocity of THC determine the current actual values of the directions of the principal Central axes of inertia of THC in the building coordinate system.

The assay can be performed, for example, as follows.

Use the following coordinate system. Construction system: y_{1}y_{2}y_{3}rigidly connected with the body of THC. Consider, for example, that y_{1}parallel to the longitudinal axis of the ship and sent from the docking station to the aggregate compartment, y_{2}directed normal to the working surface SB. Axis of x_{1}x_{2}x_{3}parallel to the main Central axes of inertia of THC. The position of x_{1}x_{2}x_{3}with respect to the system y_{1}y_{2}y_{3}will ask angles γ, α and β, which will enter through the following conditions. System y_{1}y_{2}y_{3}can be transferred to the system x_{1}x_{2}x_{3}three successive rotations: 1) by the angle α around the axis of y_{2}, 2) the angle β around the new y_{3}, (3) the angle γ around the new y_{1}coinciding with the axis x_{1}. The transition matrix from system x_{1}x_{2}x_{1}y_{2}y_{3}let_{ij}the cosine of the angle between the axes y_{i}and x_{j}. The elements of this matrix are functions of the entered angles.

The components of the angular velocity of THC in the system x_{1}x_{2}x_{3}denote ω_{i}(i=1, 2, 3). To describe the time-dependent values of ω_{i}use dynamic Euler equations of a free rigid body, which is not acted upon by external mechanical things. These equations have the form