Spacecraft power plant

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aerospace engineering and can be used in spacecraft engines. Power plant comprises cryogenic tank with shield-vacuum heat insulation and channel with heat exchanger, flow control valve, booster pump, intake with capillary accumulator with heat exchanger and throttle and hydropneumatic system with pipeline. Channel cross-section sizes comply with maximum outer sizes of heat exchanger cross-section.

EFFECT: cooling of cryogenic component in capillary accumulator.

3 dwg

 

The invention relates to rocket and space technology and can be used in cryogenic liquid rocket propulsion installation of the spacecraft.

When storing cryogenic fuels between runs of the engine is warming up design suction device of the tank and adjacent the cryogenic fluid. To avoid overheating of the cryogenic fluid and the formation of the vapor phase due to the inflow of heat leakage from the booster pump and through the insulation of the bottom of the bottom suction device thermostatically due to the evaporative heat exchanger type. As coolant in the heat exchanger is used cryogenic liquid coming from the tank through the metering device.

Typically, the heat exchanger is located on the outer surface of the bottom plate, as its location on the inner surface of the bottom plate worsening conditions of fluid flow when the fence it from the tank, increase hydraulic residues Nesebar fuel. To ensure heat transfer design to the coolant necessary for a good thermal contact channel heat exchanger with intake device. That are typically provided by welding or soldering.

Transfer of heat in design with its temperature control involves feeding cryogenic W is drasti of the cryogenic tank through the metering device in the heat exchanger, located on the outer surface of the suction device (see "Capillary system of sampling fluids from tanks spacecraft". Authors: C. C. Bagrov, A. C. Karpenkov, C. N. Poliaev, A. L. Sintsov, C. F. Shotover. Moscow, ESPC "Energomash", 1977, pp. 99-105) prototype.

On the surface of the drive intended for holding a cryogenic liquid such as liquid oxygen), is a cooling coil (heat exchanger). The coil (heat exchanger) is also on the lower bottom of the cryogenic tank, which prevents the flow of heat to drive the booster turbopump Assembly, as well as the response to an external heat gain to this part of the surface of the cryogenic tank.

Cooler in the heat exchanger is stored in the drive cryogenic component, which during the flight arrives from the drive through the throttle device in the channel of the heat exchanger, where the reduction of the saturation pressure and thus reduce the temperature appears in the temperature difference between the cooler and the design. Cryogenic component in the heat exchanger partially evaporates and is removed in the surrounding space. This device is a temperature of the evaporative type, in which the supply of heat to the heat exchanger located on the outer surface of the cryogenic tank and the cooler it is C is the result of thermal conductivity design suction device.

In the prototype heat exchanger is located on the outer surface of the structure suction device (bottom plate) of the cryogenic tank, without any irregularities. The positioning and fixing of the heat exchanger is made on a smooth surface.

The disadvantage of this solution is the following.

The presence on the outer surface of the bottom plate of any constructive protrusions or contains attachments (for example, elements of pneumatic systems, sensors and others) greatly complicates the provision of the necessary cooling efficiency of the cryogenic component due to the inability of the placement of the heat exchanger required dimensions and, consequently, insufficient thermal contact between the heat exchanger from the bottom bottom.

The objective of the proposed propulsion system of the spacecraft is providing the necessary cooling efficiency of the cryogenic component in the drive capillary type under grid separator when it is impossible to place the heat exchanger mentioned drive the required dimensions on the outer surface of the bottom of the bottom of the cryogenic tank.

The problem is solved due to the fact that in the engine installation of the spacecraft, including cryogenic tank with screen-vacuum thermal insulation, flow control valve,booster pump and an intake device of a cryogenic tank, moreover, the suction device is mounted on the bottom plate and contains the drive capillary-type heat exchanger under grid separator and a throttle device for supplying cryogenic fluid with a specified flow rate from the drive capillary-type heat exchanger, the inner cavity of the cryogenic tank body bottom plate made channel, the cross-sectional sizes which correspond to the maximum outside dimensions of the cross section of the heat exchanger. In the channel flush with the inner surface of the bottom plate is placed a heat exchanger. The output of the heat exchanger hermetically passes through the bottom plate and the outside of the cryogenic tank communicated with the piping pneumatic-hydraulic system propulsion system of the spacecraft.

As an example in Fig.1 presents a General view of the suction device of the cryogenic tank of the propulsion system of the spacecraft of Fig.2 shows the connection of the heat exchanger output with the lower bottom of the cryogenic tank of Fig.3 shows a view of the bottom plate from the internal cavity of the cryogenic tank, where:

1 - cryogenic tank;

2 - screen-vacuum thermal insulation;

3 - flow control valve;

4 - booster pump;

5 is a bottom plate;

6 - drive capillary type;

7 - heat exchanger;

8 - wire RA is the divisor;

9 - the throttle device;

10 - channel;

11 - fasteners;

12 - plate;

13 - wrap;

14 - the inner cavity of the cryogenic tank;

15 - the entrance of the heat exchanger;

16 - cavity drive capillary type;

17 - heat exchanger output;

18 - go nick;

19 - pipeline;

20 - blind threaded holes.

In the propulsion system of the spacecraft, including cryogenic tank 1 with screen-vacuum thermal insulation 2, the flow control valve 3, the booster pump 4 and an intake device of a cryogenic tank 1, and the suction device is mounted on the bottom plate 5 and contains the drive capillary type 6 with heat exchanger 7 under grid separator 8 and the throttle device 9 for supplying cryogenic fluid with a specified flow rate from the drive capillary type 6 into the heat exchanger 7, the inner cavity of the cryogenic tank 14 in the body of the bottom plate 5 is made of the channel 10, the dimensions of the cross section of which corresponds to the maximum outer dimensions of the cross section of the heat exchanger 7. Channel 10 flush with the inner surface of the bottom plate 5 is placed a heat exchanger 7. The output of the heat exchanger 17 is hermetically passes through the bottom plate 5 and the outer side of the cryogenic tank 1 communicates with the pipe 19 pneumatic-hydraulic system propulsion aerospace is th aircraft.

For example, for a cryogenic tank 1 made of aluminum alloy from the condition of structural strength in the presence of cryogenic tank 1 booster pump 4 and the isolating valve 3 of the bottom plate 5 has a profile with increasing thickness in the direction of the flange to cryogenic Baku 1 booster pump 4, the body of which is a spiral channel 10 to heat exchanger 7.

As one option, for example, to keep the heat exchanger 7 on the bottom plate 5 can be performed blind threaded holes 20, which by means of fixing elements 11 (for example, using screws with countersunk head) is fixed to the plate 12. Plate 12 repeats the profile of the bottom plate 5, adjacent to its surface, holding the heat exchanger 7 in the channel 10. In the plate 12 made the cut-outs 13, tells the cavity of the drive capillary type 16 channel 10 by reducing thermal resistance of heat transfer from the cryogenic liquid under grid separator 8 from the booster pump 4 and the external heat gain through screen-vacuum thermal insulation 2 to the cooler in the heat exchanger 7.

Between the heat exchanger 7 and the wall of the channel 10, there are technological gaps that while filling it with gas, have a high thermal resistance, which reduces the intensity of heat transfer designs from the flange booster pump 4 and outside the it heat gain through screen-vacuum thermal insulation 2 cryogenic tank 1 to the cooler in the heat exchanger 7. The presence of local gaps between the bottom plate 5 and the plate 12 also creates a thermal resistance that prevents the cooling liquid under grid separator 8.

These factors in the limited area of the bottom plate 5 under the grid separator 8 does not allow even by increasing the length of the heat exchanger 7 to solve the problem of providing the required temperature cryogenic liquid under grid separator 8 and temperature structure of the lower plate 5.

The presence of grooves 13 in the plate 12 allows you to fill cryogenic fluid gaps between the heat exchanger 7 and channel 10, as well as to fill gaps between the bottom plate 5 and the plate 12, while thermal resistance of the gap is reduced by more than an order of magnitude, and the total resistance to heat transfer to the cooler it is just a minor part. The length of the slots 13 in the plate 12 by ~10% greater than the distance between adjacent sections of the channel 10. The total area of the grooves 13 can be from 10 to 20% of the area of the plate. The grooves 13 should be evenly distributed on the surface of the plate 12 with the direction of their axes of symmetry to the axis of the cryogenic tank 1.

The input heat exchanger 15 passes through one of the cutouts 13 of the plate 12, and the output of the heat exchanger 17 passes through another cutout 13 of the plate 12 and is connected, for example, the adapter 18, which is tightly integrated into the lower is its bottom 5. The outer side of the cryogenic tank 1 to the adapter 18 is joined to the pipe 19 pneumatic-hydraulic system propulsion system of the spacecraft.

In addition, the plate 12 provides for cryogenic liquid when the fence from her cryogenic tank 1 with minimal resistance.

The heat exchanger 7, for example, can also be mounted using clamps.

The propulsion system of the spacecraft, including cryogenic tank 1 with screen-vacuum thermal insulation 2, the flow control valve 3, the booster pump 4 and an intake device of a cryogenic tank 1, and the suction device is mounted on the bottom plate 5 and contains the drive capillary type 6 with heat exchanger 7 under grid separator 8 and the throttle device 9 for supplying cryogenic fluid with a specified flow rate from the drive capillary type 6 into the heat exchanger 7, is as follows.

During filling of cryogenic tank 1, in which due to the boiling of the cryogenic liquid to fill the surfaces of the structural members, such as plate 12, the bottom plate 5 and the heat exchanger 7 is cooled to the saturation temperature of the liquid in the disposable pressure cryogenic tank 1 formed pairs POPs up. As the cooling design of the cryogenic fluid (e.g., through the slots 13 in the plate 12) fills the anal 10 in the bottom plate 5, where is the heat exchanger 7.

The heat exchanger 7 is hydraulically connected with the environment (space) through the pneumatic-hydraulic system propulsion system, and the pressure therein is below the saturation pressure of the cryogenic fluid under grid separator 8. After the throttle device 9 cryogenic liquid partially gasified, its temperature and the temperature of the channel 10 of the heat exchanger 7 is lower than the temperature of the cryogenic fluid under grid separator 8. Due to the difference of temperature is cooling and condensation of the gaseous phase of the cryogenic fluid in the gaps. Due to the fact that the saturation pressure of the cooled cryogenic liquid below the pressure of the cryogenic fluid located above the bottom plate 5, is filling the gaps of the cryogenic fluid. This significantly improves the heat transfer by thermal conductivity to the channel 10 of the heat exchanger 7 and the cooler in it. Therefore, during the stay of the propulsion system of the spacecraft in space conditions the heat from the booster pump 4, the external heat gain through screen-vacuum thermal insulation 2 to the bottom plate 5 and the heat from the cryogenic liquid under grid separator 8 is transferred to the coolant in the heat exchanger 7, vaporizing it. So is maintaining the required temperature range is the azone temperature cryogenic liquid under grid separator 8 in the intervals between the inclusions of the propulsion system.

The proposed propulsion system of the spacecraft provides the necessary cooling efficiency of the cryogenic component in the drive capillary type 6 under grid separator 8 by placing the heat exchanger 7 in the channel 10, is made in the body of the bottom plate 5 of the cryogenic tank 1 when it is impossible to place the heat exchanger 7 the required dimensions on the outer surface of the bottom plate 5 of the cryogenic tank 1.

The propulsion system of the spacecraft, including cryogenic tank with screen-vacuum thermal insulation, flow control valve, booster pump and an intake device of a cryogenic tank, and the suction device is mounted on the bottom plate and contains the drive capillary-type heat exchanger under grid separator and a throttle device for supplying cryogenic fluid with a specified flow rate from the drive capillary-type heat exchanger, characterized in that the inner cavity of the cryogenic tank body bottom plate made channel, the cross-sectional sizes which correspond to the maximum outside dimensions of the cross section of the heat exchanger, in the channel flush with the inner surface of the bottom plate is placed a heat exchanger, the output of the heat exchanger hermetically passes through the bottom plate and the outer side is by cryogenic tank communicated with the piping pneumatic-hydraulic system propulsion system of the spacecraft.



 

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