Nanocomposite material based on mineral binders
SUBSTANCE: nanocomposite material contains, wt %: mineral binder 83.7-83.9, mineral filler 2.1-2.3, fraction of carbon nanoparticles 0.00002, distilled water 13.79998-14.19998.
EFFECT: improvement of material characteristics, providing protection from neutron radiation flows, provision of technological mobility of working mixture in the process of pouring construction elements.
The invention relates to the field of composite materials based on mineral binders such as Portland cement, alumina cement, magnesia and phosphate binders, lime, gypsum, or mixtures thereof, mineral fillers, including fractions of nanoparticles. It can be used in systems of neutron protection.
Composite materials based on mineral binders usually consist of hydrated cements, lime, slatement cementitious or gypsum mixed with mineral fillers of various compositions and fractions by size.
Standard heavy concretes are one of the main materials that offer protection from flows of ionizing radiation, which are used, in particular, when creating a protective layer comprising containers for spent nuclear fuel. But the function of protection against neutrons play polymeric materials included in the construction of containers, such as polyethylene, polysiloxane, chemically bound water or other hydrogen-containing polymeric materials.
Based on existing experience, including global practices in this area, none of the existing traditional materials, designed to protect against the flow of neutrons (polyethylene, polysiloxane, standard heavy concrete), fully complies with the pre is yamleeva set of requirements to the materials of the neutron protection for example in the transport of high-capacity containers for spent nuclear fuel.
Thus, there is still the problem of creating a protective layer to protect the external environment from gamma and neutron radiation, such as spent fuel elements collected in the container of the enlarged group. These layers should be possible to stably hold the hydrogen included in the composition in the entire variation range of the external environment in the high temperatures generated by the group spent fuel elements are assembled compactly.
The main obstacles for the use of traditional materials are low maximum temperature continuous operation, which is typical for most polymeric materials. While short-term exposure to elevated temperatures (up to 600°C), possible during an emergency, even more dangerous for the case of using a polymeric protection, because it definitely leads if not to fire, the decomposition and to a complete loss of hydrogen in the protective structural elements.
Composition on mineral binders (concrete) are non-combustible and are more resistant to heat, including short-term high temperatures, but the content of hydrogen is usually not enough. Moreover, heavy concrete, that is, not have the necessary mobility, thus hampering the ability to manufacture the protective elements of a complex and extended configuration.
Thus, in the construction of powerful radiation facilities conditions neutron protection may not be appropriate for use with polyethylene (the maximum number of hydrogen is - 13,28%, so this is usually the standard neutron-shielding material), because the operating temperature can be above 200, 300 and even 400 degrees. In addition, polyethylene creates difficulties when completing the protective cavity of complex shape, it has a low fluidity, even in molten form.
The alternative is to use composites based on mineral binders, containing a large amount of chemically bound hydrogen. But binder in the form of ordinary Portland cement at high temperatures dehydrates, so use alumina, or high-alumina cement, which is chemically bound hydrogen, unfortunately, less. Therefore advisable to search compounds on mineral binders, preserving chemically bound and crystallization water (in which the hydrogen content is to 11.1%) at high temperatures and with high technological mobility.
The prior art composition for obtaining a building mA the materials based on mineral binder [EN 2233254, C2, SW 28/02, SV 111:20, 27.07.2004], including mineral binder selected from the group including cement, lime, gypsum, or mixtures thereof, and water, and it additionally contains carbon clusters fulleroid type with the number of carbon atoms 36 and more in the following ratio of components in the composition, wt.%: mineral binding 33-77, carbon clusters fulleroid type of 0.0001 to 2.0, water - the rest.
The disadvantage of the composition is relatively low, the characteristics of the material, providing protection from flows of ionizing radiation.
Also known powder mixture of [RU 2465094, C1, B22F 3/14, SS 1/05, B22F 3/18, 27.10.2012], which is prepared from nanosized powder of boron carbide, fine aluminium powder and granular aluminum powder, and the content of boron carbide in the powder mixture is not more than 25%, as compared to the fine fraction of the aluminum powder is not more than 2:1, and the hot rolling of the powder mixture in the shell is performed with the compression of not less than 50% in the first pass, and 30-40% in the second.
The disadvantage of this technical solution are relatively low characteristics of the material, providing protection from flows of neutron radiation, and inconvenient technological properties, characterized by the impossibility of filling cavities with complex configuration.
Most Liskin the technical nature of the invention is a nanocomposite material based on mineral binders [EN 2436749, C2, SW 28/00, WV 1/00, WV 3/00, SW 111/20, 20.12.2011] containing mineral binder, mineral filler, and the fraction of the nanoparticles, while the fraction of nanoparticles includes a multilayer carbon particles tropolone forms ranging in size from 15 to 150 nm, in which the ratio of external diameter to the thickness of the body of the torus is within (10-3):1.
The disadvantage is the closest technical solution is relatively poor characteristics of the material, providing protection from flows of neutron radiation. One of the major drawbacks is the relatively low content in the composition of the hydrogen atoms, which provide protection against neutrons. In addition, the closest technical solution has relatively low ductility, which complicates the implementation of the neutron protection in complex configuration structures.
The problem is solved in the proposed invention, is to improve the characteristics of the material, providing protection from flows of ionizing radiation, in particular the development of a composite material capable of containing chemically bound hydrogen in the amount of at least 0,051 g/cm3when the temperature of the long-term operation up to 200°C. This material is intended to provide ultra-high technological mobility of the working mixture in the casting of structural members, allow the th due to the high fluidity uniformly to fill narrow gaps.
The required technical result is to improve the characteristics of the material, providing protection from flows of neutron radiation
The problem is solved, and the required technical result is achieved in that in a composite material containing a mineral binder, mineral filler, and the fraction of the nanoparticles, according to the proposed invention as mineral binder used superfine anhydrous magnesium oxide with the addition of aluminate cement, and as a mineral filler used highly dispersed magnesium hydroxide with the maximum amount of water of crystallization by adding a powder of boron carbide.
In addition, the required technical result is achieved by the fact that, as a highly dispersed magnesium hydroxide use burnt brucite.
In addition, the required technical result is achieved by the fact that, as the fraction of nanoparticles using multilayer carbon particles tropolone forms ranging in size from 15 to 150 nm, in which the ratio of external diameter to the thickness of the body of the torus is within (10-3):1.
In addition, the required technical result is achieved by the fact that the fraction of nanoparticles, including multilayer carbon particles tropolone form further comprises carbon nanotubes and microcr the BCI.
In addition, the required technical result is achieved by the fact that the fraction of nanoparticles further comprises fullerenes.
In addition, the required technical result is achieved by the fact that the fraction of nanoparticles further comprises a water-soluble products of sulfonation coal tar pitch.
The proposed nanocomposite material based on mineral binders, which has elevated the quality characteristics for protection against ionizing radiation, is produced as follows.
The applicant discovered that multilayer nanoparticles tropolone form (MNTF), as well as the products of sulfonation coal tar pitch have the ability to increase the average density of the material, which is probably achieved due to their anomalously strong dispersion interactions with the surface of the filler (in particular, brucite ground) and the nearest fragments of cement stone.
Thereby is achieved by raising such an important quality characteristics as the seal of the composite material near the interphase boundaries, consequently, increase its strength and reduce the threshold of the minimum binder content in such material.
Introduction thropogenic nanoparticles in the composite material can be carried out in addition to the known modifications nanocom ozanich materials carbon nanotubes and microtubuli, polyhedral carbon nanostructures fulleroid type and fullerenes.
Introduction carbon nanotubes and microrobot increases strength of hydrated mineral binder, and simultaneous additional modification of the nanocomposite material multi-layered carbon nanoparticles tropolone forms and carbon microtubuli provides additional structuring of hydrated mineral binder with an unexpected increase its strength, which has not previously been achieved.
Carbon nanotubes and microtubules are a good material to harden, because they have a high tensile strength and a large ratio of length to diameter. However, for carbon nanotubes is observed slippage of the walls of one relative to another, which reduces the achievable values of strength nanocomposite material, and atomic-smooth outer surface of the nanotubes lead to their weak coupling with a hardening material. The introduction of the nanocomposite material multi-layered carbon nanoparticles tropolone shape increases the strength of adhesion of carbon nanotubes and microrobot with a hardening material due to their anomalously strong dispersion effects with tropolone nanoparticles.
Introduction vulernabilities improving the surface properties of components of the nanocomposite material, that, combined with the introduction of these multi-layered carbon nanoparticles tropolone form, leads to a synergistic improvement of interfacial interaction in nanocomposite material.
Multi-layered carbon nanoparticles of the fulleroid type tropolone form is obtained from the peel of the cathode Deposit, obtained by thermal or plasma sputtering of a graphite anode in terms of the flow of direct current between the anode and cathode in an atmosphere of inert gas and separated from the total mass thus obtained carbon nanoparticles, in particular by the method of successive oxidation and subsequent separation force interaction of the electrodes, for example, in the process of autoemission of carbon cathodes.
The cathode Deposit can be obtained arc erosion of the anode graphite rod section 30-160 mm2at the current density of 80-200 A/cm2and the voltage drop across the arc 20-28 In helium atmosphere at a pressure of 40-100 Torr.
For further processing selected dense crust cathode sludge, separating it from the friable mid, and milled. The oxidation is carried out in the microwave field, for example a field with a frequency of 2.5 GHz and a power of 500-1500 watts. Before placing in the microwave field crushed cathode sludge is placed in a rotating quartz tube. Such gas-phase oxidation is carried out in the tech is of 100-150 minutes After gas-phase oxidation of the resulting product may be further subjected to electrochemical oxidation. After gas-phase and/or electrochemical oxidation of the resulting product can be placed in the environment of liquid gas (nitrogen, helium). At the end of the separation force interaction of the electrodes obtained at different electrodes product is collected in an organic solvent.
To determine the main physical parameters of the product can be separated from the solvent and explore using electronic transmission microscope, for example, JEM-100C and standard samples of latex beads to determine the size, shape and ratio of external diameter thropogenic nanoparticles and the thickness of the multilayer body and rentgenograficheski to determine the interlayer distance in multi-layered carbon nanoparticles (distance 0,34-0,36 nm is characteristic of the compounds of carbon fulleroid type).
Fullerenes and nanotubes can be obtained by known methods [EN 2234457, 2001], they are distributed under the trademarks "Buckyballs" and "taunt". Carbon microtubules can be obtained by mechanical grinding of the well-known carbon fibers with subsequent removal of the amorphous carbon phase liquid or gas-phase etching. Functionalization of fullerenes, necessary for the achievement of the value of their water solubility, can be produced, for example, processing of raw fullerenes in potassium hydroxide or by boiling in solutions of sulfuric acid.
As a mineral binder is used, primarily magnesium oxide, which when hydration is transformed into magnesium hydroxide containing hydrogen, with the possibility of joining another water of crystallization. As an additional mineral binder used aluminous cement (e.g., Secar 38), which increases the temperature resistance of the composition and hydration contains an additional amount of chemically bound and water of crystallization. The filler used ground mineral brucite, representing the same magnesium hydroxide with a certain amount of water of crystallization and boron carbide powder.
A composite material according to the invention and its components can be obtained as follows.
Example 1. Production of carbon nanoparticles tropolone form
Arc erosion of the anode graphite rod cross-section 100 mm2at current density of 200 A/cm2and the voltage drop across the arc 24V in helium atmosphere at a pressure of 70 Torr receive cathodic sediment. Thick crust cathode sludge is separated from the friable mid, crushed to powder with an average particle size 200-800 nm and placed in rotating varavu pipe, in the microwave field with a frequency of 2.5 GHz and a power of 1000 watts. After 100 min of gas-phase oxidation under these conditions, the resulting powder was cooled and placed in a vacuum volume on the negative electrode in the electrode space between the cathode and the anode. Then increase the potential difference between the cathode and the anode until the current autoemission. With increasing emission current part of the multi-layered carbon nanoparticles moves to the positive electrode. After the process is finished, collect them from the surface of the anode and transferred to the dispersion, for example, dimethylformamide.
Example 2. Production of carbon nanoparticles tropolone form
The product is obtained as in example 1, but the gas-phase oxidation is carried out in a medium containing an increased amount of oxygen, for example from 20% to 60%.
Example 3. Production of carbon nanoparticles tropolone form
The product is obtained as in example 1, but after gas-phase oxidation of multi-layered carbon nanoparticles optionally oxidized electrochemically in an aqueous electrolyte containing solutions of chlorine compounds.
Example 4. Production of carbon nanoparticles tropolone form
The product is obtained as in example 1, but the selection thropogenic multi-layered carbon nanoparticles produced in the electric field in a dielectric medium with a high value of elektricheskoi permeability (such as mineral spirit).
Example 5. Production of carbon nanoparticles tropolone form
The product is obtained as in example 1, but after gas-phase oxidation of multi-layered carbon nanoparticles optionally placed in a medium of liquid nitrogen bubbled and separate the precipitate from the liquid phase in an electric field, followed by evaporation of liquid gas and obtaining two types of carbon powder, which is then treated as shown in example 1.
Example 6. Obtaining water-soluble product of sulfonation coal tar pitch.
Used peck type VTP Nizhny Tagil production, or peck type VTP Cherepovets production, or peck type STF Cherepovets production.
Peck grind on drums mill until the particle size from 0.5 to 1.5 mm, the larger the particle size, the more time is required for further processing with sulfuric acid.
For processing can be used sulfuric acid with a concentration of at least 60%. Heating the milled pitch with sulfuric acid is carried out at a temperature of 60-90°C., for example at a temperature of 80°C. with vigorous stirring under the hood. While on the surface of the particles of the reaction, which results in submicron powder.
The reaction is finished, when the activity of hydrogen ions (pH) reaches 4-5 units of Residues of sulfuric to the slots is removed by laundering with water.
After drying obtained dispersion powder.
As found by the authors, the resulting powder contains a fraction, soluble in polar solvents. It can be separated, for example, in the apparatus of Socketa.
The obtained soluble in polar solvents fraction can be further enriched in components having a high molecular weight.
This can be done, for example, by centrifugation of the solution specified fraction, followed by the separation of heavier components.
It should be noted that the invention provides a single stage chemical treatment, which consists only in the treatment with sulfuric acid, and the acid is removed without the use of reagents, and in the process of laundering with water.
Weighed peck Nizhny Tagil production in the amount of 500 grams and placed in the working volume of hammer mills. Then bring the mill into action and produce a grinding party peck to disperse mass with particle sizes of 0.15-1.5 mm, which is placed in a quartz glass and pour the excess of sulfuric acid so that the dispersed mass on the surface of the filled volume is not performed. Then place the quartz glass in thermostat and heat under the hood to a temperature of 80°C with constant stirring. The oxidation process of the party peck carried out within 2 hours. Pokonanie process of sulfonation resulting mass is decanted and freed from acid residues, then washed with a small excess of distilled water until it reaches the level of activity of hydrogen ions (pH) 4-5. Thus obtained mass is placed in the apparatus Sockett and the method of successive washing with distilled water to separate the water-soluble portion, which is then diluted to the disappearance of the solid phase and placed in a centrifuge, which at speeds up to 12 thousand rpm enrich the heavier fraction for at least 30 minutes. Received the enriched solution is evaporated on a rotary evaporator to obtain a dry giperarifmeticheskoy fraction altadata of carbon nanoclusters.
The obtained fraction retains the property of solubility in polar solvents (water, alcohols) when heated to 160-200°C. When heated to temperatures above 200°C. this fraction disulfirame and property of solubility is lost. This enables the low-temperature carbonization when filling the porous bodies and modification ("healing") the surface of carbon fibers and fabrics and introduction to composite mixture of nanosized carbon components to improve their physical and mechanical characteristics and technological mobility of such mixtures.
Example 7. Obtaining a composite material according to the claimed technical solution
First, prepare special is also treated in brucite. His most finely crushed to 2 μm, then hydratious with simultaneous wet delivered at a temperature of 30-70 degrees Celsius. Then dried at a temperature of 103-105 degrees Celsius until constant weight.
Then cook the mixture on the basis of magnesia binder (calcined brucite), high alumina cement (Secar 38), consisting of a binding - 18-30 wt.%, filler - ground hydrated brucite - 60-85 wt.%, plasticizing agents - oligocarbonate 0.05 to 1 wt.% and added carbon modifiers - nanotubes, microrobot and, fullerenes and nanotorus in the range from 10-6up to 10-4wt., and soluble products of sulfonation pitch in the range from 10-5up to 10-3wt. Can be added also active monochromater and boron carbide powder in the amount of 2-6 wt.%
After that add water in an amount of 20-30 wt.% and mix thoroughly. You can add magnesium sulfate or magnesium chloride in an amount of 2-20 wt.% to increase the degree of hydration of the binder.
Prepared liquid mixture is fed by the pump through the tube to fill the cavity in the tube is set up structural element, providing a wet final grinding particles of binder and filler in the process of applying the mixture to fill the cavity.
Example 1. Formula 1 nanocomposite material according to the present invention
|№ p/p||Component name||The document||Quantity kg|
|1.||Aluminous cement Secar 38||GOST 969-91||50|
|2.||Brucite burnt OME-3||One HUNDRED 59074732-01-2009||40|
|3.||Magnesium sulfate 7-water||GOST 4523-77||10|
|4.||Sodium tetraborates 10 - water||GOST 4100-76||5|
|5.||Brucite powder||THE 1517-001-59074732-05||1550|
|6.||Fume amorphous active||THE 5745-012-18891264-2009||10|
|7.||The boron carbide powder||GOST 3447||25|
|8.||The plasticizer MF 5581||Directory JSC "EuroChem"||7|
|9.||Modifier carbon||THE 2166-064-91957749-2011||0,034|
|10.||Distilled water||GOST 6709||280|
Example 2. Recipe 2 nanocomposite material according to the present invention
|№ p/p||Component name||The document||Quantity kg|
|1.||Cement, aluminous||GOST 969-91||360|
|2.||Ash shale Zolest Bet mark "PSI"||HS 262100000||80|
|5.||Fume amorphous active||THE 5745-012-18891264-2009||10|
|6.||The boron carbide powder||GOST 3447||25|
|7.||The plasticizer MF 5581||Directory JSC "EuroChem"||12|
|8.||Modifier carbon nano||THE 2166-004-13800624-2004||0,034|
|9.||Distilled water||GOST 6709||280|
In accordance with the map selection composite material were made 9 control samples cubes with dimensions 100×100×100 mm and 3 cylinder with a diameter of 10 mm and length 100 mm
Equipment: scale technical digital MK-15.2-A21 6/15 kg with a relative error of 0.07% in the range 0-6 kg; scales digital technical sartogosm 5/1 600 grams with a relative error of 0.003% in the range of 0-600 grams, forced action mixer with a variable speed ProfiMixx 47; the electronic timer with an accuracy of 0.5 s; vacuum oven HVS-20 temperature range 0-200°C, ustanavlivaemymi and controlled with an accuracy of 5°C with a volume of 20 l, forms for cubes composite metal coated with a release lubricant, mold for plastic cylinder, the cylinder and measuring the contact 0-1 mm with an accuracy of 1 micron, the pyrometer digital OPTRIS MS plus with an accuracy of 0.1°C, furnace Preheater Station 850 firm ESD Safe, press the test with a pressure of 150 tons PRT-150, taper test according to GOST 310.4, Luggage freezers -45°C, the device determine the water resistance "Agama M, shaft furnace 1000°C, a set of utensils laboratory.
The test results of samples obtained from experimental batch: results of pilot batch of the Formulation 1 shown in table 3.
|№ p/p||Name of indicator composite material||Indicators||Test method|
|1||Density, kg/m3||1640-1900||1720||GOST 27005|
|2||Regulatory compressive strength, not less, MPa||15||17||GOST 10180|
|3||The content of hydrogen at 200°C (130°C), not less than, g/cm3||0,05 (0,06)||0,055 (0,062)||Tests on p. 3.8 TU|
|4||Flammability class||NG||NG||GOST 30244|
|5||Water resistant, not less than||W2||W4||HOST.5|
|6||The coefficient of thermal expansion of not more than||9*10-6||(6+2)*10-6||Tests on p. 3.9 TU|
|7||Class hardiness, not less than||F200||F250||GOST 10060|
|8||Class workability of working solution||>5||P6||GOST 310.4|
The Protocol of the results of the pilot batch of a composite material according to Formulation 2:
Objects: in accordance with the map selection composite material made 9 control samples cubes with dimensions 100×100×100 mm and 3 cylinder with a diameter of 10 mm and length 100 mm Equipment: scales technical digital MK-15.2-A21 6/15 kg with a relative error of 0.07% in the range 0-6 kg; scales digital technical sartogosm 5/1 600 grams with a relative error of 0.003% in the range of 0-600 grams, forced action mixer with a variable speed mixing ProfiMixx 47; electronic timer with an accuracy of 0.5 s; vacuum oven HVS-20 temperature range 0-200°C, ustanavlivaemymi and controlled with an accuracy of 5°C with a volume of 20 l, forms for cubes composite metal coated with a release lubricant, mold for plastic cylinder, the cylinder and measuring the contact 0-1 mm with an accuracy of 1 micron, the pyrometer digital OPTRIS MS plus with an accuracy of 0.1°C, furnace Preheater Station 850 firm ESD Safe, press the test with a pressure of 150 tons PRT-150, taper test according to GOST 310.4, Luggage freezers -45°C, the device determine the water resistance "Agama M, shaft furnace 1000°C, a set of utensils laboratory is atorney.
The test results of samples obtained from experimental batch of a composite material according to the Formula 2, are presented in table 4.
|№ p/p||Name of indicator CMVS type B||Indicators||Test method|
|1||Density, kg/m3||1850-2150||2020||GOST 27005|
|2||Regulatory compressive strength, not less, MPa||25||26||GOST 10180|
|3||The content of hydrogen at 200°C (110°C), not less than, g/cm3||0,045 (0,062)||0,046 (0,062)||Tests on p. 3.8 TU|
|4||Flammability class||NG||NG||GOST 30244|
|5||Water resistant, not less than||W8||W8||GOST 12730.5|
|6||The coefficient of thermal expansion of not more than||7*10-6||(4+2)*10-6||Tests on p. 3.9 TU|
|7||Class hardiness, not less than||F250||F250||GOST 10060|
|8||Class workability of working solution||>5||P6||GOST 310.4|
Thus, due to the fact that in nanocompositions the material used original set of components (such as mineral binder used superfine anhydrous magnesium oxide with the addition of aluminate cement, and as a mineral filler used highly dispersed magnesium hydroxide with the maximum amount of water of crystallization) adding a powder of boron carbide is achieved the required technical result, allcauses in improving the characteristics of the material, providing protection from flows of neutron radiation. The proposed composite material capable of retaining chemically bonded hydrogen in the amount of at least 0,051 g/cm3when the temperature of the long-term operation up to 200°C. This material provides ultra-high technological mobility of the working mixture in the casting of the structural elements, allowing high fluidity uniformly to fill narrow gaps.
Nanocomposite material based on mineral binders containing mineral binder, mineral filler, and the fraction of the nanoparticles, wherein the mineral binder, mineral filler, and the fraction of the nanoparticles are used in a mixture with distilled water at a ratio of wt.% respectively or 83,7; 2,1; 0,00002 and 14,19998, where the mineral binder is in the ratio of wt.% from glinozemistogo cement to 3.0, calcined brucite - 2,4, magnesium sulfate 7-water - 0,6, sodium tetraborate 10-water - 0.3 and brucite ground - 99,7, mineral filler consists of silica fume active amorphous - 23,8, amorphous boron carbide is 59.5 and plasticizer - 16,7, and the fraction of nanoparticles of modifier carbon, or 83,9; 2,3; 0,00002 and 13,79998, where the mineral binder consists of glinozemistogo cement 21,1, ash, shale - 4,7, metacholine - 0.6 and brucite ground 73,6, mineral n is politely consists of microsilica active amorphous - 21,3, amorphous boron carbide - 53,2 and plasticizer - 25,5, and the fraction of nanoparticles of modifier nanodispersed carbon.
SUBSTANCE: decorative facing material includes, wt %: ground sheet glass 75.0-77.0; ground tuff 8.0-10.0; borax 10.0-13.0; ground talc 3.0-4.0. Frost resistance of the material makes at least 25 cycles. Components are dosed in required quantities. Sheet glass (broken glass) previously ground to powdered condition is mixed with borax and tuff and talc ground to powder condition. The produced mass is laid into detachable metal moulds, compacted and sintered at 800-870°C.
EFFECT: increased frost resistance of produced material.
SUBSTANCE: raw material mixture for obtaining artificial rock contains, wt %: Portland cement 26-30; quartz sand 47.3-55.85; water 16-20; fibrous metalloceramics 2.0-2.5; technical lignosulfonate LST 0.15-0.2.
EFFECT: increased strength.
SUBSTANCE: charge for obtaining a decorative-facing material includes, wt %: milled glass 50.0-55.0; milled tuff 20.0-25.0; liquid glass 10.0-15.0; clay 10.0-15.0.
EFFECT: increased frost resistance of the materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preparations used for increasing water resistance of concrete, namely to elaboration of novel concrete-colmating (imperforating concrete pores) composition. In basic version composition represents mixture of salts, formed by metals from the group: sodium, potassium, calcium, aluminium, and acids from the group: nitric, formic, sulfuric, carbonic, with the following ion ratio (ion weight in composition, g)/(100 g of composition): sodium 5.6-32, calcium 0.4-17.2, potassium 1.5-27.2, aluminium 0.5-7.6, nitrate 4.1-62.1, formiate 0.6-29.7, sulfate 10.3-54.7, carbonate 1.1-29.7, as well as complex-forming additives (such as, for instance, carbamide, nitryltriacetic acid, imino-N,N-diacetic-N-methylene phosphonic acid; glycin-N,N-di(methylene phosphonic) acid, iminodi(methylene phosphonic) acid; diaminopropanol- N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid; 2-hydroxypropylene diamine- N,N,N',N'-tetra(methylene phosphonic) acid; 2,3-dihydrobutylene-1,4-diamine- N,N,N',N'-tetra(methylene phosphonic) acid; 2,3-dihydroxybutylene-1,4-diamine- N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid; nitryl-tri(methylene phosphonic) acid; 1-hydroxyethylene diphosphonic acid; ethylenediamin- N,N,N',N'- tetra(methylene phosphonic) acid; ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'- tetraacetic acid; in amount not more than 20% of colmating composition weight.
EFFECT: extension of arsenal of preparations, used to increase concrete water resistance.
5 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: in the method to manufacture wood concrete items with production of a base on their surface for plastering, providing for preparation and dosing of a hydraulic binder, ground cane stems, water, mixing of components, moulding of items with vibration, hardening, moulding with vibration is carried out so that cane stems cut into sections with length of 4-6 cm are located near the surface of the items, with one end staying in the mix, and with the other one - protruding outside and forming a base for application of plaster.
EFFECT: higher convenience of plaster application onto surface of items.
SUBSTANCE: additive comprises the following components, wt %: microorganisms of Leuconostoc mesenteroides type cultivated on a synthetic nutrient medium 0.5-2.7; microquartz 97.3-99.5.
EFFECT: increased mobility of a construction mix and concrete strength.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the industry of building materials and can be used in manufacturing products in civil and industrial construction, monolithic construction and for erection of special-purpose structures. The high-strength light concrete made from a concrete mixture contains portland cement, filler, a plasticiser, water, a mineral part consisting of microsilica with average particle size of 0.01-1 mcm, rock flour - a product of grinding quartz sand with specific surface area of 700-800 m2/kg and quartz sand with grain size of 0.16-0.63 mm, with the following ratio of components, wt %: portland cement 33.8-53.0, microsilica 4.77-13.8, rock flour 1.5-11.9, quartz sand 5.1…32.2 , microspheres 4.3-19.27, plasticiser 0.3-0.48, water - the balance.
EFFECT: obtaining concrete with high specific strength.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of manufacturing fast setting light-weight cementing composition with improved compressive strength for building products such as panels. Method of obtaining light-weight cementing mixture, which has improved compressive strength and resistance to water, includes mixing water, cementing reacting powder, alkali metal salt of citric acid as set accelerator and light-weight filling agent, where weight ratio of water to reacting powder constitutes approximately 0.17-0.35:1.0, reacting powder includes 75-100 wt % of sol dust, which contains at least 50 wt % of fly ash of class C and 0-25 wt % of hydraulic cement and/or gypsum, setting of cementing mixture being achieved within from 4 to 6 minutes of composition mixing without addition of set retarder. Invention also deals with composition for obtaining light-weight cement panel.
EFFECT: obtaining light-weight cementing mixture, which has improved compressive strength and stability.
10 cl, 9 dwg, 9 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a mixture of at least one polyol and at least one cyclohexane polycarboxylic acid derivative for reducing or minimising the dust emission when handling pulverulent construction chemical products, a method for preparing pulverulent construction chemical products and hydraulically setting materials containing the mixture according to the invention. The invention is developed in subclaims.
EFFECT: high efficiency of dust removal.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to anchor for submersing anchoring underwater research hardware at bottom. Proposed anchor consists of flat self-breakable concrete body with central bore to accommodate underwater instruments retention and release. Note here that said body is made from raw stock of the following composition, in wt %: Portland cement - 26.0-56.0, high-alumina cement - 0.6-2.4, semiaquatic gypsum - 3.0-6.0, quartz sand making the rest, water for tempering to solid water ratio - 0.1-0.18. Note here that product of magnitudes of semiaquatic gypsum and high-alumina cement is selected, preferably, equal to 1.8-3.5. Invention is developed in dependent claims.
EFFECT: anchor of nonpolluting materials with self-controlled destruction in sea and sweet water.
3 cl, 16 dwg, 10 tbl
SUBSTANCE: nanocomposite coating including a metal matrix with nanosize particles of metal fluoride and rare earth metals distributed in it is electrolytically applied onto a metal rod of the electrode. The specified coating has the following ratio of volumes of the matrix and nanosize particles, %: metal matrix 55-96, nanosize particles of metal fluoride 3-30, nanosize particles of rare earth metals 1-15. An additional composite coating may be applied onto the surface of the coating, which is made of metal matrix with nanosize particles of metal fluoride distributed in it.
EFFECT: welding wire has good welding-technological properties, makes it possible to improve drop transition of electrode metal and mechanical properties of welded connections.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: coating in the form of electrolytically produced nanocomposite is applied onto a metal rod, including a metal matrix with nanosize particles of activating flux evenly distributed in it, containing fluoric compounds, and nanosize particles of carbide or a mixture of carbides. The coating has the following ratio of volumes of the matrix and nanosize particles, %: metal matrix 30-92, nanosize particles of activating flux 3-5, nanosize particles of carbide 5-65. Carbide or a mixture of carbides are selected from the following group: tungsten carbide, chrome carbide, molybdenum carbide, vanadium carbide, titanium carbide, niobium carbide, hafnium carbide, tantalum carbide, boron carbide, zirconium carbide.
EFFECT: wire has good welding-technological properties, provides for atomised transition of electrode metal and makes it possible to increase hardness of a wear resistant layer aimed at surface of parts working under intensive impact-abrasive wear.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bio-compatible conjugated polymer nanoparticle, dicarbonyl-lipid compound, compound in form of vesicles, micelles or liposomes, containing multitude of nanoparticles, including said dicarbonyl-lipid compound, method of treating cancer or metastases, biocompatible polymer, as well as to conjugate. Biocompatible conjugated polymer nanoparticle includes main chain of copolymer, with at least one polymer monomer containing two side chains, selected from the group, consisting of carboxylic acid, amide and ester, and sad side chains are separated from each other by 1-1- carbon atoms, oxygen atoms or sulphur atoms, or their any combinations. Said nanoparticle further contains multitude of side chains, covalently bound with said main chain, with said side chains being selected from the group, consisting of monosaccharides, dicarboxylic acids, polyethyleneglycol and their combinations; and multitude of platinum compounds, dissociatedly bound with said main chain. Multiple platinum compounds are connected with said main chain via at least one coordination bond between carbonyl oxygen of carbonyl or amide group of main chain and platinum atom of platinum compound. Said platinum compound is selected from Pt(II) compounds, Pt(IV) compounds and any their combinations. Invention is also aimed at dicarbonyl-lipid compounds, in which platinum compound is dissociatedly bound with dicarbonyl compound. Invention is also aimed at method of treating cancer and metastases. Methods include selection of subject, requiring treatment of cancer or metastases, and introduction to subject of effective amount of nanoparticles, compounds or compositions of the invention.
EFFECT: obtaining biocompatible conjugated polymer nanoparticles for chemotherapeutic platinum-based preparation.
40 cl, 1 tbl, 29 dwg, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to biotechnology, particularly to a microorganism test in various objects and media. The method provides conjugating electrically Fe0, MgFe2O4 or Fe3O4 labelled bacteria in an aqueous medium at specified parameters. Unbounded nanoparticles are separated with using a magnetic field, and a working electrode made of gold, platinum or graphite-bearing materials and having a surface pre-modified by antibodies specific to a bacterial strain to be tested is immersed into an analysed solution. The electrode is kept at the specified parameters to form an immune complex on its surface and washed in a buffer solution containing normal horse serum and Tween-20. The electrode is removed from the solution and placed into a cell containing LiClO4, dissolved in acetonitrile, dimethyl formamide or dimethyl sulphoxide; the bacterial count is determined by a value of analytical oxidation of the nanoparticles localised in the immune complex on the surface of the working electrode.
EFFECT: invention enables providing higher analysis sensitivity, better output and simplified analysis procedure.
7 dwg, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining of nano-dispersed nickel-plated powders in a flow of low-temperature nitric plasma includes placing into the batcher of piston type of powdered initial reagent and its feeding by pneumatic current into the evaporator chamber, treatment in the evaporator chamber by low-temperature nitric plasma, refrigeration of the evaporation product in the nitrogen flow in water-cooled hardening chamber located in the bottom part of the evaporator, and its trapping with the filter. The initial reagent is a mix of carbide or vanadium nitride and metal nickel taken in the ratio, by wt %: carbide or vanadium nitride - 50÷75, metal nickel - 25÷50. Meanwhile the plasma temperature in the evaporator chamber is equal to 4000-6000°C, plasma flow rate is 50-55 m/s, and initial reagent is supplied with the flow rate 150-200 g/h.
EFFECT: obtaining of heterogeneous nano-dispersed nickel-plated powders of carbide or vanadium nitride, with the size of particles less than 100 nm.
6 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: aluminium or aluminium-magnesium alloy is molten in a melt of halides of alkali and/or alkali-earth metals, which contains 0.4 to 30 wt % of carbides of metals or non-metals with particle size of 100 nm to 200 mcm, during 0.5-5 h at the temperature of 700-750°C.
EFFECT: invention allows obtaining a homogeneous composite material having low porosity and good sintering ability at reduction of temperature of the process.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optoelectronic engineering and can be used to form an active layer of thin-film solar cells based on hydrogenated silicon with stable parameters relative to light stimulus, particularly solar radiation. The invention consists in a method of forming films of amorphous hydrogenated silicon with a small fraction of silicon nanocrystals (volume ratio of the crystalline phase to the amorphous phase of less than 15%), uniformly distributed in the film and having a size of not more than 10 nm. The method includes depositing the amorphous silicon films by plasma-chemical deposition from a gaseous mixture of silicon tetrafluoride and hydrogen at high pressure in a reaction chamber in conditions which enable to form silicon nanocrystals in the glow-discharge plasma. The presence of a small fraction of uniformly distributed nanocrystalline inclusions in the amorphous matrix markedly improves the stability of electrical, optical and photoelectric properties of the obtained material.
EFFECT: high efficiency and longer service life of thin-film solar converters when an active layer of the material obtained using the said method is used on the said converters.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to material crushing means. Proposed method implemented in this device comprises the step that follow. Material is mixed with water and placed into dispersion chamber. The latter is sealed to feed 5-30 atm of static pressure therein. Contents of said chamber is processes with ultrasound vibrations at insonation density of at least 50 W/cm2 to bring sound pressure to said mix of material with water that is higher than said static pressure 2 to 3 times.
EFFECT: homogeneous particles in the range of tens of nm.
10 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to pharmaceutical industry and represents a skin care agent possessing the antifungal properties, containing propolis, ethanol, and a sulphur-containing component, differing the fact that the sulphur-containing component contains elemental nanodispersed sulphur with the components of the agent taken in certain amounts, wt %.
EFFECT: invention provides extending the range of products possessing a wide spectrum of fungicidal action, and promotes the tissue regeneration processes.
3 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: therapeutic composition of dihydroquercetine in the form of nanoparticles, containing herbal phosphatidylcholine, maltose and dihydroquercetin in certain propotions.
EFFECT: composition possesses the high pharmacological activity, low toxicity; it is long-storable.
3 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: magnetic materials whose axial symmetry is used for imparting magnetic properties to materials.
SUBSTANCE: memory element has nanomagnetic materials whose axial symmetry is chosen to obtain high residual magnetic induction and respective coercive force. This enlarges body of information stored on information media.
EFFECT: enhanced speed of nonvolatile memory integrated circuits for computers of low power requirement.
4 cl, 8 dwg