Device for determining strength characteristics of berries

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of horticulture, namely to control means to assess the physical and mechanical properties of berries. The device consists of a portable housing with control buttons located in it, alphanumeric LCD display, force measuring sensor connected to the electrical measuring device provided with a peak detector and compensator of packaging, as well as a grip for berries mechanically connected to the force measuring sensor through the rod force distributor and made in the form of a hinged fixed and spring-loaded movable gripping cup-shaped jaws, and a control device of gripping berries fixed to the housing, and kinematically connected to the shank of the movable gripping cup-shaped jaw for providing opening and closing the gripping jaws. In addition, the device comprises a movable spring-loaded pressure rod arranged so that its pressure surface is located between the gripping cup-shaped jaws and in its motion without berries there is no mechanical contact with the elements of gripping berries, and in the presence of fruit between the gripping jaws, it presses it with its pressure surface to its the inner surface of the gripping jaws, a mechanical actuator of the pressure rod mounted on the portable housing, and the device of determining the coefficient of relative strength of berries.

EFFECT: device provides improved performance in carrying out control operations by combining the operations.

3 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of horticulture, namely, controls the strength characteristics of the berries to assess their physical and mechanical properties.

The breakout berries from the stalk (the branches of the plant) and the force crushing berries belong to the strength characteristics and are one of the important indicators of quality varieties of berries, to obtain the specified values are breeding work is carried out. These figures are substantially define productivity in manual harvesting, the suitability of varieties for mechanized harvesting, losses during harvesting, transportation and storage, and are also used in the development of Agogo-cleaning machines and mechanisms [Panteleeva E. I. Buckthorn Rusinova (Hippophae rhamnoides L.): monograph / ROS. Acad. C. agricultural Sciences. Sib. separa-tion. Scient. issled. Institute of horticulture for Siberia. - Barnaul, 2006. - S. 63-66, 119-121]. For example, for sea buckthorn breeding is to reduce breakout force, and honeysuckle on his rise. The effort of crushing strive to improve all types of berries. Generalized strength characteristic that defines the suitability of varieties of berries to mechanized harvesting, is the coefficient of relative strength of berries, which is calculated as the ratio between efforts crushing and separation of the berries to the breakout should be not less than 0.8 [Panteleeva E. I. Buckthorn Rusinova (Hippophae rhamnoides L.): monograph / ROS. Acad. C. agricultural Sciences. Sib. separa-tion. Scient. issled. Institute of horticulture for Siberia. - Barnaul, 2006. - S. 119]. To determine these parameters by professional gardeners use spring dynamometers and scales, which have the following disadvantages: low accuracy; it doesn't have the gripping and pressing device (indenters), specially adapted for berries; the defining moments of separation and crushing, and value the effort in these moments is carried out by the operator visually and subjectively. Most are perfect portable electronic dynamometers with the function of detecting the peak value, for example, firms DACELL [URL:http://www.dacell.ru]. However, they are not suited for research efforts separation and crushing of the berries. Best adapted for these purposes are portable electronic power indicators developed at the GSI Sibiti [Mineev centuries, Aleynikov, A. F., Zolotarev Century A. the Application of methods of load equipment in industrial production of sea buckthorn // Siberian Bulletin of agricultural science. - 2010. No. 11. - S. 79-85]. Their difference is that they are equipped, respectively, with special clamps berries and pressure crushing devices, including managed. The disadvantage of these indicators power is low, the performance of the set is of the strength characteristics of berries horticultural crops, because they specify only one parameter, either a breakout or a crushing force, and to determine the relative strength of berries require additional calculations. The closest analogue to the invention is the indicator breakout force berries [Aleynikov, A. F., Mineev Century Century Development of load devices for industrial horticulture // Sensors and systems. - 2012. No. 6. - S. 39-42]. The device consists of a portable casing, the front wall which displayed buttons and alphanumeric liquid crystal display (LCD). Inside also posted load sensor connected to an electrical measuring device, provided with a peak detector and compensator containers. Load sensor mechanically connected to the core distributor force, coming out through a hole in the housing. At the other end of the distributor force secured the shank of the stationary gripper Cup-shaped sponge with a guide roller mounted on the axis. Stationary gripper Cup-shaped sponge through the other axis pivotally connected with the movable gripper Cup-shaped sponge, with the shank. The combination of Cup-shaped gripping jaws forms a grip berries. When approaching shank gripper Cup-shaped sponges their upper edges diverge. To hvost is the IR mobile sponge attached durable flexible thread (rope). The second end of the thread passed through the hole in the shank and attached with the adjusting nut to the outer end of the movable rod of the control device of the grip so that the thread around the guide roller and the initial state is not stretched. The movable rod provided with a handle to move the operator. In the control device grip attached to the housing, a spring, a locking nut, and between the Cup-shaped gripping jaws is another spring - return, respectively, the rolling stock and the movable gripper Cup-shaped sponges to its original state. The upper edge of the Cup-shaped gripping jaws converging to the peduncle, made with cut-outs, eliminating damage to the stem when closing the gripper jaws. Berry is freely in the space between the gripping jaws and remains there after the separation. This strength indicator the same drawback - it defines only one parameter, breakout force, and to obtain full information about the physical properties of berry crops, in particular about the suitability for mechanical harvesting, it is necessary to conduct additional measurement efforts crushing and calculate relative strength of berries, which leads to additional costs, including time.

The technical result of the invention is ysenia performance determining the strength characteristics of the berries by extending the functionality of the device due to additional definitions efforts crushing ratio and the relative strength the berries.

The technical result of the invention is achieved in that in a device for determining the strength characteristics of berries, consisting of a portable housing located therein buttons, alphanumeric LCD, load sensor, connected to an electrical measuring device, provided with a peak detector and compensator packaging, as well as the capture of berries, mechanically connected to the load sensor through the core distributor force and made in the form of pivotally connected fixed and spring-loaded movable gripper Cup-shaped sponges, and controls the capture of berries attached to the housing and kinematically associated with the shank of the movable gripping jaws to ensure the opening and closing of the gripping jaws, entered movable spring-loaded push rod, are made so as to cover the surface was between the Cup-shaped gripping jaws and movement without berries were no mechanical contact with the gripping elements of the berries, and in the presence of berries between the gripping jaws he pressed it to his pressure surface to the inner surface of gripping jaws, a mechanical actuator push rod mounted on the portable housing, and a device for determining the coefficient of relative strength of berries. Mechanical p is the water pressure shaft is a driven finger of the operator a spring-loaded lever, abutting against the other end of the push rod and mounted on shafts mounted in the plate, which is installed and also guide sleeve push rod, and the plate mounted on the portable housing. Device for determining the coefficient of relative strength berries consists of a microcontroller, a first input connected to the output of the electrical device, a second input connected to the memory module, and a third input connected to the output of the encoder, the input of which is connected with the control buttons, while the output of the microcontroller is connected to the alphanumeric LCD. Capture berries, mechanically connected to the load sensor through the core distributor force and made in the form of pivotally connected gripping Cup-shaped sponges, provides separation of the berries, the transfer of breakout force on the load sensor and finding berries after the separation between the gripping jaws, the inner surface of which is a reference to crushing and transfer of force crushing load on the sensor from the finger of the operator through a spring-loaded lever, the push rod and the berry. The microcontroller provides an output force measurement crushing and separation of the berries on the screen alphanumeric LCD display and record them in the memory module together with attributes of the object to measure the (date, name of garden berries, serial numbers Bush and berries), as well as the calculation of the coefficient of relative strength of berries as the ratio of the difference between the efforts of the crushing and separation of the berries to the breakout, and output it to the screen alphanumeric LCD with simultaneous recording in the memory module. The attributes of the object of measurement are set by the buttons in the "Programming", as defined settings ("breakout", "crushing Force", "Coefficient of relative strength") are chosen in the "run" mode. Improving performance of control operations is achieved through a fast and easy grip berries and catching them after separation, including berries with a dense arrangement of brushes and difficult access to the peduncle (sea-buckthorn berries, grapes, etc), and by combining in one device multiple operations: separation, crushing, determine breakout force and efforts crushing, calculate the coefficient of relative strength.

In Fig.1 shows a drawing of the appearance of the device for determining the strength characteristics of berries (side view), Fig.2 is a drawing of the appearance of Cup-shaped gripping jaws (top view) of Fig.3 is a drawing of the appearance of the device for determining the strength characteristics of berries (front view), and Fig.4 is a structural diagram of the device to determine the population of the strength characteristics of the berries.

Device for determining the strength characteristics of berries consists of a portable casing 1, on the front wall which are control buttons 2, alphanumeric LCD 3, and the rear-mounted device control grip 4 and the fastening plate 5 of the guide sleeve 6 of the pressure rod 7 and the axis 8 for the installation of a spring-loaded lever 9. Inside the housing 1 is placed electrical device 10, provided with a peak detector and compensator containers (Fig.1, 2, 3, 4 not shown), the load sensor 11 is mechanically connected to the core distributor force 12 extending out through an opening in the housing 1. At the other end of the distributor force 12 is fixed to the shank 13 of the stationary gripper Cup-shaped sponge 14 with the guide roller 15 mounted on the axis 16. Stationary gripper Cup-shaped sponge 14 through the other axis 17 pivotally connected with the movable gripper Cup-shaped sponge 18, also having a shank 19. The shank 19 of the movable gripping jaws 18 are attached durable flexible thread (cable) 20 device control grip 4. The second end of the thread 20 is passed through the holes in the compression rod 7 and the shank 13 and attached to the outer end of the movable rod 21 of the control device of the gripper 4 with the adjusting nut 22 so that the thread around the guide roller 15 and the source from which the being, it is shown in Fig.1 provided with its unstrained condition by means of the adjusting nut 22. The movable rod 21 provided with a handle 23 to move the operator. In the control device capture 4 is installed, the spring 24 is fixed by the nut 25, and between the Cup-shaped gripping jaws 14 and 18, the spring 26 to return, respectively, the rolling rod 21 and the movable gripper Cup-shaped sponges 18 in the initial state, as shown in Fig.1. The upper edge of the Cup-shaped gripping jaws 14 and 18, converging to the stem 27, made with openings 28 (see Fig.2) precluding damage to the stem 27 when closing the gripping jaws 14 and 18. Berry 29 freely enclosed in the space between the gripping jaws 14 and 18 and due to their Cup-shaped form remains there after the separation. A spring-loaded lever 9 for driving the push rod 7, spring-loaded by a spring 30 mounted on shafts 8 and push the plane 31 of the adjusting rod 7 is located in the space between the gripping jaws 14 and 18 (see Fig.1 and 3). The output of the load sensor 11 (see Fig.4) is connected to the input of the electrical device 10, the output of which is connected to the first input of the microcontroller 32. The second input of the microcontroller 32 is connected to the memory module 33, and a third input connected to the output of the encoder 34, the inputs of which are connected with the control buttons 2, vyhodnocovanie 32 is connected to an alpha-numeric LCD display 3.

Device for determining the strength characteristics of berries works as follows. The housing 1 of the device must be taken in the palm of the right hand so that the thumb was about control buttons 2, and the axis of symmetry of the core distributor force 12 coincided with the anticipated direction tensile strength, attached to the stem 27 berries 29. Before the measurement control buttons 2 the instrument is switched-on and switched to the "Programming" for input attributes of the object of measurement (dates, names of garden berries, serial numbers Bush and berries) in the memory module 33 through the encoder 34 and under program control of the microcontroller 32. To determine the strength characteristics of berries buttons control 2 device is placed into the "run" mode and is reset by a device in the initial zero state (through compensator packaging of electrical device 10) and start the measurement mode "breakout". Then capture the investigated berries 29. For this the index finger of the operator moves the handle 23 of the rolling rod 21 in the direction of the lower housing 1, resulting in the thread 20 pulls the shank 19 of the movable gripper Cup-shaped sponge 18 and the upper edge of the Cup-shaped gripping jaws 14 and 18 diverge. Not letting go of the handle 23, the operator enters the capture gubc the 14 and 18 inside the brush berries so to study 29 berry was between the jaws 14 and 18. The operator then releases the handle 23, the thread 20 is weakened, gripping the Cup-shaped jaws 14 and 18 under the action of return spring 26 are closed, the stem 27 is within the notches 28 of the gripping jaws 14 and 18, and the movable rod 21 of the control device of capture 4 under the action of the spring 24 returns to its original state shown in Fig.1. The gap berries 29 is carried out by moving the housing 1 itself. When the stem 27 is stretched, and the resulting tensile force through the core distributor force 12 is transmitted to the load sensor 11. The output signal of the resistance of the load sensor 11 is converted electrical measuring device 10 into a digital code, which is fed to the first input of the microcontroller 32 and displayed on an alphanumeric LCD 3. When you take off maximum strength (pullout force) recorded a peak detector electrical device 10, is displayed on the alphanumeric LCD 3 and pressing the corresponding button control 2 is memorized in the memory module 33. Then the housing must be taken in hand so that the axis of symmetry of the core distributor force 12 was in a position close to vertical. Thumb buttons control 2 is reset by a device in the initial well is Evoe state and start measurement mode "crushing Force". It is followed by the crushing of the investigated berries 29. To do this, the thumb, the operator presses on the free end of the lever 9, while the push surface 31 of the adjusting rod 7 reaches the surface of the berries 29, presses it to the inner surface of the gripping jaws 14 and 18 and crushes. At crushing berries 29 occurs tensile force that through the core distributor force 12 is transmitted to the load sensor 11, and its maximum value (crushing force) recorded a peak detector electrical device 10, is displayed on the alphanumeric LCD 3 and pressing the corresponding button control 2 is memorized in the memory module 33. After releasing the operator of the lever 9 the push rod 7 is returned to its original state shown in Fig.1 and 3. After pressing the corresponding button control 2 run mode measurements of the Coefficient of relative strength", but these efforts separation and crushing berries are retrieved by the microcontroller 32 of the memory module 33 to calculate relative strength as the ratio of the difference of the efforts of the crushing and separation of the berries to the breakout. After calculating the value of the coefficient of relative strength is memorized in the memory module 33 and displayed on the alphanumeric LCD 3. After a certain amount of the belts, if no button control 2, the power is automatically turned off. To avoid the negative impact resulting juice on the operator and the electrical part of the device on the push rod 7 can be worn rubber cuff is to collect the juice, and the gripping jaws 14 and 18 - thin removable rubber case (Fig.1, 2, 3 not shown).

The invention can be implemented on the basis of widely available on the market portable load indicator and digital dynamometers, consisting of demountable buildings with load sensor, measuring device, alphanumeric LCD display, control buttons and a set of interchangeable hooks. This can be, for example, load indicators DN-FGA company DACELL (South Korea) [URL: http://www.dacell.ru], digital dynamometers stretching DPS firm IMADA [URL: http://www.tes-s.ru], shift measuring device BFG, CFG company MECMESIN (England) [URL: http://www.mecmesin.ru]. The proposed design capture berries easily combined with force sensors these devices by replacing the standard removable hooks, and the device control grip 4 and the fastening plate 5 are installed on the prepared rear wall of the housing 1. The other structural units of the scheme (see Fig.4) can be implemented using the following components: the microcontroller 32 - on-a-chip PIC16F876; encoder 34 - on-a-chip 74AC148N; Odul memory 33 - on-chip FM24C64 ferroelectric memory, or alternatively as part of the microcontroller 32.

Testing the experimental sample measuring part of the instrument, manufactured on the basis of electronic dynamometer LYMAN (USA) [URL: http://www.wht.ru] revealed the following characteristics:

the diameter of the investigated berries from 5 to 16 mm;

the range defined forces from 0,098 (10) N (GS) to 19,60 (2000) N (GS);

unit price lowest level 0,0196 (2,0) N (GS);

the limits of the systematic component of basic absolute error power in the range from 0,098 (10) to 1.96 (200) N (GS) ± 0,039 (4,0) N (GS); in the range from 1,96 (200) to 14.7 (1500) N (GS) ± 0,098 (10) N (GS); in the range of 14.7 (1500) to 19.6 (2000) N (GS) ± 0,196 (20) N (GS).

1. Device for determining the strength characteristics of berries, consisting of a portable housing located therein buttons, alphanumeric liquid crystal display, load sensor, connected to an electrical measuring device, provided with a peak detector and compensator packaging, as well as the capture of berries, mechanically connected to the load sensor through the core distributor force and made in the form of pivotally connected fixed and spring-loaded movable gripper Cup-shaped sponges, and controls the capture of berries attached to the housing and kinematics and associated with the shank of the movable gripper Cup-shaped sponges to ensure the opening and closing of the gripping jaws, characterized in that it introduced a movable spring-loaded push rod, are made so as to cover the surface was between the Cup-shaped gripping jaws and movement without berries were no mechanical contact with the gripping elements of the berries, and in the presence of berries between the gripping jaws he pressed it to his pressure surface to the inner surface of gripping jaws, a mechanical actuator push rod mounted on the portable housing, and a device for determining the coefficient of relative strength of berries.

2. Device for determining the strength characteristics of the berries under item 1, characterized in that the mechanical drive of the adjusting rod is made in the form driven by the finger of the operator of a spring-loaded lever abutting against the other end of the push rod and mounted on shafts mounted in the plate, which is installed and also guide sleeve push rod, and the plate mounted on the portable housing.

3. Device for determining the strength characteristics of the berries under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the device for determining the coefficient of relative strength berries consists of a microcontroller, a first input connected to the output of the electrical device, a second input connected to the memory module, and a third input connected to the output of the of Imatra, the inputs of which are connected with the control buttons, while the output of the microcontroller is connected to an alphanumeric LCD display.



 

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5 cl, 14 dwg, 5 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of food industry, in particular, to production of fruits and berries enriched with zinc for zinc deficit prevention. The method envisages twofold foliar treatment of plants expanded leaves by way of spraying, early in the morning, in the evening or during daytime in cloudy, but not rainy weather, with a water solution of zinc sulphate with concentration equal to 6 g/l with addition of 6 g of calcium hydroxide. Repeated treatment is performed in 10-12 days; the zinc sulphate solution consumption terms and rate are observed. For production of fruits and berries enriched with zinc one uses garden strawberry, edible honeyberry, actinidia, apple-tree, ashberry and chokeberry plants.

EFFECT: method allows to increase natural content of zinc in fruits and berries 1,6-3,8 times.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to restoring of the productivity of perennial grasses in the chestnut soil zone. The method comprises chisel ploughing of soil under perennial grasses to the depth of 40 cm. The spacing between the working elements is set in the gap providing first the continuous loosening the soil until appearance of untreated soil surface, equal to the width of capture of one working element.

EFFECT: method enables to enhance replenishment of perennial grasses by discontinuous chisel ploughing of soil.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: in this method the local recognized varieties are sown in wide rows, 2-3 weeks earlier than introducers. After emergence of seedlings leaf fertilizing is carried out with 0.3-0.5% solution of para-aminobenzoic acid, followed by inter-row loosening and sowing in them of the introduced varieties.

EFFECT: method enables to simplify the process of introduction and to increase its efficiency.

1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of forestry and landscape management and can be used in biotechnology and biochemical evaluation of the grass cover on the meander inundable floodable and upland meadows and meadows of forests. The method comprises the allocation within the water protection zone visually on the map or by full scale the site of the meadow with the test grass cover. Then on this site downstream the river or its feeder the groups of test sites are marked up and down the coastline. When marking the constant distance between the centres of the test sites along and across the river is taken into account, and after cutting the grass samples they are subjected to weighing and determine patterns of influence of distance from the riverbank and along it to the change in weight of samples of freshly cut grass. The meadow site even by the relief with test grass cover is allocated between the parallel to each other road and the coastal edge of a small river or its feeder. And if there is forest stand on the side of the site between the road and the riverbank, the distance from the edge of the site to the edge of the forest is measured. On the site of the test grass cover the grid mesh of the sample sites is taken uniform in both directions along and across the small river. And the location of the sample sites is taken along the longitudinal and transverse lines with equal distances relative to the bank of the small river or its feeder. And the distance from the edge of the coast to the first longitudinal line of the sample sites is taken not less than the spacing between the grid mesh lines, and the additional lines of location of virtual sample sites with zero mass of samples are taken as the riverbank and the edge of the road from the side of the grid mesh of the meadow site with test grass cover.

EFFECT: method enables to extend the functional capabilities of testing the grass cover, in particular, meander meadows and forest meadows, to improve the accuracy of measurement and analysis of distributions of green mass of grass samples on the test sites, and to identify complex patterns of influence of the distance from the river, road and forest to the centers of the sample sites on the yield of meadow grass.

5 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises the procedures to obtain information about the physical properties, chemical composition of the soil and weather conditions on the agricultural field, as well as information about the actual yield of the previous year on each part of the agricultural field, compared to the signals of the system of determining the spatial coordinates at the time of harvesting, the use of mathematical models of the influence of soil and climatic factors on the final yield, production of calculations on the parameters of main technologies before sowing plants and carrying out of technological impacts in real time in accordance with these calculations for each part of the agricultural field. Before the start of the vegetation period the optimal program of changes of the plant development indicators average in the field and the parameters of the soil environment is determined by finding the maximum of the parameters of technological operations of the optimality criterion, taking into account the difference between the cost of the crop and the cost of its preparation. In real time at the working pass of the agricultural machine with tools its spatial coordinates are measured, the signals from the meteorological station on the ambient temperature, the level of solar radiation, the precipitation intensity is periodically recorded. According to the measured information the parameters of models of plants and the soil environment are precised, the measured values of the parameters of the plant development and the parameters of soil environment are compared for each part of the field to their optimal average values, according to the results of comparing the corrections to the average optimal values of parameters of technological impacts are formed. For each fragment of the field the size of the overall technological impact is determined, which is created from the optimal average and local correction, which is transmitted by the modem connection in the form of the task to the on-board controller of the machine tool, which carries out the technological impact. The information about the physical properties, chemical composition of the soil and plants is received by periodic sampling on test sites located next to the main field, on which the same culture is cultivated as on the main field, and which differ from each other by different fixed levels of irrigation and doses of mineral fertilizer applications and regulators of growth and development of plants. Simultaneously with the sampling on the test sites by means of aircraft remote sensing the multispectral images of the test sites and the main field are formed, according to the resulting spectral information and the selected samples the mathematical model of the optical measurements is precised, which reflect the connection of condition of the crops and the soil environment on the test sites with the parameters of reflection in all the used spectra, on the spectral information obtained over the entire area of the main field, the condition of the crops and the soil environment on the main field is assessed using the mathematical model of the optical measurements for each time of measurement, according to the obtained estimates and signals from the meteorological station on the ambient temperature, the level of solar radiation and the precipitation intensity the parameters of mathematical models of conditions of crop and soil environment are precised, on which the optimal program of changes of the plant development indicators and soil environment parameters mean in the field are then precised in real time. When working passes of the technological machines simultaneously with the measurement of the spatial coordinates the multispectral pattern of the entire area of the main field is repeatedly formed, on which with the predetermined pitch the condition of the crops and the soil environment is assessed, the resulting estimates on individual parts of the field are compared to their optimal average values obtained during the formation of an optimal program of change of the plant development indicators and soil environment parameters mean in the field. By comparing the results the corrections are formed to the average optimal values of parameters of technological impacts, and for each part of the field the amount of the overall technological impact is determined, created from the optimal average and local corrections in a given spatial coordinate.

EFFECT: method enables to increase the amount and reliability of the process of yield formation while substantial reducing the amount of manual labour.

2 dwg

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