Method for obtaining heat-insulating material based on wood filler
SUBSTANCE: method for obtaining a heat-insulating material involves mixing of filler and a binding agent with further shaping and hardening. Industrial wood chips 5±2 mm thick are used as filler, and rigid polyurethane foam consisting of polyol and isocyanate is used as the binding agent. First, components of the binding agent are mixed; then, the binding agent is mixed with the filler by layer-by-layer laying of a binding agent layer, a filler layer and a binding agent layer into a mould at the following component ratio, wt %: polyol 24-22, isocyanate 36-33, industrial chips 40-45. After supply of the components is completed, the mould is fixed with latches and exposed during 15-20 minutes.
EFFECT: reduction of density and thermal conductivity of material.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the construction materials industry and can be used in the manufacture of insulation products or reinforced insulation for the external facades of buildings and structures.
A known method of manufacturing a heat-insulating material, consisting of the preparation of the original composition by mixing its components, foaming composition, its pouring and curing in the form in the following ratio, wt.%:
|curing the core - 30-50% liquid sodium|
|glass silicate module 2,8-4,5||71-77|
|the hardener or sodium fluorosilicate preparation (Na2SiF6),|
|or sodium hexaferrite (Na2TiF6),|
|or their mixtures in any mixing ratio||an 8.5 and 9.1|
|the foaming agent -|
|or sodium, or triethanolammonium|
|salt lauryl||of 0.9 to 3.2|
|the filler is asbestos-chrysotile brands|
|or A5 or A4 or A3 or A2||2,4-5,5|
see RU Patent No. 2458025, IPC C04B 38/10 (2006.01), C04B 40/00 (2006.01), 2011.
The disadvantages of this method is to obtain a thermal insulation material with low thermal performance.
Known insulating material and the method thereof, characterized in that as the fibrous filler is used cardboard, pre-soaked and then dehydrated to obtain a fibrous mass. Then mix it with the ingredients in the mixer belt type, in the following ratio, wt.%:
|fibrous mass of containerboard||10,56-10,71|
|a binder is a polyvinyl acetate glue||0,35-1,72|
|hardener based on isocyanate||0,02-0,09|
|the foaming agent||0,37-0,38|
see RU Patent No. 2469977, IPC C04B 26/18 (2006.0), C04B 18/24 (2006.01), C04B 24/12, E04B 1/78, 2012.
The disadvantages of this method are the complexity and duration of the technological process, as well as the heat insulating material with low thermal performance.
The closest in technical essence is a method for insulating material including a mixture of components of the polyurethane-polyethylene glycol with filler and subsequent introduction into the mixture components MDI, in which the filler used a fine powder of natural gypsum or dolomite flour, these components are mixed in a ratio, wt.%:
|the polyethylene glycol||20-30|
see RU Patent No. 2169741, IPC7C04G 18/04, C04B 38/10, 2001.
The disadvantage of this method is a heat insulating material with high density and low thermal performance.
The task of the invention to provide a heat-insulating material with low density and thermal conductivity.
The technical problem is solved by providing a method of obtaining teploizolyatsii the aqueous-based material wood filler, comprising a mixture of a filler and a binder, characterized in that the filler used wood wood chips with a thickness of 5±2 mm, as a binder using rigid polyurethane foam, consisting of polyol and isocyanate pre-engaged mixture of binder components, and then mixing a binder with a filler layer by layer stacking layer binder, the layer of the filler and the binder layer in the form, when the ratio of all components of the mixture, wt.%:
after full flow components, the shape is fixed constipation and incubated for 15-20 minutes
Technical solution allows to obtain a heat-insulating material with low density in 6 times and reduced thermal conductivity of 1.5 times.
When implementing the inventive method is used the following components:
as the polyol used "chemtrust KAS-40 m TU-2226-004-27903090-2009;
as the isocyanate used "millionth MR-200", representing polymethylenepolyphenylisocyanate, which contains 4,4-diphenylmethane Socionet, its isomers or more high molecular weight oligomeric homologues 4,4-diphenylmethanediisocyanate;
as using wood filler particles - wood chips according to GOST 15815-83.
In Fig.1 shows the diagram of a method for insulating material based wood filler.
The method is carried out according to the scheme of receipt of material at the facility, which consists of a hopper 1, intended for storage of wood chip production facility, feeder 2, designed for dosed supply of wood particles, the tank 3 for storing the polyol tank 4 for storing isocyanate foam generator 5, intended for mixing water and isocyanate feeder 6, designed for dosed supply of a polyurethane mixture, distributor layers 7, designed for layer-by-layer issuance of a polyurethane mixture and wood particles, feeder 8, designed for dosed supply of a layer of a polyurethane mixture, the feeder 9, designed for dosed supply of a layer of wood particles, the feeder 10, designed for dosed supply of a layer of a polyurethane mixture, form 11, which is intended for forming of plate material.
To bring a full picture of the invention provides examples of sample, etc visionpoint insulating materials. The composition, structure, key indicators of insulating material, namely the coefficient of thermal conductivity and density of the proposed material and the prototype are listed in table 1.
Example 1. A method for insulating material as follows. Take 40 wt.% (60 g) of wood chips the size of 5±2 mm, and fed from the hopper 1 through the feeder 2 to the distributor layer 7. From the tank 3 serves 24 wt.% (14.4 g) polyol in the foam generator 5, there from the container 4 serves 36 wt.% (21,6 g) isocyanate. In the generator 5 has watered and isocyanate are mixed and converted into polyurethane foam through the feeder 6 is served in the dispenser layers 7, where layer-by-layer, provide a polyurethane mixture and wood particles, through the feeder 8 provides a layer of polyurethane foam mixture through the feeder 9 is applied a layer of wood particles, through the feeder 10 serves layer polyurethane mixture in the form of 11, where stand 15-20 minutes
Example 2. The operation is carried out analogously to example 1, when I take to 42.5 wt.% (63.7) technology chip size of 5±2 mm, and fed from the hopper 1 through the feeder 2 to the distributor layer 7. From the tank 3 serves 23 wt.% (13.8 g) of the polyol in the foam generator 5, there from the container 4 serves to 34.5 wt.% (20.7 g) isocyanate. In the generator 5 has watered and isocyanate are mixed and converted into polyurethane foam through the feeder 6 submit to the distributor the Loew 7, where layer-by-layer, provide a polyurethane mixture and wood particles, through the feeder 8 provides a layer of polyurethane foam mixture through the feeder 9 is applied a layer of wood particles, through the feeder 10 serves layer polyurethane mixture in the form of 11, where stand 15-20 minutes
Example 3. The operation is carried out analogously to example 1, when I take 45 wt.% (67,5 g) technology chip size of 5±2 mm, and fed from the hopper 1 through the feeder 2 to the distributor layer 7. From the tank 3 serves 22 wt.% (13,2 g) polyol in the foam generator 5, there from the container 4 serves 33 wt.% (19,8 g) isocyanate. In the generator 5 has watered and isocyanate are mixed and converted into polyurethane foam through the feeder 6 is served in the dispenser layers 7, where layer-by-layer, provide a polyurethane mixture and wood particles, through the feeder 8 provides a layer of polyurethane foam mixture through the feeder 9 is applied a layer of wood particles, through the feeder 10 serves layer polyurethane mixture in the form of 11, where stand 15-20 minutes
The obtained wood-insulating material meets the requirements of GOST 16381-77 "Materials and products building insulation. Classification and General technical requirements: has a thermal conductivity of not more than 0,165 W/(m*°C) and has a density of not more than 500 kg/m3.
Coefficient of thermal conductivity determined by the Yu installation with the brand MG4 "250" according to GOST 7076-99. The method of determination is based on the inpatient flow of air through the sample. After the measurement is completed, the installation reflects on the display the values of the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the sample.
The density of the insulation material are determined according to GOST 17177-94 by the formula
where m is the mass of the dry sample, kg,
V - volume of sample, m3.
|# example||Composition, g/wt.%||Density, kg/m3||The density of the prototype, kg/m3||Coefficient of thermal conductivity, W/(m*°C)||thermal conductivity of the prototype, W/(m*°C)|
|1||Components of insulating material||96||414||0,072||0,12|
|2||Components of insulating material||of 98.2||0,079|
|3||Components of insulating material||100,5||0,084|
Thus, the claimed method for insulating material based wood filler in comparison with the prototype allows to reduce the density of the material in 4 times, to reduce thermal conductivity of 1.5 times, also reduces the cost of material by filling the wood particles.
A method for insulating material based wood filler comprising a mixture of a filler and a binder, from which causesa fact,
in the filler used wood wood chips with a thickness of 5±2 mm, as a binder using rigid polyurethane foam, consisting of polyol and isocyanate pre-exercise the mixture of binder components, then mix the binder with the filler layer by layer stacking layer binder, the layer of the filler and the binder layer in the form, when the ratio of all components of the mixture, wt.%:
after full flow components, the shape is fixed constipation and incubated for 15-20 minutes
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of foam materials on the basis of asbestos, basalt, carbon, polyether or polyamide or any other inorganic and organic fibres to be used in aircraft and ship building, machine building, etc. This method comprises the steps that follow. Production of foam bilk from initial mix of fibres and feed of said foam bulk to conveyor belt. Foam bulk is dried in drying chambers at stepwise increase in temperature in successive zones. Foam bulk is annealed in the kiln to foam material and cut reset-size boards. Note here that drying and annealing comprises simultaneous effects of IR radiation and convective heat. Note here that drying stepwise temperature increase occurs at 60°C-170°C. Annealing is performed at 190-280°C. Foam bulk is fed through drying chambers and annealing kiln at the rate of 6-12 m/h. Invention proposes also the conveyor line to this end.
EFFECT: accelerated drying, higher quality of foam material, continuous production.
8 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preparation of construction mixtures, primarily fine-grained concrete mixtures and mortars which harden in natural conditions or under steam curing. Disclosed is a two-step method of preparing a construction mixture using mineral filler, a plasticising additive, sand and binder. The first step comprises mixing the binder - portland cement M500 D20, mineral filler - silicon carbonate gaize, 55-65% sand and 60-70% hardening water to obtain a homogeneous mixture, and the second step comprises adding to the obtained mixture the remaining sand, plasticising additive - superplasticiser SP-1 and the remaining water, and finally mixing to obtain a homogeneous mixture of given workability.
EFFECT: reducing consumption of expensive materials without reducing strength of the obtained material.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises electrochemical treatment of mains water in three-chamber electrolysis unit with ion-selective membranes by alternating asymmetric current. Meanwhile the electrolysis unit anode is made from shungite. During the electrochemical treatment of water in the anode and in the anode chamber the ultrasonic oscillations are exited, the frequency of which exceeds the cavitation threshold frequency within a range from 20 kHz up to 100 kHz, and the intensity of the named ultrasonics is in the field of stable cavitation from 1.5 W/cm2 up to 2,5 W/cm2. Water treatment is stopped at achieving of density of particles of hydrated fullerene 10-3-10-4%.
EFFECT: improvement of frost resistance of concrete mix, increase of cement hydratation level and strength of cement stone in early periods of curing.
SUBSTANCE: method of activation of concrete mixing water by its modifying with carbon fulleroid nano-particles with its consecutive ultrasonic processing comprises the placement of shungite into a vessel with water, the mass of shungite amount no less than 1% of water mass, and ultrasonic oscillations are excited in water with the frequency in the range from 20 kHz to 100 kHz, from 1.5 W/cm2 up to 2.5 W / cm2, and 10-3-10-5% and water and shungite are subjected to named ultrasonic oscillations within 5-10 minutes until achieving of density of fullerene, emanated from shungite into activated water, then the activated water is passed through the filter and is used as a concrete mixing liquid, and the shungite bottoms are left in the vessel, which is filled with the next portion of water and the procedure of concrete mixing liquid activation is repeated.
EFFECT: improvement of physic-mechanical characteristics of concrete, decrease of water consumption or cement consumption without affecting the concrete strength.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of activating hardening water of cement-based composites. The method of activating hardening water of cement-based composites includes treating tap water in a plasmatron with low-temperature nonequilibrium plasma in a period of time ranging from 1·10-2 s to 5·10-2 s.
EFFECT: high efficiency and degree of activation of water in order to speed up hydration and strength gain in the early stage of concrete hardening.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of inorganic heat-resistant rustproof composites in production of plastics, antirust and lubing materials for construction, electrical engineering, etc. Proposed method comprises mixing of inorganic natural material, liquid glass, dolomite powder and additive, mix forming and thermal treatment. Used is liquid sodium glass, its density making 1.28-1.42 kg/m3, as inorganic natural material, that is, montmorillonite modified by organic substance. Said additive represents a hydrated cellulose fibre shaped to 5.0-20.0 mm long staple impregnated with 30%-aqueous solution of iron, zinc, copper and aluminium sulphates taken in the ratio of 1.0:0.5:0.5:1.0 in flushing bath for 70-80 minutes. Then, said fibre is squeezed to moisture content of 60-65% and dried at 120-140°C to remove 95-98% of residual moisture. Components are mixed by mechanical activation for 8-10 minutes, mix being formed and annealed at temperature increase from 140°C to 1300°C for 30-40 minutes. Note here that montmorillonite is modified by the product of interaction between caprolactam or its oligomers with butyl stearate. Mix contains components in the following ratio in wt %: modified montmorillonite - 20-60, liquid glass - 20-30, dolomite - 10-35, cellulose fibre - 10-15. This invention is developed in dependent clauses.
EFFECT: higher fire resistance, lower heat conductivity factor, antirust properties.
3 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of producing a composite material consists in the fact that a cavity of a casing construction is filled with very rigid concrete, produced by mechanic activation of a cement composition. The cement composition includes 30% of cement of grade PC-500DO-N, 7.5% of microsilica, 1.8% of an expanding additive EA-H, 20% of river washed sand with the fineness modulus Mf 5, 40% of basalt gravel with a size up to 30 mm, 0.7% of an ethylene glycol-based superplasticiser. Mechanic activation is carried out in blade mixers of a forced type with a frequency of blade rotation not less than 60 rpm for not less than 20 min. Highly-strong concrete is poured into the cavity of the casing construction, and is simultaneously consolidated by vibration processing. Then, to exclude steam discharge from it, the cavity of pouring is closed. Autoclave solidification of concrete, consisting in the fact that the entire construction is evenly heated to a temperature of nearly 200°C to solidify it, is realised. The construction is exposed to the said temperature for 12 hours. After that, it is gradually cooled to room temperature and kept at the said temperature until complete hydration of cement takes place. And, finally, mechanical processing of basic surfaces is realised.
EFFECT: simplification of technology of the material production.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a powdered composition of a construction material, preferably dry mortar for industrial production, and especially to tile adhesives, joint filler, putty, waterproofing slurry, repair mortar, levelling mortar, reinforcing adhesives, adhesives for heat-insulation composite systems, mineral plaster, fine putty and seamless floor systems, which contains an ester of A) 2-ethylhexanoic acid and B) an alcohol with a boiling point of at least 160°C. Further, the invention discloses the production of said products, as well as use of esters according to the invention in powdered compositions of construction materials for reducing dust formation. The invention is developed in subclaims.
EFFECT: reducing dust formation, reducing the degree of release of organic compounds during storage and use of construction materials.
14 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of preparing the concrete mixture, consisting in mixing of cement, aggregates, water, and aqueous suspension of complex modifier of the following composition, wt %: silica fume 40-70; chemical additives 2-10; water - the rest, which is dried prior to mixing in the air stream to obtain powder consisting of granules, according to the invention, the aqueous suspension of complex modifier before mixing is subject to drying under the influence of continuous electromagnetic field of ultra-high frequency of 400-1000 MHz from microwave oscillators and heated air stream of microwave oscillator cooling to obtain powder with grains of size up to 500 microns and moisture of 9-12%; then the dried powdered complex modifier and cement are subjected to dispersion and disaggregation via exposure to pulsed electromagnetic field of ultra-high frequency of 1000-3000 MHz lasting 1-1.5 seconds, till the obtention of ultrafine powder of complex modifier with size of 60-100 nm, moisture of 1-8% and cement of size 0.1-5 microns, after that they are mixed, ground together and activated, form the disaggregated and activated mixture of cement and complex modifier, which is mixed with filler and water, concrete mixture is obtained; this mixture is subjected to the influence of powerful pulsed electromagnetic field of ultra-high frequency of 400-1000 MHz with duration of 1100÷nanoseconds.
EFFECT: increase of strength of concrete mixture.
SUBSTANCE: method of tempering moulding mixtures includes mixing dry components and preparing tempering water by passing said water between electrodes while applying an alternating or constant potential difference with rate or strength of current which provides charge saturation density of water that has passed between the electrodes of not less than 825 kC/m3, saturating the tempering water during electrolysis with Fe3+ ions of the electrode until saturation of the water with iron ions reaches 30-35%. Ascorbic solution is first added to said water in amount of 0.1 g/l.
EFFECT: increasing mobility of moulding mixtures without increasing the total amount of tempering water, thereby considerably improving operational characteristics of the finished articles and saving binding materials.
SUBSTANCE: raw mix for manufacturing of foam concrete includes, wt %: portland cement 27.0-29.0, foaming agent PB-2000 0.4-0.6, fly ash 37.9-38.4, capron finer cut into sections 10-15 mm 0.2-0.5, liquid glass 1.0-2.0, water 30.0-33.0.
EFFECT: increased strength of foam concrete.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of obtaining ampholytic surface-active substances on the basis of a protein-containing raw material and can be used in the process of production of foam-concrete and foam-concrete constructions. In the method of obtaining a foam-generator for the production of foam-concrete and foam-concrete constructions, including the hydrolysis of the protein-containing raw material in the presence of calcium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide is formed, when calcium oxide is introduced in a hydrolysed reaction mixture, the hydrolysis process is carried out in one stage in a reactor-hydrolyser, provided with high-speed stirrer and an external circular loop with a pump for 5-9 hours at a temperature of 110-132°C with the weight ratio of initial ingredients "feather wastes:water:calcium oxide", equal to 100 : (350-400) : (3.5-3.7), with pH of the lime-feather mass at the beginning of hydrolysis varying within the interval of 12.0-12.4, and at the end of hydrolysis in the interval of 7.5-7.7.
EFFECT: obtaining the foam-generator with high foam-generating properties, which are achieved both with the application of moderately mineralised water and alkaline highly hard lime water.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: fusion mixture for the production of porous filler contains, wt %: montmorillonite clay 94.5-97.5, coal 2.0-4.0, a micro-foaming agent BS and/or a micro-foaming agent OS preliminarily diluted in hot water at a temperature of 85-95°C 0.5-1.5.
EFFECT: improved structure of the porous filler, obtained from the charge.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of building materials, in particular to synthetic hydrocarbon foaming agents, which contain surface-active substances, applied for the production of foam concrete. A foaming agent for the production of foam concrete contains, wt %: sodium salt of alkylsulphates of the primary higher fatty alcohols of the C10 fraction 10.0-25.0, coccoamidopropylhydroxysultone 2.0-4.5, water - the remaining part. The foaming agent for the production of foam concrete contains, wt %: a mixture of sodium salt of alkylsulphates of the primary higher fatty alcohols of the C10 fraction with sodium salt of alkylsulphates of the primary higher fatty alcohols of the C8 fraction, with the content in the mixture of the fraction C10 40-99%, 10.0-25.0, coccoamidopropylhydroxysultone 2.0-4.5, water - the remaining part. The claimed foaming agents additionally contain polymethylpyrrolidone in a quantity of 1.5-5.0 wt %.
EFFECT: improvement of foaming properties of the foaming agent in fresh and sea water with obtaining foam of low and medium multiplicity, simplification of the foaming agent composition.
4 cl, 18 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of construction materials, in particular to complex additives, used in production of mortars, in masonry and plaster works. Complex additive to mortars, consisting of lignosulphonate-based plasticiser and air-entraining additive, in accordance with invention, as air-entraining additive, it contains composition of surface-active substances (SAS), which includes low-hydrophilic surface-active substances with value of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) 1…3 and highly-hydrophilic surface-active substances with HLB value 30…40 with the following ratio, wt %: lignosulphonates - 80-95; composition of surface-active substances - 5-20. SAS composition includes low-hydrophilic substances with HLB value 1…3 and highly-hydrophilic substances with HLB value 30…40 with the following ratio of components, wt.p.: low-hydrophilic SAS with HLB value 1…3 - 5-20, highly-hydrophilic SAS with HLB value 30…40 - 80-95. Complex additive can additionally include hydrophilic stabiliser from the group of vegetable, artificial or microbiological polysaccharides in amount 1-10% of the total weight of lignosulphonate and composition of surface-active substances.
EFFECT: increased degree of air-entraining, increase of time for which mortar preserves its mobility.
2 cl, 4 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: in method of obtaining porous heat-insulating material, which includes mixing one of components of expandable polyurethane with filling agent and further introduction into mixture of other component - polyisocyanate, as filling agent used is sawdust with dimensions 4±2 mm, which is preliminarily subjected to vapour processing at temperature, equal 250°C, after processing sawdust is supplied into diffuser of diffusor-confusor device, with supply into zone of transfer of diffuser into confusor of expandable polyurethane component, which includes polyether, based on propylene oxide, oxypropylethylenediamine, dimethylethanolamine, oxyalkylenemethylsiloxane block-copolymer, trichloroethylphosphate; then, obtained mixture is discharged into reactor, where mixture is mixed and vacuumed to residual pressure, equal 15-20 kPa, after which polyisocyanate is introduced into mixture with ratio of all mixture components, wt %: polyether based on propylene oxide 24.54-26.89, oxypropylethylenediamine 8.40-9.20, dimethylethanolamine 0.48-0.55, oxyalkylenemethylsiloxane block-copolymer 0.36-0.40, trichloroethylphosphate 6.80-7.47, polyisocyanate 33.33-35.56, sawdust 20-25, after mixing components, composite mass is supplied into heated to temperature 50-60°C mould and kept for 15-20 min.
EFFECT: obtaining heat-insulating material with lower density and heat-conductivity.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: raw material mixture for the production of foam concrete includes, wt %: Portland cement 28.0-30.0, foaming agent FC-2000 0.4-0.5, TPP ash 17.5-21.6, milled and sifted through net No. 5 mica 20.0-26.0, water 26.0-30.0.
EFFECT: reduction of water requirement of the raw material mixture for the production of foam concrete.
SUBSTANCE: raw mix for making foam concrete includes, wt %: portland cement 35.0-37.0, foaming agent PB-2000 0.25-0.35, TPP ash 10.65-13.25, crushed foam glass of fraction 5-10 mm 20.0-25.0, mineral wool ground and sifted through sieve No. 2.5 1.0-1.5, haydite sand 5.0-7.0, water 21.0-23.0.
EFFECT: higher heat resistance of foam concrete produced from raw mix.
SUBSTANCE: raw mixture for manufacture of foam concrete contains the following components, wt %: Portland cement 35.0-37.0, foaming agent PB-2000 0.25-0.35, TPP ash 15.65-20.25, crushed foamed glass with particle size of 5-10 mm 20.0-25.0, asbestos fibre cut into 5-15 mm pieces 1.0-1.5, and water 21.0-23.0.
EFFECT: improving heat resistance of foam concrete obtained from raw mixture.
SUBSTANCE: raw mix for preparation of foam concrete contains, wt %: portland cement 38.0 - 40.0, quartz sand 28.0 - 30.0, foaming agent 0.6 - 0.8, thermally modified peat additive, produced by heating peat up to 600°C with its further grinding, 1.9 - 2.8, water - balance.
EFFECT: production of foam concrete with higher strength and improved thermal properties.
SUBSTANCE: in the method to manufacture wood concrete items with production of a base on their surface for plastering, providing for preparation and dosing of a hydraulic binder, ground cane stems, water, mixing of components, moulding of items with vibration, hardening, moulding with vibration is carried out so that cane stems cut into sections with length of 4-6 cm are located near the surface of the items, with one end staying in the mix, and with the other one - protruding outside and forming a base for application of plaster.
EFFECT: higher convenience of plaster application onto surface of items.