Method of forming of furrow slices and device for its implementation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to vegetable farming. The method is implemented by means of laying of milled soil for the formed furrows to the surface of unprocessed soil. For long-term provision of cultivated crop with accessible (capillary) water entering the soil mass with capillary porosity, formed within a long period after qualitative autumn treatment the dried surface layer of this mass id destructed and removed. Meanwhile newly formed surface layer additionally compacted, that prevents to excessive loss of capillary water. The soil with non-capillary porosity hard-worked on the usual mass making side slopes and sowing layer, forming the hole soil mass as a furrow slice. The device includes the power shaft, fixed on the frame, with interspaces between milling drums with covers, shaping furrow slices. Meanwhile it is equipped with chains fixed on the driving shaft in interspaces between the milling drums.

EFFECT: group of inventions allows to prevent an excessive loss of capillary water and for a long time to provide the cultivated crops with accessible water.

2 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to the formation of ridges in the cultivation of vegetable crops.

A method of processing loamy soil [1]. The known method relates to the treatment of heavy loamy soils, for example, potato, includes crushing soil lumps on the depth of the arable horizon and the shape of her ridges. However, this will disturb the existing soil array with established capillary porosity, and reduced transpiration of soil moisture from the lower layers of the soil in the seed layer.

In order to increase the yield of crops due to better development of the root system of plants in the processing of loamy soil, in a known way from the arable horizon allocate a fraction less than 25 mm, giving the array of capillary porosity, and placed it in the bottom layer of the horizon, and the remaining part of the coarse fraction of the soil is crushed to the size of 25-30 mm, forming a layer of soil with acapillary duty cycle and lay her on the previously laid layer of fine soil. Further, when the formation of ridges shallow soil with the lower layer of the arable horizon include in their base with the aim of transpiration of moisture, and the upper part of the ridges form from the soil with acapillary duty cycle to reduce moisture loss from the top of the arable horizon. From the local processing method loamy soil with simultaneous formation of ridges intended for planting of large-seeded crops, in particular potatoes, and unacceptable for planting small seeded crops. Because when seeding into loose soil of the ridges between soil lumps and seeds is not provided with full contact, because the soil does not have time to settle. In addition, the seeds are deprived of available capillary moisture, soil itself an array dries and is exposed to wind and water erosion during precipitation. In the seeds die or give uneven-aged seedlings, resulting in loss of yield.

Known cultivator-ridge shaper for tillage of soil for planting potatoes and other vegetable crops [2]. In the famous cultivator implemented method and device for treatment of the soil with simultaneous crafts ridges. The essence of the method is that the soil clods are crushed knives milling drum over the entire width of the unit, then make furrowing okucnicama with the formation of the ridges by lifting, wrapping, packing clipped layers of the soil at the base of the ridges and the formation with simultaneous seal formed by the crests of the main roller.

However, this tillage cutter is broken capillary porosity of the soil massif, formed in the period from autumn to spring treatment. The deterioration of the transpiration of soil moisture from the lower layers of the soil is found in the seed layer means the appearance of uneven germination, as a result, the yield of crops.

A known method of forming ridges at pre-treatment loamy soils and device for its implementation [3], adopted for the prototype. In the known method pursued: development of optimal parameters of the method of formation of the ridges, the soil structure in the area of seed and device for its implementation. Chopping soil lumps mills in the area of sowing should be made to size 3 mm with a density of soil in the range of 1.15-1.25 g/cm3. The formation of the ridges with the specified parameters and the concave curvature of compacted surfaces in the form of ellipses is aimed at improving the moisture, air and thermal conditions of the soil and to exclude wind and water erosion of the soil.

However, a significant drawback of the known method and device for its implementation is the arrangement of soil array of capillary porosity within the soil array acapillary duty cycle. Therefore, the degree of saturation of soil available moisture depends largely on the thickness of the array with acapillary a duty cycle of lying under an array of capillary porosity, and the amount of moisture in the underlying soil layers, the movement of capillary water is much slower, which causes the plants suffering from lack of moisture, and if the thickness is not soil with acapillary duty cycle plants suffer even when the available quantity of available water, in the underlying soil layers.

The technical task of the present invention was to develop a method that provides sown culture available (capillary) water coming from the array of the soil, capillary porosity, and podoplanin surface layer of the array inhibits the excessive release of capillary water and development of the device for its implementation.

On how this is achieved by the fact that unlike the prototype array soils with capillary porosity is not re-created, and is stored in the soil as it was formed in the autumn tillage and improved by precipitation and the natural shrinkage for such a long period. In addition, with the array of capillary moisture is removed dried surface layer, and the newly formed surface photoplotters that restrains excessive consumption of capillary water. On the newly formed surface flaking layer consisting of milled soil, forming a seed layer. The same soil is placed on the side surface, giving form to the crest of the final shape. However, this milled soil soil is an array of acapillary duty cycle and stores the available moisture in the quantity demanded cultivated culture.

Otnositelnosti for implementing the method this is achieved by unlike the prototype is equipped with working bodies in the form of circuits placed between the cutter drums on the same shaft.

The chain links located in mutually perpendicular planes, not only break up the large lumps of soil, but also cleans the array from the parched soil, the purified surface, exposed to the shock of the chain, is sealed.

Supply device circuits between the cutter drums allows for the desired density of the surface soil layer of the array of capillary porosity through mass selection circuits and the size of the parts of which it is composed. In addition, by changing the number of links in the chain you can also change the impact of the circuit formed on the surface of the array.

Patentable invention meets the requirement of unity, since the Method of forming crests and device for its realization" is aimed at solving the same task - to ensure long cultivated crops available moisture in sufficient quantities and can only be used together.

Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the prior art, including searching by the patent and scientific and technical information sources, and identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed method and device for about what westline, has allowed to establish that the applicant had not discovered analogues as for a method and device characterized by signs, all essential features of the claimed method and device.

Thus, patentable invention meets the criterion of "Novelty".

For checking the conformity to each patentable object to the criterion of "Inventive step", the applicant conducted an additional search of the known solutions in the patent and scientific and technical information sources. The search results showed that the method and the device for its implementation patentable the invention, the set of distinctive features do not match the known technical solutions and does not follow for professionals in the obvious way from the prior art.

In Fig.1 shows a cross-section of the ridge and in Fig.2 the device, type in the plan.

The method of formation of the ridges (Fig.1) involves the formation of grooves milled soil and dumping it on the uncultivated soil, which is the Central massif (POS.1) formed of the ridge, while the parched soil with unhandled array is reset circuits milled and mixed with soil and surface soils are formed seed layer (Ref.3) and lateral slopes (Ref.2), which give the soil an array of the final form of the crest.

Otlicials the th feature of the method is the fact, what seed layer does not exceed 5-6 cm, and podoplanin layer is 0.5-1.0 see

The device for implementing the method (Fig.2) contains mounted on a frame (POS.4) drive shaft (POS.5) with milling drums (Ref.6) and chain (POS.7) attached to the drive shaft in the spaces between the cutter reel, the cover (POS.8) milling drum role ridge shaping of the working body, sealing the side walls of the ridges (POS.9).

When moving the machine on the ground influence simultaneously knives cutting drum and a chain fixed to the drive shaft. Chain, affecting desiccated surface layer preseruing array of soil, destroy it and then dropping from the array and then it is mixed with milled soil.

Part milled soil, falling on the surface of preseruing array forms a seed layer, and the other part, the bulk of this soil is used for forming the side slopes of the formed ridge.

The lack of chain links sharp edges not only contributes to the crumbling lumps of soil, but also compacts the newly formed surface layer preseruing array of soil.

As the chain readily replaceable, they can be all sizes and different weights.

This technology and design, the device allow you to create ridges of soil is the R arrays with capillary porosity, provides optimal conditions for sowing, growth and development of plants.

Sources of information

1. A. C. the USSR №1521321, A01B 79/00, 79/02, 1987

2. A. C. the USSR №1817664, A01B 13/02, 1993

3. RF patent 2284093, A01B 79/00, 13/02, 49/02, 2006

1. The method of forming ridges at presowing tillage is carried out by placing milled soil forming grooves on the surface of the uncultivated soil, characterized in that for the long term cultivated crops available - capillary water coming from an array of soil capillary porosity developed over a long period after the quality autumn processed, dried surface layer of this array are destroyed and removed, while the newly formed surface layer photoplotters, it inhibits the excessive release of capillary water, soil with acapillary the duty cycle will nagaraju on the existing array in the form of side slopes and the seed layer, giving the whole soil of the array, the shape of the crest.

2. Apparatus for forming crests, including fixed on the frame of the drive shaft with gaps between milling drums with covers, forming ridges, characterized in that it is provided with a chain fixed to the drive shaft in the spaces between the cutter drums.



 

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