Facing system of external walls

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: facing system of external walls includes small main stones used for facing of an external wall, and facing stones with front, rear, upper, lower and side faces, as well as with vertical or horizontal projections on the rear face, where the main stones have one or more slots on the external face, which correspond to one or more projections on facing stones; besides, sizes of slots exceed sizes of the corresponding projections by the value of an adhesive seam that attaches stones to each other. A projection on the rear face of the facing stone is inclined to the rear face of the facing stone at an angle of α < 90°; external projections on the rear face of the facing stone have internal faces that are inclined at an angle of β ≥ 180°- α, and sizes of the main stones are divisible by sizes of facing stones.

EFFECT: reducing labour intensity and material consumption for facing of external walls.

5 cl, 11 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to the field of building materials and construction elements, namely, the cladding of the building envelope.

The level of technology

A known system in which the main wall (OS), made of concrete, concrete and other stones or brick, monolith, concrete or other blocks is coated with a thin stones having on the rear face extending outward projections, and on the upper face of the facing stones are grooves for flexible metal fasteners (see RF patent for useful model №40246 from 10.09.2004).

When the clutch facing stones are mounted on a solution and are additionally flexible connections, which are attached either to the wall or to the metal grid mounted on the wall.

Flexible connections form a strong connection, but their possible corrosion decreases with time mounted facing stone (OK). It is therefore difficult ledges, forming a locking connection in the form of a "dovetail" allow when they are filled with mortar to create a solid connection OK and OC.

However, this solution has several disadvantages. First of all this complexity, as well as great solution flow rate, which should fill the space between the O and the OS (it is 10-12 mm), and the space between the projections. Increased consumption of the solution leads to the weighting of the cladding, and hence strengthening of the bases, i.e., all of this increases the cost of the construction. To reduce the flow rate of the solution, and opportunities facing OC in any weather the proposed solution, in which OK is attached without mortar using hooks that are installed on the OS (see RF patent №2307030 from 27.09.2007,).

The disadvantages of this method include the relative complexity of the fastening hooks themselves. Furthermore, the ventilated facade is not reliable and can be recommended only for low-rise construction or when facing no more than three lower floors of multi-storey buildings.

When you try to use the mentioned stones for multi-storey building using a solution will appear the same problems as in the previous, the above solution. In addition, there is the problem of reliable filling solution of the slots on the back OK, because the grooves in the mounting position horizontal.

Disclosure of inventions

To reduce labor and material cladding the exterior walls of buildings, a system of cladding, which OK done with the tabs on the rear face, which can be extended outside of the stone, and the OS runs from small stones, these to the Tits on their outer faces have grooves, corresponding to the protrusions OK and a few larger to OK was easily attached to the main wall stones (KOS) by means of adhesive, typically a thickness of 2÷4 mm

The above problem is solved due to the fact that the system is facing external walls include small major stones, of which laid an outer wall, and facing stones from the front, rear, top, bottom and side faces, and with vertical or horizontal projections on the rear face. The claimed system is characterized by the fact that the main stones have one or more grooves on the outer face of the respective one or more projections on the facing stones, and the sizes of the grooves is larger than the corresponding tabs on the amount of the adhesive joint that holds these stones, and the dimensions of the basic stones multiple dimensions of facing stones. At all the faces facing stone, except for the facade, can be made grooves or other roughness. Moreover, at least one of the projections facing stone can be extended to the side of the main stone. In addition, at least one of the projections facing stone may have a through or blind hole and/or trench along the side and/or top and bottom faces facing stone, parallel exterior faces. Also on top is th face and one side face can be made more protrusions, and on the bottom face and the other faces the corresponding slots, slightly greater in size than said additional tabs.

Brief description of drawings

The proposed invention will be explained below in more detail with reference to the drawings showing the following:

Fig.1 - General view of the invention;

Fig.2 is a fragment of masonry, top view;

Fig.3 - illustrates a variant, when the holes 7 are made on each protrusion 3;

Fig.4 is a variant of the laying of the corner, when at the top (Fig.4) OK no one at the ledge (see 2A), while the short end OK (see 26) no extreme ledge;

Fig.5 - examples of smooth forms protrusions 2;

Fig.6 - option, in which the stones 2 have a height that is twice smaller than the height of the stone is 1, i.e., H1=2H2;

Fig.7 is a variant in which the protrusions stone 2 are arranged horizontally;

Fig.8 - 1 stone in the masonry, where the angle α<90° provides a more reliable engagement of stone 2 to KOC 1;

Fig.9 - option, in which stone 2 no lower lip and the upper extending ledge 3 firmly clings to the stone 1;

Fig.10 is a variant of the masonry, where L2=1.5 L1;

Fig.11 - option, in which the top face of the stone 2 has a projection 16, which falls into the wider groove 17 located on the lower edge of the next stone 1.

The implementation of the invention

General view of the image is to be placed is shown in Fig.1, where

1 - KOS;

2 - OK;

3 - the tabs on the rear face of stone 1;

4 - grooves on the outer faces of KOS;

5 is a side OK;

6 is a top face OK;

7 - hole in OK;

8 - grooves on the rear surface of OK and ledges OK;

H1and H2- height of KOS and OK, respectively.

Adhesive required viscosity is applied on the outer face of KOS, then OK is put on KOS, as shown by the arrow a in Fig.1. Due to the grooves 8 on the surface, glued to KOS, is formed on the comb that allows you to increase the bonding surface and to reduce the effect of the surplus Stripping" of glue between the stones. This gluing operation can be performed at the factory KOS or directly at the construction site. It is desirable that the wwtf during the operation of the gluing was the outer face upwards. Thus in Fig.1 H1=H2.

After hardening of the adhesive layer between KOS and OK, tiled so the stone is then set in the masonry of the main wall on the solution (10-12 mm thick) or glue. In masonry walls due to the presence in it of the horizontal and vertical mortar or adhesive joints is not only the adhesion of KOS, but OK with each other. If one or more ledges OK to run through or blind holes 7, for reliability, you can periodically make flexible with the ides, hiding them in the mortar joints between KOS, especially in complex and important places, such as when laying angles, etc.

In Fig.2 shows a fragment of masonry, where

9 - the glue line between OK and KOS;

10 - mortar seam between KOS.

If the stones KOS are brought to the site collected with OK, the laying of such stones as usual. The tabs on the rear face of OK can be of different shapes, but it is necessary that at least one projection was expanding outward to provide additional gear OK and KOS, increase reliability of fastening of facing of the entire wall as a whole.

In the case of Assembly OK and KOS on the construction site can cause problems with the quality of the adhesive joint, because in the conditions of building more difficult to achieve the requirements on the viscosity of the adhesive, and the weather conditions can significantly complicate the work. In this case, the medial protrusions OK (see 3b in Fig.3) can be performed not expanding, and inclined to the rear face OK on the angle α<90° with external projections 3A and 3C, having outer faces, coincident with the side edges OK, have inner faces inclined at the angle β≥180°-α (protrusion 3A) and the angle γ>=α. The dotted lines 11 shows the case when β180°-α, and lines 12 - when γ>α.

In the variant shown in Fig.3, KOS applied adhesive 9, and OK is easily pressed to KOS as regular tiles. In Fig.3 p the cauldron option in which the holes 7 are made on each ledge 3.

Obviously, the further simplification of the system can be used OK without one or two extreme projections. This variant is shown in Fig.4 when laying the corner, when at the top (Fig.4) OK no one at the ledge (see 2A), while the short end OK (see 2B) no extreme ledge. For secure fastening between 2A and 2B of the top stone 1 padded bracket 13, which seminolecounty in horizontal mortar joints. For illustration in Fig.4 bottom stone 2A also mounted with the bracket 14, one end of which is put into the hole 7 and the other end may be branched, a more complex form, and can also be left in horizontal mortar joints. It is important to put the stones 1 and 2 so that the projections 3 was directed to the wrong angle, and an angle that will not allow under any circumstances fall out OK 2A and 2B stone 1. Adjacent stones 1, being connected to each other in the mortar seam 10 will provide reliable fastening OK 2A and 2B similarly.

In Fig.5 shows examples of smooth forms of the projections 2, which in the manufacture avoids unnecessary stresses in the rocks and to improve the quality OK, that may be made of concrete, ceramic, porcelain and so on

In Fig.6 shows the case when for architectural diversity, and to clothe treatment gluing OK and KOS, especially in the variants shown in Fig.1, 2, 5, 2 stones have a height that is twice smaller than the height of the stone is 1, i.e., H1=2H2.

Because the bonding of KOS and OK can be performed, including, and in construction, stone veneer can be laid in the wall until the adhesive between KOS and OK will harden. In this case, if the horizontal seam 10 is made of insufficient viscous solution, there is a likelihood that you just glued OK can under its own weight falls on the previous bottom row, which will lead to invalid referring lined the walls. To avoid such situations during the construction of enclosing walls, Fig.7 shows a variant in which the protrusions stone 2 are arranged horizontally. Because typical length L1stone 1 is larger than its height H1in this case, you can reduce the number of the projections 3. In Fig.7 there are only two top and bottom, and L1=L2H1=H2. The mechanism of bonding stones 1 and 2 is the same as shown in Fig.1.

In Fig.8 shows the 1 stone in the masonry, where the angle α<90° provides a more reliable engagement of stone 2 to 1 KOS. Horizontal analogy to the case shown in Fig.3, illustrated here by the dotted line 11, when the inner face of the lower protrusion 3A is tilted to the rear face of stone 2 at the angle β>180-α. In addition, in Fig.8 stone 2 no holes 7,and made additional chute 15, which allow you to have additional brackets 13 stone 2 and in blind or through holes in the stone 1.

This horizontal flange system 3 allows (unlike the case in Fig.4) not to think about where directed protrusions 3 in the masonry corners.

Further simplification of the structure shown in Fig.9, where the stone 2 no lower lip and the upper extending ledge 3 firmly clings to the stone 1. The presence of holes 7 or trench 15, as shown by the dotted line, you can provide additional fastening a flexible coupling 13 to the stone 1.

With such a simple fastening system is possible without difficulty in the more difficult conditions of the construction to ensure gluing stones 1 and 2. Moreover, it is possible first clutches of a number of stones 1, then they glued the stone-plate 2 of any length. Obviously, to reduce the amount of pruning stones length KOS L1and approx length L2should be correlated with each other. In Fig.10 shows that the L2=l,5L1. It is possible that L2=0,5 L1, L2=2L1that also gives additional architectural features.

Variant shown in Fig.9, allows us to simplify the manufacture of stone 2, but stone 1, which is very important, because in the case of "warm" wall stones, for example, from polystyrene, multislot claydite-concrete, opilkobetona etc. the presence of more than one notch on the facing surface reduces the strength of the stone. In the case of Fig.9 one protrusion 3, glued with 1 stone, little will change the strength of the assembled stone. And when you use the "warm" the above mentioned stones and similar cladding system, we have ready-to-wall small weight with a reliable and simple lining.

Further modification of the stones 2 are shown in Fig.11, where the top face of the stone 2 has a projection 16, which falls into the wider groove 17 located on the lower edge of the next stone 1. Here the stones 1 are connected by an adhesive solution 9. Obviously, similar protrusions may be on one side face of the stone 2 (shown by the dotted line 18), and on the other side should be the corresponding slots. This system of grooves and protrusions on the rocks 2 further ensures the reliability of attaching cladding to the OS without increasing construction costs.

1. System cladding the exterior walls, including small major stones, of which laid an outer wall, and facing stones from the front, rear, top, bottom and side faces, and with vertical or horizontal projections on the rear face, wherein the main stones are one or more grooves on the outer face of the respective one or more tabs on the bonds is ovocny stones, thus, the dimensions of the grooves is larger than the corresponding tabs on the amount of the adhesive joint that holds the stones between them, with at least one projection on the rear face of the facing stone slope to the rear face of the facing stone on the angle α < 90 , with external projections on the rear face of the facing stones have inner faces inclined at the angle β ≥ 180 - α, and thus, the dimensions of the main stones of the multiple dimensions of facing stones.

2. The system under item 1, characterized in that all faces facing stone, except for the facade, made grooves or other roughness.

3. The system under item 1, characterized in that at least one of the projections facing stone extends to the side of the main stone.

4. The system under item 1, characterized in that at least one of the projections facing stone has a through or blind hole and/or trench along the side and/or top and bottom faces facing stone, parallel exterior faces.

5. The system under item 1, characterized in that on the top face and one side face made additional tabs, and on the bottom face and the other faces the corresponding slots which are larger than said additional protrusions.



 

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8 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly for tile laying on wall enclosures, namely on vented facades, to create relief architecture compositions (architectural orders) arranged in single plane.

SUBSTANCE: facing structure comprises the first facing tile set including tiles having flat interior surfaces, which define common facade plane. Facing structure includes horizontal profiles fastened to vertical ones and connection members, which are secured to vertical profiles and provide visible or concealed facing tile connection. The connection members fix upper, lower tile parts or two adjacent tiles. Facing structure also comprises support flanges of tile edge fastening members. Tile edge fastening members adapted for concealed tile fastening are to be inserted in corresponding grooves made in tile edges. The facing structure additionally has arch module projecting out of common building facade plane. The arch module is preliminarily assembled at building site and retained over arch formed in building wall by means of anchoring bolts passing through orifices of the supports. The facing structure also has the second tile set including tiles projecting out of common facade plane and having different cross-sections. Edges of the second tiles are supported by support flanges, which provide visible or concealed tile connection and have similar grooves adapted to receive wings of fastening members for concealed tile fastening. Arch module including facing tiles, connection members for visible or concealed tile connection, which secure lower tile parts and two adjacent tiles, and support flanges for tile edge fixation. The support flanges, which provide concealed tile fastening pass in corresponding grooves made in tile edges. The arch module is made as frame including holders with box-like cross-sections and connected one with another by means of stiffening components. The holders have support for holder connection to wall. At least two members to secure lower tile parts and at least one member to retain two adjacent tiles are fastened to facial holder sides and define pockets for radially formed tiles receiving made in exterior frame part between the holders. Members for lower tile part fixation extend along longitudinal holder axes. Members for simultaneous fastening of two adjacent tiles are transversal to longitudinal holder axes.

EFFECT: possibility to change appearance of buildings including ones having arch openings.

5 cl, 21 dwg

FIELD: building units, particularly coverings or linings, for instance, for walls or ceilings.

SUBSTANCE: building tile has laminated structure. Tile includes visible upper plate and lower plate made of ceramics, clay or cement and defining tile substrate. Upper and lower plates are connected one to another by glue. To provide uniform glue layer, and to prevent bubble formation in glue or frangible zone creation lower plate surface to be connected to upper plate is made as dome with central point projected over remainder plate surface and declining towards lower plate edges.

EFFECT: increased strength of lower and upper plate connection.

10 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: civil and industrial building, particularly to erect or reconstruct buildings having facing of decorative or hanged heat-and-moisture protective panels.

SUBSTANCE: bracket comprises holder connected to building wall and provided with longitudinal guiders made as flanging with inside directed edges to receive insert so that the insert may slide in horizontal direction. The insert is made as profile closed in horizontal plane and fixedly connected with the holder by means of at least two rivet pairs. Insert and holder are made of stainless steel or of galvanized steel. Holder flanging and insert flanging are formed on mating holder and insert edges. The insert also has additional flanging with inwards directed edges. The additional flanging has width exceeding that of holder flanging.

EFFECT: increased strength and reliability of hanged facing panel connection to building.

3 cl, 4 dwg

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