Method of channels creation in electrode in dependent arc discharge
SUBSTANCE: between electrodes at fixed distance from them voltage is supplied, the created current melts and evaporates thin wire located between the electrodes. Distance from the cathode to anode is selected such that discharge without wire can not occur inadvertently, and between electrodes there are conditions for avalanche breakdown of the discharge gap creating upon presence in air of the evaporated wire vapours. At that one wire end is in hole inside the cathode surface and touches it, upon voltage supply to the discharge gap from the wire and cathode surface contact point in the cathode the channel is created initiating from the contact point in direction from the connection place of the cathode with negative voltage source pole.
EFFECT: creation of channels in cathode in dependent arc discharge thus increasing efficiency of scientific researches of microelectronics technology.
The invention relates to the field of study of the physical properties of a substance, in particular to study the processes in the plasma and gas-discharge devices, between the anode and cathode at a fixed distance between them is energized. The resulting current melts and vaporizes a thin wire, which is placed between the electrodes in contact with them. The distance between the electrodes is selected such that when the discharge without wire does not occur. Between the electrodes creates conditions for avalanche breakdown of the discharge gap arising from the presence in the air of vapors evaporating delays. At one end of the wire is located in the hole inside the cathode surface and touches it, and when voltage is applied on the bit interval of the touch point of the wire and the cathode surface at the cathode is formed by a channel that extends from the point of touch in the direction from the junction of the cathode to the negative pole of the voltage source.
The technical result of the invention is to develop a method of forming channels on the cathode surface in steady arc discharge.
There is a method of ignition of the arc discharge by applying to it the voltage due to the initial dense contact moving relative to each other of the electrodes and their subsequent spread .
This is the procedure does not allow light dependent arc discharge.
There is a method of dependent ignition of the arc discharge in the discharge gap with a metal wire between the electrodes .
This method does not allow to form channels on the cathode surface.
The technical problem to be solved in the proposed invention, is to develop a way to create on the surface of the cathode channels in steady arc discharge evaporation of the wires inside the discharge gap. Its essence consists in the following. One end is placed between the electrode wire is located in the hole inside the cathode surface and touches her. When the supply voltage on the bit interval of the touch point of the wire cathode surface at the cathode is formed by a channel that extends from the point of touch in the direction from the junction of the cathode to the negative pole of the voltage source.
This object is achieved in that between the anode and cathode at a fixed distance between them melts and evaporates a thin metal wire. At one end of the wire is located in the hole inside the cathode surface and touches it, and when voltage is applied on the bit interval of the touch point of the wire and the cathode surface at the cathode is formed by a channel that extends from the point of touch in the direction from the junction of cathodes negative pole of the voltage source.
This method provides the first opportunity to form channels on the cathode surface in steady arc discharge evaporation of the wires inside the discharge gap, one end of which is placed in the hole on the cathode surface.
The method consists in the following. Between the metal electrodes at a fixed distance between them is energized. The resulting current melts and vaporizes a thin wire, which is placed between the electrodes, the distance between the electrodes is chosen so, in which gas discharge without delays does not illuminate, and between the electrodes creates conditions for avalanche breakdown of the discharge gap arising from the presence in the air of vapors evaporating delays. At one end of the wire is located in the hole inside the cathode surface and touches it, and when voltage is applied to the electrodes of the touch point of the wire and the cathode surface at the cathode is formed by a channel that extends from the point of touch in the direction from the junction of the cathode to the negative pole of the voltage source.
Diagram of the method shown in the drawing (see Fig.1). The wire 1 is stretched between the cathode (2) and the anode (3) and in contact with them. At one end of the wire is in contact with the cathode surface within the holes (4)in the cathode. For applying voltage to the electrodes used the rectifier "Dolphin" (5) with the rectified voltage 220 B. the Discharge current at the maximum has varied in the region of 10-50 And with variable resistance (6). The duration of the discharge is about 0.1 seconds. The cathode was applied in a variety of metals (Cu, Ni, Fe, Ti, brass, stainless steel and others). Took wires of different metals and alloys (Cu, Ni, Fe, nichrome, Kovar, etc.). The diameter of the wires was varied in the range of 0.04-0.1 mm, their length varied from 15 to 30 mm
When the supply voltage on the bit between the wire stretched between the electrodes of the touch point of the wire and the cathode surface at the cathode under the action of cathode electrons and ions from the plasma channel is formed (7). The picture of it on the plate-cathode transformer iron is presented in Fig.2. Channel (7) comes from the hole in the cathode (4) in the direction from the junction of the cathode to the negative pole of the voltage source (8) in the direction of a more positive potential.
Pay attention to a number of circumstances.
1. The channel at the cathode, and gas breakdown, does not occur without delays, since the breakdown voltage of the discharge gap length of 1 cm in air at atmospheric pressure is 31000 B .
2. At the location of the wire on the end face of the cathode plate (see Fig.1 in  on page 4) the channels are not oznikaet.
3. The length of the channels 1-3, see
4. At each subsequent breakdown of the discharge gap channel extends within 5-6 breakdown of the gas, then its length ceases to change. When this channel is fixed on the surface of the cathode trajectory. This fact suggests that the conductivity of the metal on the cathode inside the channel can be larger than the outside of the channel.
5. The channel can be used to form a touch surface of the cathode, one end of a fine wire, while its second end is fixed on the movable electrode. However, in this case, the channels from breakdown to breakdown differ from each other due to different conditions of contact wires and the cathode.
The appearance of bands in the metal can be explained on the basis of the principle of least action electrodynamics  for the electric current flowing through the mass of substances, the resistance of which satisfies Ohm's law, the currents are distributed in the mass so that the generation rate in her heat was minimal. Hence we can assume that the channel is the trajectory of the electrons in the metal, along which the energy loss on heating is minimal, i.e., the channel is the path with the highest electronic conductivity. That is why the electrons at each subsequent breakout move in a path coincident with the paths in the previous breakdowns.
So what Braz, in the proposed method is first given a solution to the education channel on the cathode in combining the gas discharge with a metal wire between the electrodes, one end of which is located in the hole inside the cathode surface and touching her.
The method is simple and effective. It can be used in engineering and scientific research, for example in new technologies microelectronics.
Sources of information
1. theory of welding processes, the editor centuries Frolov. M.: Vysshaya SHKOLA, 1988.
2. R. N. Kuzmin, N. A. Kiskinova, B. N. Shvilkin. Patent for invention No. 2388192. 2010.
3. Radiophysics, electronics, editor N. A. Kaptsov. The MSU publishing house, 1960, S. 497.
4. R. N. Kuzmin, N. A. Kiskinova, B. N. Shvilkin. Patent for invention No. 2368472. 2009.
5. R. Feynman, R. Leighton, M. Sands. The Feynman lectures on physics. So 6. Electrodynamics. Publishing House "Mir". 1962, S. 117.
The method of forming channels on the cathode in steady arc discharge, in which between the electrodes with a fixed distance between them is energized, the resulting current melts and vaporizes a thin wire, which is placed between the electrodes, the distance between the electrodes is selected such that when the discharge spontaneously without delays does not illuminate, and between the electrodes creates conditions for avalanche breakdown RA the row span occur in the presence of air vapor evaporating wire, wherein the wire is located in the hole inside the cathode surface and touches it, and when voltage is applied on the bit interval of the touch point of the wire and the cathode surface at the cathode is formed by a channel that extends from the point of touch in the direction from the junction of the cathode to the negative pole of the voltage source.
SUBSTANCE: plasma is created by a plasmatron, plasma flow is created from it and acts on the material surface, the difference is that plasma is created and plasma flow is formed from it by the plasmatron with controlled parameters. Additionally the controlled flow of electromagnetic waves with frequency 0.5-5 GHz is created and directed to place of plasma flow contact with material surface. Regulation of plasmatron parameters and/or control of electromagnetic waves flow ensures and maintains the plasma temperature in its skin layer at place of the plasma contact with material surface in range 3000-5000 K.
EFFECT: increased productivity of destruction of solid dielectric bodies and expansion of scope of application.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of materials by plasma. Proposed sprayer comprises working chamber (2) to be evacuated that accommodates substrate (3) and plasma torch (4) to generated plasma jet (5) by heating of process gas. Note here that said plasma torch (4) has atomizer (41) to force plasma jet (5) from atomizer (4) and along lengthwise axis (A) in working chamber (2). Mechanical limiter (12) can be arranged downstream of atomizer (41) in chamber (2) to extend along said axis (A) to protect plasma jet (5) against undesirable later penetration of particles.
EFFECT: higher quality.
11 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the first version of the invention the generator cathode (1) is made as an uncooled cylinder inserted tightly to an isolator (2). In the butt end the isolator has an opening coaxial to the cathode and right up to the isolator butt end a flat metal anode (3) is installed with opening coaxial to the isolator opening thus forming a channel for an electronic beam from the cathode butt end up to the generator output. In the second version the electron beam generator comprises a discharge structure placed directly in the working gas, which consists of a cathode, and isolator and anode; the generator cathode is made as an uncooled cylinder, the butt end of the isolator is placed in the same plane with the cathode butt end, right up to the isolator butt end, coaxially with the cathode, there is a washer, which inner diameter is mode than the cathode diameter and right up to the washer there is a flat metal anode with an opening coaxial to the washer thus forming a channel for an electronic beam from the cathode butt end up to the generator output. Both in the first and second versions the cathode may be fixed in the isolator by adhesive bond far from the cathode working surface.
EFFECT: ensuring cooling of the cathode and isolator close to the beam output and reaching higher operating parameters such as gas pressure, voltage and power.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to modification of polymer material surface. Control over polymer surface modification in low-temperature HV discharge plasma at lower pressures of the medium is performed by varying the discharge power. Here, discharge power is continuously measured, its current magnitude being used for calculation in real time of temperature field in discharge area. Modification termination time is defined automatically when polymer surface reaches the preset temperature (70°C for polyethylene).
EFFECT: reproducibility of the surface adhesive properties, i.e. interfacial angle and work of adhesion, as well as stable surface hydrophysics.
1 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of plasma engineering. A nozzle for a plasma burner cooled with liquid includes drilling of a nozzle for outlet of a plasma gas jet on the nozzle end, the first section, the outer surface of which has a cylindrical shape and the second section adjacent to it, to the nozzle end, the outer surface of which converges conically in the direction to the nozzle end; besides, a provision is made for at least one liquid supply groove and/or at least one liquid discharge groove and are continued through the second section in the outer surface of nozzle (4) in the direction towards the nozzle end, and with that, the liquid supply groove or at least one of the liquid supply grooves and/or a liquid discharge groove, or at least one of the liquid discharge grooves is also continued through some part of the first section, and in the first section there is at least one groove interconnected with the liquid supply groove or at least with one of the liquid supply grooves or with the liquid discharge groove or at least with one of the liquid discharge grooves.
EFFECT: reduction of nozzle overheating.
18 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: design of the offered six-jet plasmatron includes plasma forming copper heads installed on dielectric boards, rigidly fixed to brackets with a possibility of movement along axes of heads perpendicular to tubular racks. Above them annularly the tubular chamber of argon feeding to the heads protecting electrodes from oxidation, and working gas distribution chamber are located. Above racks axially to the above mentioned chambers the chamber for supply of cooling water into sections of heads from the vertical channel of water supply and chamber for water dump into the channel, which are connected with the sections of heads with flexible hoses, are located. For water flow cooling a radiator is provisioned. The racks are located on the bench, between racks the branch pipe forming analysable gas stream or processed powder material is rigidly installed, and the cylinder providing the synchronism of change of angle of convergence of six heads by means of the system, comprising the board with installed mobile brackets, ensuring change of value of inter-electrode interval of plasma-forming heads.
EFFECT: possibility of complete monitoring of any gas flow during thermal processing of any powder materials of preset fractional composition using the plasma flow.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to plasma engineering and can be used to heat different gases and as an igniter for a powdered-coal burner. A high-voltage power supply which continuously generates high-frequency alternating voltage is connected to a first conical electrode and a second cylindrical electrode which is divided into two - igniting and output cylinder. The second electrodes are mounted coaxially in a dielectric cylinder, which is the housing of the device, by two centring dielectric washers with openings which are parallel to the main axis of the device for allowing passage of air. The first conical electrode is mounted coaxially inside the igniting cylinder of the second electrode through a stream-forming dielectric washer. The stream-forming washer has openings at an angle to the main axis of the device for swirling the air stream passing through the washer.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the device and longer life of the working electrodes.
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to plasma physics. In the disclosed device having "open magnetic barrier trap" type magnetic plasma confinement, the working volume is filled with plasma from the same initial isotope, wherein the nucleus of a second isotope is accelerated to energy of (110-700) keV and fed in dense beams which balance pressure of the obtained plasma from all sides. Accelerators are distributed along the working volume in groups, directed towards the region of convergence of beams for each group and are connected to power sources through devices which turn on each group of accelerators at a given instant of the working cycle. The arrangement and turning on of the groups of accelerators is coordinated to enable interaction of plasma streams from groups of accelerators turned on earlier, and with beams of accelerated nuclei in the regions of convergence of said beams of accelerated nuclei.
EFFECT: compensating for pressure of plasma streams along a magnetic field.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to plasma engineering, particularly, to design of magnetic unit of spraying system and can be used in planar magnetrons for vacuum plasma spraying of metal thin films on the surface of solid bodies. Magnetic unit comprises central cylindrical and outer ring magnets arranged coaxially with spacing at magnetic duct of magnetically soft material. Magnetic duct has circular ledge equal in height to magnets, said ledge allowing the central magnet locking. Ledge surface facing the central magnet can be conical.
EFFECT: better uniformity of magnetic field intensity, decreased dimensions.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: plasma engine with closed electron drift comprises primary circular ionisation channel confined by structural elements from insulating materials and exposed at its outlet. At least one hollow cathode is connected with ionising gas feed line. Ring anode concentric with primary channel is spaced from its exposed end. Circular buffer chamber is arranged at primary channel inlet part, behind anode zone, its radial size exceeding that of the primary circular channel. Pipes to feed ionising gas are communicated in direction towards anode via circular distributor with zone different from that of anode.
EFFECT: higher thrust, simplified design, guaranteed operating cycle.
SUBSTANCE: scope of application: for detection of small concentrations of functional carbohydrates in gaseous phase. The invention essence is as follows: the sensor device for selective detection of small concentrations of functional carbohydrates in gaseous phase contains at least one resistive sensor, designed so that to enable its heating and having a resistive sensor layer, and at least one surface ionisation sensor, designed so that to enable heating and including a sensor surface and an electrode positioned at a distance from the latter so that there is an electric field between them; the sensor layer of the resistive sensor is identical to the sensor surface of the surface ionisation sensor.
EFFECT: ensuring the possibility of developing a simply designed sensor device that can register small concentrations of functional carbohydrates in gaseous phase.
11 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: microadmixture detector contains desorption chamber, which forms zone of desorption and has casing, channel of sample supply for introduction of sample into desorption chamber and channel for exhaust of sample-capturing gas from desorption chamber. Channels of sample supply and gas exhaust are connected with desorption chamber in realisation of process of preliminary concentration of sample-capturing gas in desorption chamber of microadmixture detector by changing desorption chamber volume, which results in providing continuous supply and accumulation of sample. Method of analysis for microadmixture detector includes continuous supply of sample into desorption chamber of microadmixture detector, which forms desorption zone. Method also includes continuous exhaust of sample-capturing gas from desorption chamber and preliminary concentration of gas, which contains captured sample, in desorption chamber by changing desorption chamber volume, with continuous supply of sample into desorption chamber and continuous exhaust of sample-capturing gas.
EFFECT: reduction of probability of non-detecting substances and increase of detector sensitivity.
10 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises initiation of local electric discharge in analysed fluid to form current conducting channel in volume of diaphragm orifice made in structural element of electrolytic cell and registration of emission spectra originating hereat of chemical elements under analysis. Note here that, first, elements under analysis are deposited in volume of current conducting channel at current insufficient for initiation of local electric discharge. Then, current direction is reversed to increase its magnitude for initiation of local electric discharge. Radiation originated in analysed fluid is registered to obtain emission spectra of analysed chemical elements.
EFFECT: stable and reproducible measurement results, longer life.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of calibrating a mass-spectrometer for quantitative analysis of gas mixtures involves determining sensitivity coefficients for individual gases based on recorded mass-spectrometer intensity peaks and gas pressure in the discharge system of the mass spectrometer. Sensitivity coefficients of the device for individual gases are determined after making a series of analyses of individual gases and gas mixtures with different content of components. The sensitivity coefficients are determined by solving a system of linear equations of the type by a least-square method, where Pi is gas pressure in the discharge system of the mass-spectrometer; is the reduced intensity of ion current of the j-th component in the i-th gas mixture; n is the number of analyses; m is the number of sensitivity coefficients, n≥m.
EFFECT: method of calibrating a mass-spectrometer without preparing reference gas mixtures.
SUBSTANCE: in the method, involving separation of ions of different types by superposition of alternating-sign periodic homogeneous or heterogeneous polarity asymmetrical and symmetrical electric fields and a unidirectional electric field in a gas stream, bound by extended electrodes, varying the unidirectional electric field, conveying the separated ions using the gas stream for detection, recording the spectrum of the separated ions in form of a set of ion peaks, including ions of controlled substances, according to the first version of the invention, in the entire temperature range of the gas without the alternating-sign periodic polarity-symmetrical electric field, parameters are determined, which characterise mean-square deviation (MSD) of peaks of controlled substances; then while varying the unidirectional electric field and recording the spectrum, gas temperature is measured, and the amplitude of the strength of the alternating-sign periodic polarity-symmetrical electric field when recording each section of the spectrum where a peak of the controlled substance may exist, with a fixed period, is selected depending on the value of the parameter which characterises MSD of that peak at that temperature, based on the condition that: the higher the value of the parameter which characterises MSD of the peak, the higher the amplitude of the alternating-sign periodic polarity-symmetrical electric field when recording a section of the spectrum on which that peak may exist. According to the second version, the period of the alternating-sign periodic polarity-symmetrical electric field, at fixed amplitude of field strength, is selected depending on the value of the parameter which characterises MSD of that peak at that temperature, based on the condition that: the higher the value of the parameter which characterises MSD of the peak, the longer the period of the alternating-sign periodic polarity-symmetrical electric field when recording a section of the spectrum on which that peak may exist.
EFFECT: invention increases stability of such analytical characteristics as sensitivity, resolution and selectivity for a selected list of controlled substances in the entire gas temperature range.
6 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of determining concentration of vanadium in atmospheric air by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (versions). One of the versions is characterised by that atmospheric air samples are collected by drawing the analysed air through an analytical aerosol filter at a rate of 50 l/min for 20 minutes and air temperature and atmospheric pressure at the sampling time are recorded. After sampling, the filter is decomposed by microwave sample preparation, where the filter is placed into a fluoroplastic cup and an internal standard solution of erbium or terbium in deionised water with concentration of 1 mg/dm3 and concentrated nitric acid are successively added. The sample is then mineralised according to the program to the microwave sample preparation system. The obtained mineralised product is transferred to a polypropylene test tube. The fluoroplastic cup is washed from the sample 2-3 times by adding 1 ml of deionised water each time, shaking and transferring each wash-off into said test tube. The volume of the sample is then increased to 10 ml by adding deionised water. The contents are stirred and the obtained sample is diluted with deionised water in volume ratio 1:9 respectively. The sample is placed into the test tube of the sampling device of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and measurements are taken. Concentration of vanadium in air is determined using a calibrated curve by bringing volume air collected for analysis to normal conditions.
EFFECT: use of the present invention increases sensitivity and selectivity while providing a wider range of detecting vanadium from 0,000005 mg/m3 to 0,02 mg/m3.
6 cl, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used during creation of instruments for detection of trace quantities of explosives used for ensuring the safety of air, automobile, water railway transport, production, office, accommodation and other facilities. Explosive detection method involves formation on the surface of molybdenum emitter of surface-ionisation detector of oxide film by heating the emitter in laminar air flow flowing off the emitter, at the specified flow rate required for analysis, supply to it of the air and analysed gas and measurement of ion current of ionisation process, cooling of analysed gas and air with their further supply to chemiluminescent indicator and measurement of luminescence using optic-electronic method and comparison of the shape of obtained measurement signals; in addition, availability of explosives is determined at the similar shape of obtained signals.
EFFECT: invention is meant for high-sensitivity detection of explosives.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: photoionisation detector comprises a UV-lamp (1), having a window (2) to release UV-radiation, a through ionisation chamber (8), installed upstream the window (2) to release UV-radiation and an electrode (9), which serves as a polarising electrode, an electrode (10), which serves as a collector electrode. The detector differs by the fact that it is equipped with a heater 18, installed in an ionisation chamber (8) in front of the window 2 to release UV-radiation, besides, the heater is arranged in the form of a layer from an electroconductive material applied onto the surface of a circular ceramic substrate, and installed with a gap at the distance from 0.1 to 2.0 mm from the window.
EFFECT: invention eliminates generation of a water layer on a surface of a window and end parts of electrodes.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: ions of substances are separated through superposition of alternating-sign periodic polarity-asymmetrical and unidirectional electric fields in a gas stream bounded by elongated electrodes and having temperature which depends on the ambient temperature. The unidirectional electric field is varied and the spectrum of separated ions is recorded in form of a set of ion peaks. First, the amplitude and parameter which characterises the mean-square deviation are determined at given gas temperature for the peak of ions of the calibration substance of known concentration. By selecting the amplitude of the polarity-asymmetrical electric field and the gas flow rate, the balance between the amplitude of the peak and the inverse value of the parameter is set. When changing gas temperature during operation to maintain balance, the gas flow rate is changed.
EFFECT: possibility of increasing stability of analytical characteristics with variation of operating ambient temperature in a wide range.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system for remote collection and analysis of air samples has an apparatus for blowing air streams, having an agitator for the discharged air stream and apparatus for sucking the incoming air stream, fitted with an agitator for the sucked air stream. The suction apparatus is in form of a suction duct whose output is connected to the incoming air stream agitator, and its input lies inside the apparatus for blowing air streams and is placed coaxially with said apparatus, and the blowing apparatus is fitted with an air stream swirler and a duct for transporting the discharged air stream from the agitator to the swirler. The swirler is made in form of a reflector and a fixed impeller mounted on its base and coaxially with it, which forms with the suction duct an annular cavity which is the outlet of the duct carrying the discharged air stream. The agitator for the sucked air stream used is a reversible air pump, and between the agitator for the sucked air stream and the suction duct there is an air sample analyser, having at least a surface-ionisation source of ions of organic compounds, connected by the inlet and outlet of the gas ducts, respectively, with the suction duct and the agitator for the sucked air stream. On the side of the swirler which is opposite the air sample analyser, there is a housing in form of a tube with a constant or variable cross-section, one side of which is adjacent on the perimetre to the swirler and having on the side surface at least two symmetrically lying holes. Also, on the second side of the housing, there is an air stream concentrator and a flat ventilator for intake of air samples arranged in series adjacent to the perimetre. Between the air stream concentrator and the swirler, there is a sample carrier made from metallic material, for example, in form of a spiral made from metal wire. The air stream concentrator is in form of a gas-impermeable membrane, which bulges towards the swirler and has a centre hole, and electrical leads from the sample carrier are connected to a controlled power supply.
EFFECT: possibility of further determining the activation energy of desorption of orgnaic compounds from the surface of the sample carrier in continuous monitoring mode.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the cell composed of metallic cathode and anode into the gas to be analyzed and irradiating the cell in ultraviolet spectrum. The radiation flux knocks photoelectrons out of the surface, which is a reason of gas conductivity. The voltage applied to the electrodes induces current in the interelectrode space. When the gas composition changes, the interelectrode current also changes.
EFFECT: decreased power consumption.