Method of plasma and electromagnetic effect on dielectric material

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: plasma is created by a plasmatron, plasma flow is created from it and acts on the material surface, the difference is that plasma is created and plasma flow is formed from it by the plasmatron with controlled parameters. Additionally the controlled flow of electromagnetic waves with frequency 0.5-5 GHz is created and directed to place of plasma flow contact with material surface. Regulation of plasmatron parameters and/or control of electromagnetic waves flow ensures and maintains the plasma temperature in its skin layer at place of the plasma contact with material surface in range 3000-5000 K.

EFFECT: increased productivity of destruction of solid dielectric bodies and expansion of scope of application.

7 cl

 

Scope

The invention relates to a process for heat treatment of solid dielectric bodies, including their destruction, in particular bodies with a low coefficient of absorption of electromagnetic radiation (rocks, building materials etc).

Prior art

The dielectric body, in particular rock, are brittle materials, so if resulting in mechanical stress σ exceeds the tensile strength σP, body crack and collapse. One way to create stress in the body is inhomogeneous heating, in which due to the temperature difference ΔT in the body arise voltage equal to σ=αΔ where E is young's modulus, α is the coefficient of thermal expansion.

Thus, the creation in the body of the temperature difference ΔT>σP/α ensures the destruction of the body.

There is a method of destruction of the dielectric bodies by electromagnetic radiation, which, impinging on the body by radiation, for example in the microwave range, produce heat. Because the absorption of radiation in the body, as a rule, is not uniform over its volume, due to the resulting temperature difference between the body parts in there thermomechanical stress, the value of which exceeds the tensile strength (see Polytechnical dictionary. CH. Ed. And. And. II Artobolevsky. M., "Soviet encyclopedia", 1976, S. 93).

The disadvantages of this method are the limitations of its application and the ungovernability of the process. The method can be effective, if the coefficient of absorption of radiation is important, and for most dielectric bodies it becomes so only at very high temperatures ≥1000 K, when the dielectric there is a significant electrical conductivity (see Urosev C. K., Kozlov S. A., Pavlov C. D. Design and manufacturing technology brazed metal-ceramic sites, part 1, M, Central research Institute of electronics, 1988, S. 43).

Closest to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved result is a destruction method based on plasma heating of dielectric solids, including the creation of a plasma, the formation of her plasma flow directed from the outside to the surface of a solid body and acting on it (see patent RU No. 2365731, CL E21B 7/15, 27.08.2009).

The disadvantages of this method are the low efficiency of heating due to the low thermal transmittance characteristic of the heating body hot gas, the role played by the plasma, and the limited application; excluded body with high thermal conductivity, so as to heat them leveled faster than the fed (see Kutateladze S. S. Heat transfer and the hydrodynamic resistance is of. - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1990, - S. 367).

Disclosure of inventions

The task, which directed the present invention is to provide a plasma-electromagnetic method of thermal destruction of the dielectric bodies with a low coefficient of absorption of electromagnetic radiation, effectively destroying the body even with increased conductivity.

The technical result of the invention is to improve the performance in the destruction of the solid dielectric bodies and the expansion of the scope.

The problem is solved and the technical result is achieved by a method of plasma-electromagnetic effects on the dielectric material lies in the fact that it generates a plasma by the plasma torch, the shape of her plasma flow and directly impacts them on the surface of the material, and the plasma create and shape of her plasma flow plasma torch with adjustable parameters, however additionally create a controlled flow of electromagnetic waves with a frequency of 0.5 to 5 GHz and direct it to the place of contact of the plasma stream with the surface of the material, thus, by adjusting the parameters of the plasma torch and/or control of flow of electromagnetic waves generate and maintain the plasma temperature in its skin layer at the site of contact of the plasma with the surface of the material is in the range 000-5000 K.

Preferably the flow of electromagnetic waves is served in the skin layer of the plasma at the site of contact of the plasma with the surface of the material from the material volume.

Can be served an additional stream of electromagnetic waves towards the main stream of electromagnetic waves.

After the formation of a plasma torch of a plasma stream, the latter can be reduced, and the power flow of electromagnetic waves is increased and thus keep the temperature in the range of 3000-5000 in the skin layer at the site of contact of the plasma with the surface of the material, while using the torch in the form of RF plasma torch, microwave plasma torch or hybrid plasma torch.

Plasma flow can be formed in a pulsed mode and/or the flow of electromagnetic waves create in a pulse mode and pulse mode plasma flow and electromagnetic waves synchronize to work out of phase.

In the course of the study revealed that the combination of creating a managed flow of electromagnetic waves with a frequency of 0.5 to 5 GHz and submitting it to the place of contact of the plasma stream with the surface of the material and the temperature of the plasma in contact with the surface of the material is in the range of 3000-5000 For simultaneous adjustment of the plasma flow by changing the parameters of the plasma torch and/or flow control solenoid ox is possible to change the depth of penetration of heat, and thereby to control the geometry of destruction, because as soon as the surface temperature of the dielectric material grows on the value of ΔT=σin/α, in the body there are cracks and it collapses. It was found that the combination of the above plasma parameters and the flow of electromagnetic waves can dramatically reduce the time of heating the dielectric material and to improve the performance of the process of destruction of the dielectric material.

The positive effect is achieved by the fact that due to the increased power density of the heat flow q in the dielectric material reduces the time τ of heating ΔT required for the destruction of the breed: ΔT~q√τ (see Skanavi, I., Physics of dielectrics, M., Fizmatgiz, 1958). The total energy W fall as W=qτ~(ΔT)2/q - const/q, and this helps to destroy the dielectric material, in particular rock.

Brief description of drawings

In Fig.1 schematically shows the influence of plasma flow and electromagnetic waves to destroy the dielectric body.

The best option of carrying out the invention

Using a torch to create a plasma stream 1, directing it directly on the surface of the dielectric material 2. Plasma, contacting it passes dielectric material 2 your energy, Naga the Wake of it. In the place of contact of the plasma stream 1 with the surface of the dielectric material 2 serves the flow of electromagnetic waves 3, generated, for example, a microwave generator. The flow of electromagnetic waves 3 is absorbed in a narrow skin layer 4 plasma (see Fig.1) in contact with the surface of the dielectric material 2, and allocates it all his energy, intensificar heating of the dielectric material 2.

If the dielectric material 2 has limited dimensions, the flow of electromagnetic waves 3 are served outside on its surface opposite the surface in contact with the plasma. The flow of electromagnetic waves 3, passing without losses through the dielectric material 2, the inside of the dielectric material 2 enters the contact zone of the plasma stream 1 with a dielectric material 2 and is completely absorbed in the narrow skin layer 4 plasma in direct contact with the surface of the dielectric material 2. This significantly increases the specific power density emitted on the surface of the dielectric material 2, and the opportunity to submit additional flow of electromagnetic waves (not shown) towards the main stream of electromagnetic waves 3 and, in addition, after the formation of a plasma torch of a plasma stream 1 last be reduced, and the rate of flow of electromagnetic waves 3 increases the ü and thus to maintain the temperature in the range of 3000-5000 in the skin layer 4 in the region of contact of the plasma with the surface of the material 2, that expands the possibilities for adjusting the exposure process on the dielectric material 2 and can improve performance when performing this action.

If the dielectric material 2 has an unlimited size (half-plane), or access its opposite side is obstructed, the flow of electromagnetic waves 3 directed towards the plasma stream 1, is formed in the volume of dielectric material 2 with electrodes (antenna), previously located in the dielectric material 2.

To empower the regulatory impact on the dielectric material 2 and, as a consequence, the expansion of the scope and increase productivity during the destruction of solid dielectric bodies 2 directed the formation of a plasma stream 1 in a pulse mode and/or the creation of a flow of electromagnetic waves 3 in the pulse mode, preferably pulsed modes of the plasma flow 1 and flow of electromagnetic waves 3 to synchronize to work out of phase.

Industrial applicability

The present invention can be used in mining and construction during drilling and construction of civil and industrial projects in the mountain areas, as well as for intense heating of various dielectric materials other is their industries.

1. The method of plasma-electromagnetic effects on the dielectric material, which consists in the fact that it generates a plasma by the plasma torch, the shape of her plasma flow and directly impacts them on the surface of the material, characterized in that the plasma create and shape of her plasma flow plasma torch with adjustable parameters, however additionally create a controlled flow of electromagnetic waves with a frequency of 0.5 to 5 GHz and direct it to the place of contact of the plasma stream with the surface of the material, thus, by adjusting the parameters of the plasma torch and/or control of flow of electromagnetic waves generate and maintain the plasma temperature in its skin layer at the site of contact of the plasma with the surface of the material is in the range of 3000-5000 K.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the flow of electromagnetic waves is served in the skin layer of the plasma at the site of contact of the plasma with the surface of the material from the material volume.

3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that it serves the additional flow of electromagnetic waves towards the main stream of electromagnetic waves.

4. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that after the formation of the plasma torch plasma flow past reduced, and the power flow of electromagnetic waves increase and thus keep the temperature in the range of 3000-5000 in the skin layer in place of the contact of the plasma with the surface of the material.

5. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-4, characterized in that use the torch in the form of RF plasma torch, microwave plasma torch or hybrid plasma torch.

6. The method according to p. 1, wherein forming a plasma stream in a pulse mode and/or create a flow of electromagnetic waves in a pulsed mode.

7. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the switching modes of the plasma flow and electromagnetic waves synchronize to work in antiphase.



 

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