Construction block

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction, in particular, to construction elements in the form of finished construction blocks for erection of bearing and barrier structures of buildings and facilities. A construction block has the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped and comprises three identical and parallel panels connected to each other. Each panel comprises two flat parts and a layer of filler between them. All panels have identical through holes of round shape, where connection parts of cylindrical shape are inserted. The middle panel is displaced relative to side panels so that in the middle of the construction block on its larger side face there is a long ledge, on its opposite side face there is a long groove, on the smallest side face there is a short ledge, and on the opposite side face there is a short groove. On one of largest side faces of the middle panel there are ledges in the form of a square prism, and on its opposite face there are grooves, which fully match the ledges by shape, size and location. Between them the panels are fixed with the help of glue or with the help of fastening elements. During assembly of a construction structure, ledges of adjacent construction blocks are matched with appropriate grooves, and ledges of adjacent middle panels are coupled with appropriate grooves, also at the angle of 90 degrees in the horizontal plane. By means of the specified matching and coupling the location of each construction block is self-aligned and fixed in all orthogonal planes, accuracy of assembly and stability of the construction structure to external impact is provided. The multi-layer structure of the construction block provides for its high strength under low own weight, filler layers of all panels create heat and sound insulation.

EFFECT: low weight, convenience of manipulations and simplicity of coupling of adjacent construction blocks make assembly of construction structures from them possible manually and within quite a short period of time.

5 cl, 79 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of construction, in particular to the construction elements in the form of ready-made blocks for the construction of bearing and enclosing structures of buildings and structures, and can be used for low-cost and eco-friendly construction of prefabricated frameless thermal efficiency of small-scale height without the use of binders, lifting mechanisms and without the involvement of a team of qualified builders.

Known building block of concrete in the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped, the greatest lateral faces of which are covered and covering elements in the form of a continuous longitudinal protrusion on one of its sides and a continuous longitudinal groove on the opposite face, and the bottom two side faces include covered and covering the items in the polar symmetry about a vertical virtual axis between the edges and in the middle of the distance that separates them (Patent RF №2157442, AS 1/00, published 10.10.2000,). A disadvantage of the known technical solution is that the building block is made of concrete. The application of the building blocks of concrete in the construction of them, even of low-rise constructions require the use of lifting devices, attracting teams qualifier the bathrooms builders and additional insulation of buildings upon completion of its construction, that significantly increases the time and cost of construction. Perform unloading and Assembly works with blocks of concrete requires significant additional space adjacent to the construction site of a land plot, as well as many transport trips for delivery of units to the object and many hours of lifting equipment for the unloading, storage and installation blocks that collectively causes substantial harm to the environment through disturbance and pollution of the soil of the land and the repeated increase in emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Noted disadvantages of the known construction of the unit makes it impossible to use for the construction of low-cost prefabricated thermal efficiency and eco-friendly objects a few floors without the use of binders, without the involvement of the hoisting machinery and team of qualified builders.

Known building element from a thermoplastic made in the form of a hollow and open from two opposite lateral sides of the rectangular panel with internal parallel to each other and a closed side edge ribs and nodes sliding engagement castle type on its closed side faces (Patent RF №2114958, EV 2/14 published 10.07.1998,). Nedostatkama building element is for its application prior to the erection, alignment and retention in the process of building a 3-axis frame of the entire structure, including besides the various hours of special design. Only after completion of the preliminary work known construction element can be applied to fill the space between the frame members. The need for preliminary design, fabrication, erection, alignment and hold for 3-axis of the frame structure (involving teams qualified builders), consisting of various elements racks special profile, significantly increases the time of construction, cost of construction materials and construction work. Another disadvantage of the known construction element is the fact that the ribs of each panel and joints between panels and frame columns are multiple "cold bridges", significantly reducing thermal protection structures, to increase which will require subsequent additional work on the insulation. A further significant disadvantage of the known construction elements are the nodes of the moving gear castle-type at its closed side faces. This site engagement involves institution building e is ment in the guides are straight up and down. If the frame structure is pre-assembled fully, then, to start construction element in a vertical rack-rails, the height of which is equal to the height of the wall structure, the bottom slice will have to raise to a height exceeding the height of the wall, and then enter into engagement with the stand and push on the lower level. This additionally increases the duration and complexity of construction. It should also be noted that the known construction element does not solve the problem of installation of window and door lintels of similar blocks, and installation of known construction element directly on top of the window or door frame can lead to deformation of the specified boxes and to the loss of a window or door element of its functionality. These disadvantages of the known construction element make it unsuitable for the construction of similar building elements of low-cost prefabricated frameless thermal efficiency of enterprises of low-rise and without the involvement of qualified builders.

Known collapsible wall structure of wooden beams for low-rise building, comprising placed between the vertical posts wall panel installed at each other longitudinal elements connected to the racks by mortgages on the hoist, each of which is partially accommodated in the groove of the rack and partially in the groove of the top surface of the module facing to the rack (Patent RF №2121549, EV 2/70 published 10.11.1998,). A disadvantage of the known collapsible wall structure is necessary to pre-construction, centering and holding for 3-axis of the frame structure, which increases the time and cost of construction and requires the involvement of a team of qualified builders. In addition, filling the free space between racks wall elements made of wood, on the relevant guides-mortgage is technically possible only from the top, which requires special tools and lifting devices for lifting quite heavy wall panels to the height of their secure hold on the elevation and promotion of top-down mortgage-guides, which significantly increases the complexity of construction. In order to avoid jamming of the panels when the shutter guide grooves of the uprights must have a specific and continuing through completion of the backlash, which after installation of the panels in place creates more cracks and reduces thermal efficiency of the walls of the object. Additionally it should be noted that the use of wall parts of a wooden bar is inevitable when the result in shrinkage and shrinkage of the panels with the formation of the respective crevices, reducing thermal protection structures. In this regard, after the time required for the shrinkage of wooden panels (which, as a rule, not less than one year), it is necessary to carry out additional work for the insulation of buildings (it is not excluded that the bulkhead of the whole structure), which significantly lengthens the time that the facility is ready for commissioning and increases the cost of construction. The deficiencies of the known wall structure make it unsuitable for the construction of similar building elements of low-cost prefabricated frameless and thermal efficiency of small-scale height without the use of lifting devices and without the involvement of a team of qualified builders.

Known construction panel in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped, which consists of three layers, bonded together by glue, and containing as the opposite most of the faces of the two layers in the first and second parts of the panel in the form of a flattened rectangular parallelepipeds, and between them made of foam plastic filler panel in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped with the greatest facets of the same size and parallel to the largest faces of the first and second parts of the panel (Patent RF №2258118, AS 2/292, published 10.08.2005,), which, according to the applicant, is the tsya closest to the claimed invention, ie is similar to it. A disadvantage of the known construction panels is that it has no independent structural strength and bearing capacity, and of the need to pre-build the frame structure, which is then sheathed listed building panels using fasteners, and then advanced to sheathemselves building panel elements, providing mechanical strength of the entire plating facilities. Prior to the erection of the structural frame and work on his two-plating increases the time and cost of construction, require teams of qualified builders. These drawbacks make known construction panel unsuitable for the construction of low-cost prefabricated frameless objects small rise without the involvement of teams of qualified builders.

Task to be solved by the claimed invention is directed, is to create a lightweight, structurally sound and thermal efficiency of a building block, which would not require during the construction of the application of adhesives or fasteners, pre-construction and retention of the frame structure, attracting teams qualified builders and application of protopad the lending mechanisms, and would provide a low-cost waste fast and accurate manual Assembly (and disassembly) durable and resistant to the different climatic conditions of interest for low-rise construction.

The claimed invention is characterized by the following set of essential features (the 1st option).

The building block is made of three panels in the Assembly view of one middle and two side panels formed through the Assembly. Each panel consists of three layers, bonded together by adhesive or fasteners as screws, and contains as the opposite most of the faces of the two layers in the first and second parts of the panel in the form of a flattened rectangular parallelepipeds, and between them a layer of filler panel in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped with the greatest facets of the same size and parallel to the largest faces of the first and second parts of the panel. Assembly includes one, or two, or three, or four, or five, or eight through holes of the circular form in the body of each panel, located in the middle parts of their largest faces along the largest side face, each of which is coaxially similar hole in the other panels, inserted them in flush with the outer surfaces of the side panels and passing through all panels soy is intalniri details made in the form of a hollow or a direct cylinder with base diameter D not exceeding the diameter of the corresponding through holes of the circular form in the body panel. Each connection piece in its middle part is made with two identical apertures in the shape of a straight cylinder with a base diameter d<0,2 D, the longitudinal axis of which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the fitting and are symmetrically from the middle of the fitting, each at a distance of no more than (h-d)/2, where h is the width of the inner space of the middle pane is inserted in each of the locking part in the form of a cotter pin or a cylindrical rod. The middle panel is made with one, or two, or three, or four, or five, or eight identical projections on one of its greatest lateral faces, each in the form of laying the Foundation on the face rectangular square prism with a length of fin base equal to the thickness of the middle panel, with opposable its extreme projections from the edges of the largest lateral side of the panel at the same distance, and from each other by a distance equal to twice the distance from the center of the far ledge to the edge of the greatest lateral side of the panel, and with one, or two, or three, or five, or eight identical grooves on opposite b is a similar face panel, each in the form of laying the Foundation on the face rectangular square prism, is equal to the size of the protrusions and located each of the corresponding protrusion. The middle panel is shifted in the Assembly relative to the two side panels parallel to their side edges with the formation of its lateral side with the tabs and the adjacent side face of two adjacent rectangular protrusions on the adjacent lateral faces of the building and two adjacent grooves of rectangular shape on the opposite adjacent side faces of the building block. The first and second parts of the middle and two side panels all the same, or in different combinations, made from plywood, or plastic, or acrylic, or wood, or cork plate, or metal, or metal alloy, or of foamed polyethylene or ethylene vinyl acetate, or acrylic, or polycarbonate, or of cellular polypropylene or carbon fiber, or fiberglass, or fiberboard, or wood particle Board, or made of solid glass. Layers of filler middle and two side panels all the same, or in different combinations, made of foamed polyethylene, foamed polystyrene or foamed polyurethane, or ethylene vinyl acetate, or mineral wool, or fiberglass, or basalt is of aplites, or wood, or foam rubber, or foam, or foam, or cork boards, or foam, or foil material, or of the air gap. The filler of each of the panels includes at least four spaced apart by your body the same spacer elements made in the form of through-holes of the cylindrical form in the body of the layer of filler that does not coincide with holes for connecting parts of the first and second parts of the panels are positioned with their longitudinal axes parallel to the side edges of the panel, embedded with cylindrical rods with a height equal to the width of the internal space of the panel, or embedded with cylindrical tubes with a height equal to the width of the internal space of the panel, or made in the form of cylindrical tubes with a height equal to the width of the internal space of the panel. All panels are still bonded together by adhesive, or by means of the fastening elements in the form of screws, screws, or bolts and nuts, evenly spaced along the surfaces of the panels are positioned with their longitudinal axes parallel to their side edges.

The second variant of the invention is characterized by the same set of essential features that the first option, and differs from it in that the layer will fill the La average and two side panels, or only the middle pane, or only two side panels, or only one of the side panels are made protruding outward around the perimeter at the outer edges of the first and second parts of the panel and protruding inward around the entire circumference of the through holes of the circular form in the first and second parts of the panel.

The third variant of the invention is characterized by the same set of essential features that the first option, and differs from it in that the filler of one of the side panels or both side panels are made with a thickness that is less than the width of the internal space of the panel and adjacent to one of its parts, connecting with the middle panel, with the formation of the ventilation gap between your greatest face and the face of another part of this sidebar.

The fourth variant of the invention is characterized by the same set of essential features that the first option, and differs from it by the fact that in the middle pane, or both side panels with filler in the plane of the greatest edge is made combined and composed of two, or three, or four layers of different materials.

The fifth variant of the invention is characterized by the same set of essential features that the first option, and differs from it by the fact that the greatest edge or edges of the largest faces of the Noi from parts one of the side panels, which is the outer side of the building made the cut at an angle not exceeding 75 degrees.

The invention is illustrated various images shown in Fig.1 - 79.

In Fig.1 shows the image construction unit (option 1) with two projections and two recesses on the middle pane: a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.2 presents an image construction unit (option 1) with two projections and two recesses on the middle panel, in which the filler medium and two side panels are made of an air layer: a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.3 shows the image construction unit (option 1) with two projections and two recesses on the middle panel, in which all panels are still fastened together by fasteners in the form of screws: a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.4 shows an image of the first side panel building block (option 1) with two through holes of the circular form in the body of the panel: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.5 shows the image of the middle pane of the building block (option 1) with two projections and two recesses on the middle panel and two through holes of the circular form in the body of the panel: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.6 shows the image of the second side panel building block (VA int 1) with two through holes of the circular form in the body of the panel: (a) top view, b) bottom view; Fig.7 shows the image of the first part of the first side panel building block (option 1) with two through-holes round shape; Fig.8 shows the image of the second part of the first side panel building block (option 1) with two through-holes round shape: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.9 shows the image of the layer of filler first side panel building block (option 1) with two through-holes round shape: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.10 shows the image of the first part of the middle pane of building block (option 1) with two projections, with two notches and two through-holes round shape: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.11 shows the image of the second part of the middle pane of building block (option 1) with two projections, with two notches and two through-holes round shape: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.12 shows the image of the layer of filler middle pane of the building block (option 1) with two projections, with two notches and two through-holes round shape: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.13 shows the image of the first part of the second side panel building block (option 1) with two through-holes round shape: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.14 depict what aulino the image of the second part of the second side panel building block (option 1) with two through-holes round shape: (a) top view, b) bottom view; Fig.15 shows an image of a layer of a filler of the second side panel building block (option 1) with two through-holes round shape: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.16 shows the image of fasteners in the form of a solid direct cylinder (option 1); Fig.17 shows the image of fasteners in the form of a hollow straight cylinder (option 1); Fig.18 shows the image of the locking part in the form of a cotter pin (option 1); Fig.19 shows the image of the locking part in the form of a cylindrical rod (option 1); Fig.20 shows the image of spacer parts in the form of a cylindrical rod (option 1); Fig.21 shows the image of spacer parts in the form of a cylindrical tube (option 1); Fig.22 shows the image of the fastening element in the form of a self-tapping screw (option 1); Fig.23 presents a drawing of the building (option 1) with two projections and two recesses in the collection, in which bond to the side and middle panels together performed by means of fixing elements in the form of screws; Fig.24 presents a drawing of the building (option 1) with two projections and two recesses in the collection, in which bond to the side and middle panels together performed using an adhesive; Fig.25 shows a first drawing and a similar second side of the front panel building block (option 1) with two through-hole Assembly; in Fig.26 presents a drawing of the middle pane of the building block (option 1) with two projections, with two notches and two through-holes in the body panel Assembly of Fig.27 presents the first drawing and a similar second part first, and a similar second side panel building block (option 1) with two through holes; Fig.28 presents the drawing layer of the first placeholder and a similar second side panel building block (option 1) with two through holes; Fig.29 presents the first drawing and a similar second part of the middle pane of building block (option 1) with two projections, with two notches and two through holes; Fig.30 shows the drawing of the layer of filler middle pane of the building block (option 1) with two projections, with two notches and two through holes; Fig.31 shows a drawing of the connecting part in the form of a solid direct cylinder (option 1); Fig.32 shows a drawing of the connecting part in the form of a hollow straight cylinder (option 1); Fig.33 presents a drawing of the locking part in the form of a cotter pin (option 1); Fig.34 presents a drawing of the locking part in the form of a cylindrical rod (option 1); Fig.35 presents a drawing of a spacer element in the form of a cylindrical rod (option 1); Fig.36 shows a drawing of RA is pornoho element in the form of a cylindrical tube (option 1); in Fig.37 presents a drawing of the fastening element in the form of a self-tapping screw (option 1); Fig.38 presents an Assembly drawing of a first and a similar second side panel building block (option 1) with two projections, with two notches and two through holes; Fig.39 presents an Assembly drawing of the middle pane of the building block (option 1) with two projections, with two notches and two through holes; Fig.40 presents Assembly drawing of the building (option 1) with two projections and two recesses; Fig.41 shows the image construction unit (option 1) with three projections and three recesses: a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.42 presents a first image and a similar second side panel building block (option 1) with three apertures: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.43 shows the image of the middle pane of the building block (option 1) with three tabs, with three grooves and three apertures: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.44 presents a first image and a similar second part first, and a similar second side panel building block (option 1) with three apertures: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.45 presents the image layer of the first placeholder and a similar second parts of the first and similarly is her second sidebar building block (option 1) with three through-holes; in Fig.46 presents a first image and a similar second part of the middle pane of building block (option 1) with three tabs, with three grooves and three apertures: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.47 presents the image of the layer of aggregate average side panel building block (option 1) with three tabs, with three grooves and three through-holes; Fig.48 presents a drawing of the building (option 1) with three projections and three recesses in the Assembly of Fig.49 presents the first drawing and a similar second side panel building block (option 1) with three tabs, with three grooves and three through-hole Assembly of Fig.50 the drawing of the middle pane of the building block (option 1) with three tabs, with three grooves and three through-hole Assembly of Fig.51 presents a drawing of the first and second parts of the first and the similar second side panel building block (option 1) with three through-holes; Fig.52 presents the first drawing and a similar second part of the middle pane of building block (option 1) with three tabs, with three grooves and three through-hole Assembly of Fig.53 presents the drawing layer of the first placeholder and a similar second side panel building block (option 1) with three squozen the mi holes; in Fig.54 presents a drawing of the layer of filler middle pane of the building block (option 1) with three tabs, with three grooves and three through-holes; Fig.55 presents the image construction unit (option 1) with four lobes and four grooves: a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.56 shows the image construction unit (option 1) with five tabs and with five grooves: a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.57 presents the image construction unit (option 1) with eight lugs and with eight grooves: a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.58 shows the image construction unit (option 1) with one protrusion and one recess: a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.59 presents the image construction unit (option 2) with the two tabs and two slots: a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.60 presents a drawing of a building block (option 2) with two projections and two recesses in the Assembly of Fig.61 presents the first drawing and a similar second panel building block (option 2) with two through-hole Assembly of Fig.62 the drawing of the middle pane of the building block (option 2) with two projections, with two notches and two through-hole Assembly of Fig.63 presents the image construction unit (option 3) with two projections, with two notches and ve is lilacinum gap filler one of the side panels: (a) top view, b) bottom view; Fig.64 presents a drawing of the side panel with ventilation gap filler (option 3) with two through holes; Fig.65 presents the image construction unit (option 3) with two projections, with two notches and with a ventilation gap in the layers of fillers on both side panels: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.66 presents the image construction unit (option 1) with two projections, with two notches and with a layer of filler middle panel in the form of an air layer: a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.67 the drawing of the middle pane of the building block (option 1) with two projections, with two notches, with two through holes and a layer of filler in the form of an air gap Assembly of Fig.68 shows the drawing of the spacer parts in the form of a cylindrical tube (option 1); Fig.69 shows the image construction unit (option 1) with two projections, with two notches and with a layer of filler in the form of an air layer in both side panels: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.70 presents the first drawing and a similar second side panel building block (option 1) with two projections, with two notches and with a layer of filler in the form of an air gap on both side panels of the Assembly of Fig.71 presents the image construction unit (option 4) the two projections, with two notches and with a combined filler middle panel: a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.72 presents an image of the combined layer of filler sidebar building block (option 4) with two apertures: a) from 2 layers of different materials, b) of 3 layers of different materials, from 4 layers of different materials; Fig.73 presents the image construction unit (option 4) with two projections, with two notches and with the combined layers of fillers on both side panels: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.74 shows the image construction unit (option 5) with two projections, with two notches and with an edge of the main external faces of the side panels, cut at an angle not exceeding 75 degrees: (a) top view, b) ventral view; Fig.75 the drawing of one of the components of one of the side panels (option 5); Fig.76 presents the image construction unit (option 1) with two projections and two recesses in the collection, which is on the outer surface of one of its side panels flush with the outer edges installed (glued) a decorative cover of Fig.77 presents Assembly drawing of the building (option 1) with two projections, with two notches and with the spacer elements and the fastening elements in the form of screws; Fig.78 the drawing fragm the NTA wall structures of interconnected building blocks with one, two and three protrusions and recesses, respectively; Fig.79 presents a drawing of the facade of one-story buildings consisting of interconnected building blocks of different lengths.

All presented images are the following notation:

1 - the first side panel;

2 - middle panel;

3 is a second side panel;

4 - the first part of the first side panel;

5 - filler first side panel;

6 - the second part of the first side panel;

7 - the first part of the middle pane;

8 - filler middle pane;

9 - the second part of the middle pane;

10 - the first part of the second side panel;

11 - the filler of the second side panel;

12 - the second part of the second side panel;

13 is a spacer element in the form of a cylindrical rod;

14 - connecting part in the form of a solid cylinder;

15 - locking part in the form of splint;

16 - fastening element;

17 is a spacer element in the form of a cylindrical tube;

18 - connecting part in the form of a cylindrical tube;

19 - locking part in the form of a cylindrical rod;

20 - ledge in the middle pane;

21 - notch in the middle pane;

22 short hollow building block;

23 - long excavation in the construction block;

24 - short ledge in the building block

25 - long ledge in building enom block;

the 26 - hole fittings;

27 - hole spacer element;

28 - hole for retaining parts;

29 - ventilation gap;

30 - the first part of the combined layer of aggregate;

31 - the second part of the combined layer of aggregate;

32 - the third part of the combined layer of aggregate;

33 - fourth of the combined layer of aggregate;

34 - leak-in layer of filler first side panel;

35 - leak-in layer of filler middle pane;

36 - leak-in layer of the filler of the second side panel;

37 - air gap;

38 is a decorative molding;

39 is cut at the edge of a face.

Building block (option 1) with two projections and two recesses consists of three panels: the first side panel 1, middle panel 2 and the second side panel 3 (Fig.1-3). The first side panel 1 consists of three parts: the first part 4 of the first side panel, filler layer 5, the first side panel and the second part 6 of the first side panel (Fig.4). Middle panel 2 consists of three parts: the first part 7 of the middle pane of the layer of filler 8 middle pane and the second part 9 of the middle pane (Fig.5). The second side panel 3 consists of three parts: the first part 10 of the second side panel, filler layer 11 of the second side panel and the second part 12 of the second side panel (Fig.6). In each panel imets the two through holes 26 (Fig.4-6) for connecting components in which is inserted a connecting part 14 in the form of a solid cylinder (Fig.16) or the connecting part 18 in the form of a hollow straight cylinder (Fig.17). Fasteners 14 or 18 (Fig.16-17) have through holes 28 for installing the locking elements in the form of a cotter pin 15 (Fig.18), or in the form of a cylindrical rod 19 (Fig.19). The location of the through holes 28 on the connecting parts 14 or 18 is such that the two locking parts 15 or 19 are installed in the middle panel 2 against the inner surfaces of the parts 7 and 9 of the middle panel 2 (Fig.26). Between the first and second parts of each panel have the same height spacer elements of form 13 (Fig.20) or 17 (Fig.21). The spacer elements of the form 13 in the form of a cylindrical rod mounted in the case between the first and second parts of the panel has a layer of aggregate from any dense material (Fig.1). Spacer elements form 17 in the form of a cylindrical tube mounted in the case between the parts of the panel there is an air layer 37 (Fig.2) or the filler is made of friable material. The filler layer of dense material has a through hole 27 (Fig.9, 12, 15) to install the spacer elements of the form 13. One of the greatest lateral sides of the middle panel 2 has projections 20 (Fig.5A), and on its opposite faces and euda recesses 21 (Fig.5B). The tabs 20 coincide with the slots 21 in size in both longitudinal and transverse planes. Middle panel 2 is displaced relative to the first and second side panels 1 and 3, respectively, so that in the middle of the building block on its largest side face formed long ledge 25 (Fig.1A), on the opposite side faces formed long recess 23 (Fig.1B), at least a side face formed a short ledge 24 (Fig.1A), and on the opposite side faces formed a short recess 22 (Fig.1B). The parallel the side faces of all panels is maintained. All the details of each panel are connected with an adhesive or by fasteners 16. All panel construction units are interconnected by means of glue (Fig.1-2), or by fasteners (Fig.3) type 16 (Fig.22) so that they form a single block design.

In this block designs all geometrical dimensions of the structure and its component parts can be maintained with very high accuracy, which ensures the possibility of an almost perfect repeatability of all parts and components of the building blocks in their production industrial production. High accuracy of geometric dimensions of the building block, in turn, enables fast Assembly building design is, excluding any additional processing operations on the mutual adjustment of building blocks during their articulation.

Part 4 (Fig.7), 6 (Fig.8), 7 (Fig.10), 9 (Fig.11), 10 (Fig.13) and 12 (Fig.14) panels 1, 2 and 3 have the shape of a flattened parallelepiped and form a rigid (flattened material in the transverse plane has a maximum resistance to bending), durable (flattened material in the transverse plane has a maximum fracture resistance) and light (the occupancy volume of structural material is reduced several times, and the orientation of the parts in the plane, providing maximum resistance to bending and fracture, allows the use of materials with low specific gravity) structural frame of a building unit in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped. The number, sequence and location of such articulated between the parts in a vertical plane to provide their total maximum resistance to vertical load (within the strength properties used for manufacturing these parts of the material) that allows you to create a resistant load bearing and enclosing structures of buildings. These items (all the same or in different combinations) can be made from plywood, or plastic, or acrylic, is whether wood, or from cork plate, or metal, or metal alloy, or of foamed polyethylene or ethylene vinyl acetate, or acrylic, or polycarbonate, or of cellular polypropylene or carbon fiber, or fiberglass, or fiberboard, or wood particle Board, or made of solid glass, or any other similar sheet or flattened material resistant to a given climatic conditions and with sufficient resistance of the load in the transverse plane. However, these items have some flexibility due to the properties of the material from which they are made. This allows building blocks to maintain its integrity when falling from a height, by impacting each other or other hard objects, and in the process of transportation.

The fitting 14 (Fig.16) or 18 (Fig.17) to prevent displacement of the panel unit relative to each other under load, increase the resistance to vertical load of the building as a whole, perceiving themselves and evenly distributing the pressure of the side parts of the panels, and with high precision center coaxial arrangement of the through holes 26 in the panels, thereby establishing the predetermined position in the block of all three panels and a specific position in each panel of all its details. Blah is Adara high precision setup and then save the preset position of the panels in the Assembly provides a high repeat accuracy of each building block in factory production and high precision installation the neighboring building blocks in the construction of these objects. In order fasteners 14 or 18 is not moved relative to the panels during transportirovkoi during construction, or in the case of deliberate impact have the locking part 15 (Fig.18) or 19 (Fig.19), preventing displacement of the connecting parts along the longitudinal axis in both directions. Building blocks, in which the connecting parts of the form 18 is made in the form of a cylindrical tube, can be used for input or strips of different internal utilities.

Short 22 and 23 long excavation and short 24 and 25 long ledges of the building quickly and reliably constructive articulation of adjacent (horizontal or vertical row) building blocks, their simultaneous self-align in the transverse plane, the rigidity and stability of the assembled structure to lateral deforming impacts (including impacts on the joints on a break). This is due to the fact that all the joints are the building blocks of all in contact with each other in the articulation plane adjacent building blocks are part of a rigid and durable structural frame formed by the side parts of the panels and preventing any lateral play of sochinenia. In addition, short and long recesses and protrusions 22-25 building block due to overlapping interconnect joints exclude any end-to-end gap between adjacent building blocks. The presence of layers of aggregates in each panel, the copies of the outer contour of the panel, prevents the emergence of any "cold bridges" in the joints adjacent building blocks and in their places of articulation, which significantly increases the efficiency of constructed facilities. However, articulation of building blocks in any way not rigidly fixed in a stationary state of the building structure, allowing you to maintain mobility building blocks relative to each other in the vertical plane. Due to this mobility building blocks when effects, the vector of which lies in the vertical plane, can be moved relative to each other during the specified impact, and then to return to the previous stationary state. Noted additional property articulation declared the building blocks allows to preserve the integrity of the building blocks and the building constructions of them at different vibrations, jolts and shocks.

The projections 20 and recesses 21 on the middle panel 2 when connecting building blocks with each other and the combination of the projections 20 with you what mkami 21 provide the building blocks self-align in the longitudinal plane (while it is self-centering in the transverse plane) and additionally increase the strength of the building structure and its resistance to the side and other distorting influences in the transverse plane by extending shoulder resistance at the height of the protrusion 20 relative to the side face of the middle panel 2. Installed between the parts of the panels 4 and 6, 7 and 9, 10 and 12 are the same height spacer elements 13 (Fig.20) or 17 (Fig.21) provide accurate exposure given distance between these parts (the width of the inner space of each panel) regardless of the used filler panel material. In that case, if the layer of filler applied dense material, there are through holes 27 to install and subsequent retention spacer elements of 13 or 17. Since the filler is attached to the detail panel, respectively, the spacer elements are fixed in their places and productively perform their function to extract the requested width of the internal space of the panel. In that case, if the layer of filler applied layer of air or friable material, the spacer elements are used spacer elements 17 in the form of a cylindrical tube or spacer elements of form 13. In order that the spacer elements 17 in the form of a cylindrical tube were fixed in their places, they are either attached to one of the components of the panel adjacent to the SOS the days of the panel, using glue, or passed through the inner cavity of the cylindrical tube 17, the fastening element 16 when the fastening parts panels together. For fixing the spacer elements of 13 or 17 inside the panel, in one of the components of the panel adjacent to the adjacent panel, can be performed through hole for installing the spacer elements 13 or 17, and in adjacent parts of adjacent panels in these locations any of coaxial holes are missing.

Between the parts of each panel are the layers of the aggregate (Fig.9, 12, 15), which can be done (all the same or in different combinations) of foamed polyethylene or foamed polystyrene or foamed polyurethane, or ethylene vinyl acetate, or mineral wool, or fiberglass, or from basalt insulation, or wood, or foam rubber, or foam, or foam, or cork boards, or foam, or foil material, or of the air gap. These layers provide heat and sound insulation of building blocks and, accordingly, structures of them. Used for these layers, the materials have low thermal conductivity and low specific weight, which helps to ensure that the building blocks were thermal efficiency, sound-proof and light. Light weight Stroitel the data blocks allows one to perform the Assembly of any facility of such blocks manually.

During the construction of the stated building blocks around the perimeter of the spin-off construction on a previously prepared Foundation with the lower binding (or binding without Foundation, or horizontally aligned pad) manually set the bottom row of building blocks (in accordance with the plan of supporting structures and partitions), for example, the protrusions 20 upwards. This series is starting and with it alternately form the walls of the buildings around the perimeter, connecting adjacent walls or partitions of the building blocks interconnected by vertical posts, which are the building blocks of adjacent walls. This short protrusions 24 in one building block is inserted into a short recess 22 in another adjacent building block, forming eventually a series of rigidly interconnected several building blocks (Fig.78). During such manual Assembly of building blocks there is no need to control the accuracy of their installation for the building axis, because they semientered on this axis during their articulation. Following a number of building blocks is also manually set the slots 21 of the top row in the tabs 20 of the bottom row, but with the overlap of the upper building blocks of joints between adjacent building blocks in the bottom row (Fig.7). When mating protrusions 20 with the slots 21 is an additional building blocks self-align in the transverse plane, and the overlap of the upper building block two lower increases the stability and rigidity of the building structure. Next, the process of laying the building blocks in the subsequent rows is repeated similarly. Through manually sequentially through the rows of bottom-up articulation of building blocks, the result is a completed design buildings with flat and smooth walls, with the finished heat and sound insulation (Fig.79). Upon completion of the erection of load-bearing walls and partitions is performed top rail, and then built the roof structure and are filled with window and door openings (Fig.79).

Thus, when used in the process of construction of low-rise objects declared the building blocks manually (even one person) in a very short time can be built strong and geometrically precise construction with the required level of thermal efficiency, fully ready for external and internal finishing. To build such a design is not required: the use of any adhesives or fasteners; pre-construction and retention of the frame structure; lifting the mechanisms; attracting teams qualified builders; the use of any building tool; power sources. This construction work will not be accompanied by noise, pollution of the adjacent territory, education, construction waste, significant energy consumption, many vehicle trips on the object and can be performed at any time of the year and in any climate conditions.

Constructive the actual building blocks eliminates any permanent deformation when disassembling the building structure (as opposed to structures made of concrete, brick or building blocks of solid materials). Thanks to that collected from the stated building blocks construction may be effectively and quickly disassembled in the reverse order from top to bottom on the source blocks that can be stored, transported and from which you can then collect the same or different in the layout of the construction. Cycles of reuse building blocks "assembling" may be repeated an unlimited number of times, especially when used for parts of the frame and layers of filler materials of appropriate strength.

To optimise the performance of the building block for specific climatic conditions E. the decommission of the object, as well as to improve the individual characteristics of the building block, the stated building block has additional options to its execution.

Building block (option 2) is similar to the building block for option 1 (Fig.59), except that the filler (5, 8, or 11) medium 2 and two side panels 1 and 3, or only the middle panel 2, or only two side panels 1 and 3, or only one of the side panels 1 or 3 are exposed to the outside (with the inlets 34, or 35, or 36) around the perimeter at the outer edges of the first and second parts of the panel and protruding inward around the entire circumference of the through holes of the round form 26 in the first and second parts of the panel. Building block for option 2 is a construction block according to option 1 in terms of increasing the efficiency of the building due to the possibility of additional sealing layers of aggregates between them in the vertical plane, provided by the overlap of the layer of filler each panel with respect to its details. Since the layers of filler panels can be made of compressible material, the compression inlets adjacent layers of aggregates in sochlenennykh building blocks of advanced compacts place their clamping and thereby increases the level of thermal and sound protection of the building structure.

Building block option 3) similar building block for option 1 (Fig.63), except that the filler 5 or 11 one of the side panels 1 or 3 or both of the side panels 1 and 3 is made with a thickness that is less than the width of the internal space of the panel and adjacent to one of its parts, connecting with the middle panel, with the formation of the ventilation gap 29 between your greatest face and the face of another part of this sidebar. Building block for option 3 is the development of a building block according to option 1 in terms of improving the moisture resistance of one or both of the side panels by providing opportunities ventilation internal space from an external, or internal, or external and internal sides of the building block.

Building block (option 4) is similar to the building block for option 1 (Fig.71), except that in the middle pane, or both side panels with filler in the plane of the greatest edge combined and performed consisting of two 30 and 31, or three 30, 31 and 32, or four 30, 31, 32 and 33 layers of distinct materials. Building block for option 4 is the specification building block for option 1 in terms of specifying the execution type of the layer of filler medium, or one side or both side panels. The execution layer of aggregate any of the panels combined optimizes teploff the activity building block for the specific climatic conditions of the object.

Building block (option 5) is similar to the building block for option 1 (Fig.74), except that the largest faces or edges greatest faces one of the components of one of the side panels, which is the outer side of the building made the cut at an angle not exceeding 75 degrees. Building block for option 5 is the development of a building block according to the variant 1 of the form perform most of the ribs of one of the outer parts (cut 39, Fig.74), which provides the abstraction of external moisture that falls on the surface of the part, with its front part.

If necessary, to the outer side of one or both of the side panels 1 and 3 building blocks in the process of plant production can be attached with adhesive or fasteners as screws) decorative overlay 38, which can give erected the construction of an appropriate aesthetic appearance, does not require additional finishing.

Offered the actual construction of the unit enables us to produce all its parts with high precision sustainable industrial production methods of the common eco-friendly materials for construction purposes. This allows to make themselves the building blocks with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability Lina is different sizes, what ultimately makes possible low-cost and ultra-fast construction of eco-friendly building designs of high quality.

Possible combinations of materials for the construction details of the building block or sizes (primarily the thickness of these parts allow without changing the production technology to optimize the strength of its design in each case for a particular series of interest and, accordingly, to optimize its cost, balancing the adequate value for the required structural strength". This allows the customer to save money and not to overpay for the durability of building constructions than necessary.

Possible independent combinations of materials for the layers of filler in all three panels of the building block and independent combinations of materials for the layer of filler within each panel of the building permit without any additional costs to optimize its thermal efficiency in each case for a specific climatic conditions and, accordingly, to optimize its cost, balancing at the proper level, the ratio of "price - efficiency". It also allows the customer to save money and not to overpay for t is proefficient construction of facilities in excess of need.

The combination of possibilities of combinations of materials for the construction details of the building block or the size and capacity of independent combinations of materials for the layers of filler in all three panels of the building or within each panel building block allows you to optimize the value for the required structural strength - efficiency" in a fairly wide range of initial structural and climatic requirements, which allows to meet the needs of the widest range of consumers.

Thus, the claimed invention allows to create lightweight, structurally sound, environmentally friendly and thermal efficiency of the building blocks that do not require the use of adhesives or fasteners during construction, do not require pre-construction and retention of the frame structure, does not require teams qualified builders and application of lifting mechanisms, provide a fast and accurate Assembly (and disassembly) manually durable and resistant to various climatic conditions varied objects of low-rise construction, make it possible to build structures by one adult person, provide significant financial savings and time to build a house, with ranaut ecology in the construction process.

High precision prefabricated stated building blocks allow you to design objects with actually already known linear dimensions. This circumstance gives the ability to simultaneously manufacture (or set) the building blocks for a particular object to prepare for this object, in accordance with his plan) all construction materials and components to fill window and door openings, roof, complete exterior and interior design and laying of engineering communications of all kinds. The possibility of such configuration allows you to equip and supply the customer with the finished kit to build the house "turnkey", containing all the necessary (according to the customer's project to create comfortable living conditions.

Light weight, strength, ability to maintain their integrity during transportation and unloading, as well as the speed and ease of Assembly structures of the proposed building blocks manually make possible their application:

- for individual housing construction, including the construction of our own;

for low-rise construction of residential, public, industrial and social buildings and structures within the boundaries of towns and outside of it;

- for the erection and usage of the dwelling, social and economic structures in rural, remote and inaccessible areas;

- for the rapid construction of various structures with the appropriate local climatic conditions level of thermal protection during liquidation of consequences of emergency situations for the affected people, rescue workers, doctors, animals, and special equipment;

- for the rapid restoration of residential, public and commercial buildings lost due to natural disasters, fires, industrial accidents or military conflicts;

- for the construction and operation of temporary, including seasonal, facilities for catering, leisure, trade, temporary stay of animals, etc. in the various zones of the summer, winter and all-season recreation and leisure activities of the population.

Property building structures of the proposed building blocks to maintain its integrity under different vibrations, shocks and the shocks opens the possibility of applying the proposed building blocks for the construction of earthquake resistant low-rise buildings in earthquake-prone areas.

1. Building block, made in the form of panels in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped consisting of three bonded layers and containing as the opposite most of the faces of the two layers in VI is E. the first and second parts of the panel in the form of a flattened rectangular parallelepipeds, and between them a layer of filler panel in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped with the greatest facets of the same size and parallel to the largest faces of the first and second parts of the panel, characterized in that it is made of three panels in the Assembly view of one middle and two side panels formed by Assembly comprising one, or two, or three, or four, or five, or eight through holes of the circular form in the body of each panel, located in the middle parts of their largest faces along the largest side face, each of which is coaxially similar hole in the other panels, inserted them in flush with the outer surfaces of the side panels and passing through all of the panels connecting the parts, made in the form of a hollow or a direct cylinder with base diameter D not exceeding the diameter of the corresponding through holes of the circular form in the body panel, each connection piece in its middle part is made with two identical apertures in the shape of a straight cylinder with a base diameter d<0,2 D, the longitudinal axis of which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the fitting and are symmetrically from the middle of the fitting, each at a distance of no more than (h-d)/2, where h is the width of the internal space environments is her panel, inserted in each of the locking part in the form of a cotter pin or a cylindrical rod, while the middle panel is made with one, or two, or three, or four, or five, or eight identical projections on one of its greatest lateral faces, each in the form of laying the Foundation on the face rectangular square prism with a length of fin base equal to the thickness of the middle panel, with opposable its extreme projections from the edges of the largest lateral side of the panel at the same distance, and from each other by a distance equal to twice the distance from the center of the far ledge to the edge of the greatest lateral side of the panel, and with one, or two, or three, or four, or five, or eight identical grooves on opposite side panels, each in the form of laying the Foundation on the face rectangular square prism, is equal to the size of the protrusions and located opposite each respective protrusion, and offset in the Assembly relative to the two side panels parallel to their side edges with the formation of its lateral side with the tabs and the adjacent side face of two adjacent rectangular protrusions on the adjacent lateral faces of the building and two adjacent grooves of rectangular shape on the opposite adjacent side faces Stroitel the th block, the first and second parts of the middle and two side panels made all the same or in different possible combinations of plywood, or plastic, or acrylic, or wood, or cork plate, or metal, or metal alloy, or of foamed polyethylene or ethylene vinyl acetate, or acrylic, or polycarbonate, or of cellular polypropylene or carbon fiber, or fiberglass, or fiberboard, or wood particle Board, or made of solid glass, layers of placeholders in the middle and two side panels made all the same or in different possible combinations of foamed polyethylene or foamed polystyrene or foamed polyurethane, or ethylene vinyl acetate or polystyrene, or of basalt insulation or mineral wool, or fiberglass, or wood, or foam rubber, or foam, or cork boards, or foam, or of a foil material or consist of an air gap and each contain at least four spaced apart by your body the same spacer elements, made in the form of through holes of the cylindrical form in the body of the layer of filler that does not coincide with holes for connecting parts of the first and second parts of the panels are positioned with their longitudinal axes p of the parallel side edges of the panel, embedded with cylindrical rods with a height equal to the width of the internal space of the panel, or embedded with cylindrical tubes with a height equal to the width of the internal space of the panel, or made in the form of cylindrical tubes with a height equal to the width of the internal space of the panel and all panels are still fastened together by means of glue or by means of the fastening elements in the form of screws or bolts with nuts, evenly spaced along the surfaces of the panels are positioned with their longitudinal axes parallel to their side edges, when this bond the three layers of each panel may be made by adhesive or fasteners as screws, evenly spaced along the surfaces of the panels are positioned with their longitudinal axes parallel to their side edges.

2. Building block under item 1, characterized in that the filler medium and two side panels, or only the middle pane, or only two side panels, or only one of the side panels are made jutting out around the perimeter at the outer edges of the first and second parts of the panel and protruding inward around the entire circumference of the through holes of the circular form in the first and second parts of the panel.

3. Building block under item 1, characterized in that the filler of one of the sides is x panels or both side panels are made with thick, smaller width of the internal space of the panel and adjacent to one of its parts, connecting with the middle panel, with the formation of the ventilation gap between your greatest face and the face of another part of this sidebar.

4. Building block under item 1, characterized in that in the middle pane, or both side panels with filler in the plane of the greatest edge is made combined and composed of two, or three, or four layers of different materials.

5. Building block under item 1, characterized in that the greatest faces or edges greatest faces one of the components of one of the side panels, which is the outer side of the building made the cut at an angle not exceeding 75 degrees.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: formwork block for manufacturing of multi-layer solid structures comprises embedded boards and links, transverse reinforcement, and also formwork shields, with edges made as capable of joining with other formwork shields, in which the specified shields are placed in the space between the specified shields and are connected with them (shields) by means of specified links as capable of non-breaking separation of specified shields from the specified links after pouring of fluid material into the specified space and its (material) hardening.

EFFECT: increased strength of a structure.

15 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: construction block, shaping of which is based on a rectangular parallelepiped, with stretcher, header and bed faces, comprises parallel and distant plates connected to each other by links. The link between some two plates is arranged with a shift towards one header face in respect to a link between two other adjacent plates displaced to another header face. In this block every two adjacently located plates are connected with a link to form a U-shaped part, external plates of which are stretcher faces, and internal ones are connected with an additional link, which divides the zone between U-shaped parts into two open cavities of different volume, the least of which is located at the side of the header face, to which open cavities of U-shaped parts reach. Also the method is described to erect the bond from the described blocks.

EFFECT: improved operating properties of stretcher bond.

6 cl, 20 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: structural formwork block for openings from fine-grained or other material close in properties comprises parallel external face and rear longitudinal walls connected by three partitions. Longitudinal walls and connecting partitions are combined with a common spatial reinforcement frame, at the same time one of extreme partitions is concreted, the middle one is represented in the form of a rectangular wooden spacer shifted to the centre of the block by depth equal to its thickness, and its ends reaching external surfaces of the block are jammed and anchors in longitudinal walls and may serve for fixation of finishing materials.

EFFECT: reduced material and labour inputs for formwork works, increased solidity, earthquake stability, heat and sound insulation properties of walls in buildings and structures, improved quality of works.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: facing hollow-porous ceramic unit is a rectangular parallelepiped containing outer side stretching and binding faces and inner constructive insulating structure made of spaced apart ceramic baffles and bridges of series of through hollows, unit has vertical and horizontal grooves that extend beyond the stretching and bed faces to the width of one hollow and side face thickness, as well as vertical mark extending through the middle of the stretching side. Rows of through cavities are arranged alternately in parallel and perpendicularly with respect to the unit binding faces, besides the unit on the stretching side has a solid facing layer with textured surface imitating the brickwork.

EFFECT: improvement of physical and technical indicators both of the unit and laying method of the building wall, increase of laying precision during wall construction, reduction of deviations from the horizontal and vertical planes, increase of laying resistance of shear due to the use of geometric parameters of the ceramic unit, its rows of through hollows made perpendicularly with respect to each other, its vertical and horizontal slots.

2 dwg

Leave-in-place form // 2519314

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: leave-in-place form comprises two oppositely arranged slabs, an external one from heat insulation material and an internal one from concrete, attached to each other and forming a space between each other for filling with a fluid material, capable of hardening. The internal slab of concrete is made as reinforced and comprises reinforcing elements of two types, at the same time reinforcing elements of the first type are made as V-shaped in the cross section from bent mesh and are installed in parallel and at the identical distance from each other and provide for placement of reinforcing elements of the second type at the identical distance from each other and fixation parallel to them, and the reinforcing elements of the second type represent spatial reinforcing elements made of three longitudinal rods and two rods bent with a V-shaped zigzag. Bent rods are simultaneously connected by tops to one longitudinal rod, and by other tops - to two other rods with formation of reinforced frames of prismatic shape. Reinforcing elements of the first type are made as protruding from the concrete slab and providing for connection and fixation of the external slab to it, being made of heat insulation material and pierced by glass plastic rods with fixators providing for connection and fixation of a mesh to the rear surface of the slab from heat insulation material, and the mesh is made as capable of connection of reinforcing elements of the first type to it.

EFFECT: simplified usage of this device in performance of construction works, provided by absence of complicated operations in performance of assembly or facing works, no transfer of temperature effects inside a concrete structure, exclusion of local freezing and formation of dew point on steel reinforcement inside concrete.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to erection of engineering structures with a bearing frame in the form of prefabricated composite structures with a shell, slab or shell and slab bulky structure. A composite bearing block of a prefabricated building structure represents a factory-built assembly element in the form of a spatial polyhedron or its fragments with faces of constant, piecewise-constant and alternate thickness, possibly, with through holes in faces for letting through personnel or communications, including concrete, reinforcement, embedded parts in the form of hollow tubular elements forming also through holes in faces, serving to connect bearing blocks to each other or to other structures of the facility with application of closing elements inserted in process of installation into coaxially arranged embedded hollow elements of touching faces. The block is made with closed or with opened cavities limited by diaphragms or protruding ribs, with opened, fully or partially closed one- and multi-link transverse cross sections or in the form of fragments, at least from one thick-walled shell or slab, and surfaces of external faces, internal cavities, ribs and diaphragms are given geometric shapes from a combination of flat, curvilinear or spherical surfaces, and also it has such geometric dimensions of connecting holes and such coordinates of location of such holes in joined blocks, which as a result of assembly provide for formation of a prefabricated building structure with required dimensions and specified spatial bulky structure of bearing faces, cavities and channels, and embedded tubular elements of faces are rigidly connected to additional reinforcement embedded parts, attached to them at the external side and embedded into concrete in process of factory manufacturing of a bearing block in a curb. Also the field connection of such blocks is described.

EFFECT: increased rates for erection of cost-effective materials of building structures in a bulky, including cellular one, facility with application of rigid and manufacturable field connections of blocks, provision of bearing capacity, durability and, if required, tightness of created structures, and also improvement of technology of assembly of prefabricated reinforced concrete building structures.

11 cl, 22 dwg

Building block // 2513228

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: building block with through cavities separated by partitions, perpendicular to a longitudinal axis, is made with ledges that frame its cavities on the upper end surface and their responsive mutually penetrating slots on the lower end surface. Also the block comprises a system of holes plugged in their central part by a partition with the possibility of its removal in order to convert them from plugged into through ones, besides, walls and partitions of the block are made with additional stiffening ribs and have a bulge in their central part, and slots are arranged at the side surfaces of the building block.

EFFECT: higher strength and reliability, stable fixation of blocks to each other.

9 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction industry, in particular, to one of types of construction equipment - non-detachable curb with lining external surfaces from slabs, for use in monolithic housing construction. A non-detachable construction curb comprises external and internal slabs, installed at a certain distance from each other to from an inner volume for installation of reinforcement and filling with construction filler, and connecting links between the slabs. Links are made as connected pairwise metal brackets, each of which is at one side fixed on the inner surface of one slab, and end parts of brackets have 4 strips with engaged teeth, limiting stops and response windows for teeth, at the same time end parts of engaged strips are made of two types, some of them in the tail part have a stepped site, on which there is an engagement tooth and a limiting stop in the form of stamped ledges, and other engaged strips have response rectangular windows for engaged teeth, at the same time edges of engaged strips, on which there are teeth, have flanging with width of 5-7 mm, bent by 8-10° from the plane of the bracket shelf towards the opposite side from the tooth.

EFFECT: provision of reliable fixation of facing boards and preservation of parameters of a slab-to-slab gap when filled with concrete and other fillers.

6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method of construction includes erection of frame in the form of reinforced concrete monolithic structures, formation of external walls from multi-layer light heat insulation panels with application of glue. The foundation, monolithic reinforced concrete slabs with coaxial holes in them and vertical columns are linked to a standard series of multi-layer universal light heat-moisture-noise-insulating heat-resistant blocks in all planes, and the frame of the facility is formed with account of the loads from physical masses of external walls, internal partitions and other necessary elements. Ends of monolithic slabs along the entire perimetre are closed with rectangular chutes with an insulant, they are rigidly fixed on the monolithic slab, afterwards they start erecting the external walls and internal partitions, at the same time in the beginning they install an angular multi-layer universal light block, the places of adjacency are previously coated with glue, it is fixed to the vertical column with the bracket, the second block is put against it, which has been previously coated with glue in places of adjacency, and into a vertical lock formed as two blocks are joined, a figured rack is inserted so that it enters the coaxial hole in the monolithic slab and so on, and the blocks of the second and subsequent rows are inserted with a ledge on the lower surface, into the slot on the upper surface of the blocks, etc. Blocks are laid row by row, simultaneously window, door and arc openings are formed, at the same time the surfaces of universal light blocks inside the object of construction at both sides may be closed by standard strengthened noise and moisture protective fireproof sheets with high adhesive capacity, which simultaneously cover several blocks. Also a multi-layer universal light block is described.

EFFECT: faster rates of building construction, lower labour inputs.

1 tbl, 8 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: building module comprises a base element, formed from silicate bricks, extruded gypsum-based bricks, foam concrete or aerated concrete blocks or ceramic extruded bricks, and having parallel bed surfaces, with at least two pairs of coaxial holes and fixing elements of straight and reverse cones placed in them. Axes of conical parts of fixing elements of straight cones and adjacent surfaces of collars, which determine the gap between layers of masonry, are made at the angle to the axes of seating surfaces of the same elements mounted in holes of the base element. Also the version of the module is described, as well as the versions of the method to erect building walls using the specified building modules.

EFFECT: increased labour efficiency in construction, lower prime cost of modules, higher quality of building module installation.

13 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: building members, particularly building stones.

SUBSTANCE: building stone includes membrane walls with heat-reflecting screen and microscopic venting orifices and member sealing air slot along perimeter. Building stone is composed of regularly alternating caps connected one to another with cement mortar. Each cap is made as membrane wall with single-sided framing member extending along periphery thereof. Framing member is stamped as a single whole with membrane wall. Joining surface of framing member end is parallel to membrane wall plane. Building stone end with opened slot is closed with membrane wall formed without framing member. Membrane wall is of 10-30 mm thickness, framing member width is 12-30 mm.

EFFECT: reduced manufacturing costs.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly retainer form to erect walls of cast-in-place frame residential or industrial building.

SUBSTANCE: retained form set comprises outer and inner blocks formed of thermoplastic composite material and plate-like bridges to connect outer and inner blocks one to another. Each outer and inner block has vertical dovetail extension formed on one end surface and mating dovetail groove created in another end surface thereof. Facing surfaces of outer and inner blocks are provided with vertical rows of dovetail grooves and extensions extending for the full block height. Inner surface of each inner and outer block has cavities opened from tops thereof and defined by inner and outer side walls correspondingly. Cavities have depths equal to at least plate-like bridge thickness. The plate-like bridges have orifices for receiving vertical extension created from cavity side. Extension height exceeds cavity depth. Opposite, lower, surface of each block is provided with blind holes coaxial to above orifices. Blind holes have depths exceeding extension heights. Longitudinal facets are formed on outer block faces arranged in upper block parts. Longitudinal extension is created in lower block parts and adapted to enclose joint plane by another, lower, block. Building wall erection method with the use of above retained form set is also disclosed.

EFFECT: possibility to erect wall of any texture, color and finishing.

2 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly for well wall erection with the use of retained form during residential and public building construction.

SUBSTANCE: concrete stone has blind hole and is opened from one stretcher faces. Through orifice is made in bed. Orifice length in longitudinal stone direction exceeds double thickness of header wall. Opposite header faces are provided with through grooves or openings. In accordance with the second embodiment the concrete stone has blind hole and is opened from one stretcher faces. Two or more through orifices are made in bed and transversal diaphragms are arranged in inner hole between the orifices. Opposite header faces and diaphragms are provided with through grooves or openings.

EFFECT: increased reliability, strength and integrality of bond between retained form and hardened concrete.

2 cl, 8 dwg

Building unit // 2274712

FIELD: building materials, particularly building units used for building wall erection.

SUBSTANCE: building unit is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped with length/width ratio of 1:2 and comprises stretcher, header and bed faces. Upper face is provided with rectangular extensions, lower face is provided with corresponding depressions. Lock connection members, namely dovetail extensions and dovetail depressions are formed on the faces. Mechanical solid concrete or polymeric concrete coating is created on front face. Dovetail depressions similar to that of the lock connection members are created on inner face. Some units have decorative coating formed on one face and on front face of each unit. Two steel L-shaped anchors are built in the unit.

EFFECT: increased assemblage simplicity and quality, reduced time of building envelope assemblage, reduced binding agent consumption, increased heat insulation properties of building envelope, increased building appearance and extended range of technological capabilities.

6 cl, 6 dwg

Building block // 2279514

FIELD: building, particularly building blocks adapted to erect walls of low buildings and building structures.

SUBSTANCE: building block comprises engagement means and is made as monolithic body having cavity opened into block surface. The engagement body is made as tubular member. Central part of tubular member has length enough for tubular member grasping by user's hand or by engagement means of vehicle. The tubular member passes through above cavity and is parallel to block base. Remainder part of tubular member is built in block body, tubular member ends passes through one side surfaces of the block and are closed. Tubular member is made of transparent material and filled with liquid containing air bubble submersed in liquid. Tubular member may be filled with non-freezable liquid and surface thereof may be provided with marks. Tubular member ends passing through side surface may have nipples.

EFFECT: increased operational reliability along with simplified production.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly to erect wall frames and inner walls, door assemblies, suspended ceilings, grids, fences and so on.

SUBSTANCE: building block is formed of wood and is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped with tie members made as projections and grooves. Projections and grooves are created in edges to be connected. Side edges of the block are provided with alternating ridges and valleys. Ridge height hr is 0.5-1.5 mm. Block width bb is greater than groove width bg by 0.3-1.7 mm. Ridges and valleys may be parallel to longitudinal block axis, transversal to longitudinal block axis or extend at an angle thereto. Ridge may have triangular or trapezoid cross-section.

EFFECT: possibility to compensate inaccuracies of modular wooden building block fabrication.

7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly building elements of block or other shape for the construction of building walls having necessary thermal resistance for different usage environment.

SUBSTANCE: building member is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped provided with slots made in building member faces. Each building member face surface has relief projections forming parallel ridges with slots to be filled with mortar. Each ridge is joined with other ridges formed on surfaces of adjacent faces along ridge edges so that united ridge is created around building member perimeter. The united ridge has longitudinal section parallel to one vertical face. Each face surface has at least two parallel ridges spaced equal distances from face edges. Wall erection method is also disclosed.

EFFECT: provision of uniform strength, improved manufacturability, increased heat-shielding properties of wall to be erected along with increased technological efficiency of the masonry, decreased wall thickness and decreased mortar usage.

6 cl, 1 tbl, 10 dwg

FIELD: manufacture of building materials.

SUBSTANCE: composition for manufacturing reinforced polystyrene-concrete mix contains, kg/m3: Portland cement 160-170, foamed granulated polystyrene 15-17, basalt fiber 0.50-0.70, saponified wood tar, plasticizing supplement 0.4-0.5, polyacrylamide 0.40-0.60, lignopan B-2 0.35-0.50, and water 50-55. Reinforced polystyrene-concrete mix consists in mixing components of mix so that foamed polystyrene, basalt fiber, and additives introduced together with part of tempering water are mixed preliminarily, after which Portland cement is added at stirring, stirring is continued for 5-15 sec and, after addition of water, mix is stirred for further 25-40 sec. Articles are manufactured from polystyrene-concrete mix using volume vibration compaction to degree of compression 8-15 kg/cm2.

EFFECT: simplified mix preparation procedure, increased strength of articles, improved heat-insulation properties and frost resistance thereof, and reduced their vapor permeability and water absorption.

9 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings.

SUBSTANCE: construction block comprises shell of solid sand concrete and core made of porous cement-based material. Block is produced by extrusion-compensatory method with shell cavity division into three sections by means of transversal stiffening diaphragms. The sections are shaped as triangular prisms. Solid sand concrete includes sand having gradation factor of at least 1.88. To provide cement-sand concrete plasticity during block forming tall oil pitch taken in amount of 0.3-1.5% of Portland cement mass is additionally used. Raw mix for porous material preparation includes (per 1m3 of ready mix) Portland cement - 159-300 kg, tall oil pitch - 0.9 l and aqueous protein solution with 0.75-0.9% concentration - 3.2-6.0 l. Shell and stiffening diaphragms of construction block have the same thicknesses. Shell production method and method for porous material production for shell filling are also disclosed.

EFFECT: increased quality and productivity.

3 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: said utility invention relates to the field of construction and may be used for the blockwork of various purpose buildings and facilities, particularly those requiring a high degree of waterproofing of vertical block connection seams. The hollow construction block contains a hollow frame with internal and external walls connected with two crossbars with a height less than the height of the layers being connected. The internal frame wall is designed as bearing, and the external wall is ornamental and waterproofing, and has elements of a rabbeting-type waterproofing interlocking connection, forming a "tile" effect; the elements are located in the places of connection with the following similar wall of another block and coincide with the external wall front surface plane.

EFFECT: provision of reliable waterproofing connection of end joints in building under construction and attractive appearance of front part of building.

4 cl, 3 dwg

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