Preparation of free-burning coal

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of preparation of free-burning coal with the content of volatile substances not exceeding 16% whereat the said coal is heated to 200-395°C to destruct heat-sensitive coal lumps to be cooled and classified thereafter. Anthracite and/or hard coal are used as the free-burning coal. Heated coal is cooled at an ambient temperature.

EFFECT: stabilised grain size, simplified process, higher calorific value.

5 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 4 ex

 

The invention relates to the preparation of non-caking coal to burn and can be used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy sintering of ores, shaft furnaces, as well as in the energy and chemical industry.

Fossil coals are coals of different kinds and of different quality. One of the most important differences between coals are coals of conglomerating giving coke for metallurgical production (metallurgical coal), and non-caking coals and suitable mainly for grinding ores, as well as for heating and energy production (coal power).

The shortage of coking coal, their lack of quality and high value coking is an important issue in metallurgy. This raises the question about saving coke from its main customer, the metallurgical industry. In particular, the perspective might be an option for replacement of coke at a much cheaper coal lean coal or anthracite.

Lean coal and anthracite refer to non-caking coals.

The use of lean coal does not require additional training and capital investment. The cost of coal by more than two times lower than the cost of coke, and transportation is cheaper because of the greater bulk of the mass. This makes the efficiency of their use is obvious in the case, if it does not lead to a deterioration process until the of Atala process and product quality.

The moisture content in lean coals ranges from 2-7%, which is not beyond the scope of indicators for coke.

The content of non-volatile carbon is very high and close to coke.

The volatile components on a dry ash-free weight of approximately 8-16%.

The index of vitrinite reflectance skinny coals ranges from 1.5 to 2.59%, no caking.

Skinny coals are characterized by low output resinous substances. For skinny coal processing section he is 0.14 to 0.5%, Krasnogorsk - traces. Therefore, the application of lean coal will not lead to occlusion of the gas paths of metallurgical units.

The heat of combustion ash-free dry mass for skinny coal is 35200-36500 kJ/kg and depends mainly on the chemical composition of the coal, which is determined in turn by the degree of metamorphism. The heat is produced mainly by combustion contained in the coal hydrocarbons and hydrogen, so the heat of combustion may be higher than that of coke.

Comparison of the properties of thin coal and metallurgical coke shows that the strength of lump skinny coal is lower than that of coke, and crushability and abrasion above. The coals have lower ignition temperature and a higher calorific value. Coals have a lower porosity, but their reactivity is close to the reactivity of coke

Thus, the characteristics of thin coals, in General, meet the requirements of metallurgical raw materials as fuel and carbon-containing agent.

Skinny coal is used mainly in the power and utilities sector; under the condition of low ash content can be used to obtain carbon fillers in the manufacture of electrodes.

Skinny coals are sometimes called "polyantracsolite".

However, you should consider the following circumstances. Skinny coal is a natural material, its properties can differ markedly for different parties. Therefore, when it is used in metallurgy required special monitoring of indicators in the coal mines.

Low relative coke mechanical characteristics of coal require the development of the technology of its preparation for technology use.

Anthracite as well as lean coal, belong to the natural raw materials. Anthracite unite coals with vitrinite reflection index more 2,59%. When the volatile content less than 8% for anthracite are also coals with vitrinite reflection index from 2.2 to 2.59%.

From other types of anthracite coal has a high content of fixed carbon (91-98%), low moisture content, sulfur, volatile matter (2-9%), high specific heat of combustion. Anthracite Gori is no smoke and flame, with high heat dissipation, not baked. Has a high density of organic matter (1500-1700 kg/m3) and high electrical conductivity. Hardness on the mineralogical scale of 2.0-2.5.

Currently, anthracite, in addition to using energy, is applied to ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, as well as for the production of adsorbents, electrodes, oxide, microphone powder, ermantraut etc.

The quality requirements of anthracite are the most high, because even a relatively small deterioration of some properties of anthracite often has a negative impact on the process and products.

Based on the foregoing natural non-caking coals (lean coal and anthracite may be used instead of coke in certain industries). The use of such coals will allow to reduce the consumption of expensive coke.

However, the problem is the lack of durability of the pieces of non-caking coal (skinny coal and/or anthracite) in the process of heating technology use.

Part of pieces of coal and/or anthracite destroyed with the formation of fines, which leads to disruption of the hydraulic regime in the furnace for combustion and chemical nedorogo fuel poor performance of the furnace.

A known method of thermal processing of coal (author's certificate of the SSR No. 467089) in the vortex chambers gas cooled, followed by isothermal aging, wherein the heat treatment of coal is carried out at a temperature of 450-550°C and the oxygen content in the gas flow of 0.5-1.0%.

This invention improves the heat of combustion of small fractions of hard and brown coal with a high volatile content. Accordingly, this invention is not effective when using large fractions of coal with low volatile content. In addition, the need for heat treatment of coal at temperatures between 450 and 550°C leads to a considerable energy in the process.

There is a method of preparation of raw materials for blast furnace smelting (USSR author's certificate No. 1129255), which is in use as a fuel for fuel briquettes, which before briquetting add pre-heated to 200-250°C coal.

In this way, by pre-heating coal to 200-250°C provide the best work binder.

I.e., this method is applicable to coals with high volatile, megkotesenek at a small heating; for the fine-grained fractions of the coal used to produce fuel briquettes.

There is a method of preparing solid fuel burning (USSR author's certificate No. 1170226), in which additional heating fuel - coal dust by direct impact on fuel torch. I.e., there is a method of note is it only for pulverized fractions of coal at high temperatures heating - up to 900-1000°C.

Known continuous method of processing non-coking coal with obtaining a stable char (options) patent of Russian Federation №2098450.

In the method according to patent No. 2098450 carry out heating non-coking coal to temperatures 400-480°C with the aim of evaporation and removal of part of the volatile substances. In the specified method is changing the structure of the coal, after which heat enters the char.

The use of carbon than coal. The char can be used to obtain coke as part of the charge, as fuel in the production of ferroalloys, with the agglomeration of ore.

The drawback of the method according to patent No. 2098450 are higher costs for its implementation, associated with the necessity of heating the coal to temperatures 400-480°C, the complexity of the method is determined by the need to capture volatile substances.

The known method of preparing low-grade coal (JP 63210192 And 31.08.1988) with a content of volatile substances more than 30%, in which the coal is dried at a temperature of 180-400°C for 2-10 minutes gas. Then the coal is cooled with water in 2 stages to 60°C.

The method according to the document JP 63210192 A, 31.08.1988 selected as the closest analogue (prototype).

The disadvantage is the closest analogue is the inefficiency of the way, ecologicall and complexity.

Technical result achieved declare the image is the group of - stabilization of the particle size distribution of fuel from non-caking coals by maintaining the heat-resistant fractions pieces of fuel combustion; a simplification of the method of preparation of non-caking coal; increasing the calorific value of the fuel; ensuring high efficiency of the method.

The claimed technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the method of preparation of non-caking coal with a content of volatile substances is not more than 16%, carry out heating non-caking coals up to temperature 200-395°C for destruction heteroclinic components of coal, the subsequent cooling and classification.

As a non-caking coal use anthracite and/or lean coal.

Cooling the heated coal is carried out at ambient temperature.

After cooling, non-caking coal is subjected to mechanical stress.

Classification of coal is carried out after the mechanical impact or simultaneously with it.

Feedstock - lean coal or anthracite, with General properties - espacenet, low volatile content (not more than 16%).

The General lack of non-caking coal lean coal and anthracite coal) is their lack of resistance. When used as a fuel natural non-caking coals as a result of their heat is the destruction heteroclinic cusk is in the coal into smaller particles. Fuel when heated changes its initial particle size (grain, Sith) composition due to the destruction of the original pieces of fuel, including permastone components. When spontaneous destruction of such pieces of fuel in the furnace is broken hydraulic mode of combustion, reduces the productivity of the furnace.

In addition, in a natural non-caking coals content heteroclinic inclusions is not constant, and therefore the technological properties of fuels based on natural non-caking coals are difficult to predict. In this regard the use as fuel of natural non-caking coals without special training is impractical.

The cause of the destruction of part of the bulk material from non-caking coals are thermal stresses during heating of bulk material. Pterostichini be scaly graphite and poligrafici, collapsing on thin plates and scales, as well as pieces from petrographically inhomogeneous layered formations.

In the present method of preparation of non-caking coal for their technological use heating of coal is carried out until the temperature 200-395°C. At these temperatures lean coal and anthracite is not translated in the char, thus retains its wide range of uses - baking process is s, mine ore smelting non-ferrous metals as fuel in furnaces and for other processes.

When heating the coal to temperatures 200-395°C is destroyed heteroclinic inclusions (components) of coal, which are easily removed, for example, in the classification after heating.

Removal of volatile substances has virtually no place to be, the quantity of volatile substances to heat the coal and after heating it practically does not change.

Evaporation of moisture from the coal occurs almost entirely at temperatures of 100-200°C. i.e. at temperatures up to 395°C in coal contain almost no moisture.

Energy costs for the preparation of non-caking coal according to the claimed method are lower than in the known methods.

The study authors showed that a significant portion of heteroclinic components are destroyed when heated, non-caking coal to temperatures in the range from 200 to 395°C.

Heating to such temperatures, firstly, reliably ensures the destruction heterosticta components, secondly, does not require significant energy costs, third, does not require special cooling, since the cooling in this case is carried out in a natural way, which greatly improves the environmentally friendly way. It should be noted that when heated to temperatures 200-395°C no selection of chemical products pirol is for non-caking coals and, therefore, there are no expenses for their capture.

In Fig.1 shows the dependence of the total output of oversize product (anthracite) in relation to the sizes of the holes of the sieve.

Curve 1 - for heteroarylboronic anthracite coal.

Curve 2 - for anthracite coal, trained according to the claimed method.

It is seen that the amount of oversize product after heat treatment decreased by approximately 10-12% due to the destruction heteroclinic components of anthracite, which resulted in the reduction of large pieces of anthracite and the emergence of smaller pieces.

Also study the authors showed that in the preparation of non-caking coal with a content of volatile substances to 16% according to the claimed method, the quantity of volatile substances before and after training is practically unchanged.

After heating the source of non-caking coal to temperatures 200-395°C and subsequent cooling, it is advisable to subject non-caking coals mechanical stress. The main destruction of coal as a result of destruction heteroclinic components occurs spontaneously when heated. However, after heating, it is advisable to carry out a mechanical effect, because as a result of mechanical impact is zaratrusta pieces of coal by zaratracheny heteroclinic components.

The village is e mechanical impact or at the same time carry out the classification of coals to select fractions of coal in accordance with their possible technological use.

The study authors showed that when the process fuel use, trained in accordance with the inventive method, almost no further collapse of the pieces of fuel in the furnace, therefore, prepared according to the claimed method of non-caking coal can be replaced metallurgical coke used for the relevant technological needs.

On the kinetics of termoretratil skinny (non-reactive) of coal can be estimated by the data in table 1, the percent change of class of coal 25-100 mm at a speed of heating from a temperature of 20°C to 1000°C.

Testing took two types of coal lean coal and anthracite and metallurgical coke. Characteristics of coal and coke are shown in the same table.

From table 1 it is seen that the active reduction of the content of the class 25-100 mm thin coals and anthracites occurs when the temperature increases from 20 to 200°C. At these temperatures there is an active moisture up to her full evaporation and is an active destruction heteroclinic components of coal.

Further to temperatures from 200 to 400°C reduction of the content of the class 25-100 mm thin coals and anthracites practically does not occur. At these temperatures the removal of volatile substances from lean coal and anthracite coal is almost the place. At these temperatures is negligible zaratrusta heteroclinic components of coal.

Further reduction of the content of the class 25 - 100 mm, thin coals and anthracites occurs at temperatures from 700 to 1000°C, which is explained mainly by the loss of volatile substances.

Preparation of coal in accordance with the inventive method when using coal with a volatile content of more than 16% is impractical due to the following:

When heated to temperatures 200-395°C coal with a content of volatile substances to 16% there is virtually no removal (separation) of volatile substances. This is confirmed by the information in the source "Scientific fundamentals of coke production", Proceedings of meetings, Sverdlovsk, 1965), publishing house "metallurgy", 1967 (Appendix 1).

From table 1 source of "Scientific fundamentals of coke production" on page 126 shows that the coal OS is characterized by a volatile content less than 16% (14, 39%); coal grades D, G, W are characterized by the release of volatile substances more than 30%.

Table 2 source of "Scientific fundamentals of coke production" on page 128 shows that upon heating of coal OS up to 400°C there is virtually no output of the products of thermal decomposition gas and natural gasoline, and paragenetically water. When heated from 250 to 400°C there is a significant output of the products of thermal dasta the products, gas and natural gasoline, and paragenetically water at the coal grades D, G, J.

This means that when heated to temperatures of from 250 to 400°C coal, characterized by the release of volatile substances more than 30%, there is a significant allocation of the above products into the environment. It should be noted that the released products of thermal decomposition include phenols, which belong to the class II of danger.

Therefore, contamination of the surrounding space. Therefore, it is necessary to provide additional measures to capture the emitted during heating of coal products and their disposal, which will provide for a significant complication of the process of preparation of such coal for use as fuel.

In addition, when heated coals with volatile matter more than 30% up to temperatures of 400°C there is a sharp weight loss (from 1.5 to more than 4%) of the solid residue, i.e., is the site of intense thermal decomposition of coal (the penultimate and final paragraphs page 128 source "Scientific fundamentals of coke production", Fig.3 on page 129).

From the source "Technology of carbon materials", E. F. Chalykh, M., 1963, the State scientific and technical publishing house of literature on ferrous metallurgy and non-ferrous metallurgy on page 96 (Appendix 2) it is known that weight loss anthracite coal when heated from 200 to 400 is C at 0.76% (table 21).

I.e. weight loss anthracite coal having a volatile content less than 8% when heated up to 400°C, significantly less than for coals with volatile matter more than 30%.

The loss of weight of anthracite and coal with a volatile content of more than 30% due to various factors.

Anthracite lose weight when heated to 400°C only due to the removal of moisture (because organics at these temperatures of anthracite is not deleted), and coal with a content of volatile substances more than 30% lose weight due to the removal of organic components.

After removal from coal with a content of volatile substances more than 30% of organic components increases the percentage of non-combustible mineral portion. Therefore, after heating the coal with a content of volatile substances more than 30% up to temperatures of 400°C, their calorific value falls due to intensive removal of organics.

On the contrary, when heated, non-caking coal with a volatile content of not more than 16% when heated up to 400°C does not remove organic components (fuel component), therefore, no loss of calorific value of such coals, when heated to temperatures of 400°C.

It should also be noted that due to intensive removal of volatiles by heating to temperatures of 400°C from coals with volatile matter more than 30% is braintanning the collapse of the pieces of coal at the expense of more extensive cleavage of the least strong ties in lumps of coal. I.e. the original lumps disintegrate into a large number of small pieces, which is smaller than chunks of coal produced during the collapse of the coal with a content of volatile substances is not more than 16%.

The fine fraction of coal have limited technology use than larger ones.

In addition, when heating large volumes of coal with a volatile content of more than 30%, it is necessary to use special tools or technological parameters of the process of preparation of coal, providing explosion process, because the intense release of volatile substances increases the risk of accumulation of gases in the volume of coal and the threat of an explosion.

Thus, the preparation of the inventive method non-caking coal with a volatile content of not more than 16% compared with the same preparation of coal with a volatile content of more than 30% is that as a result of this training, it turns out quite a large lump of coal that can be used as a replacement for metallurgical coke and used as fuel for almost any technological needs. After this training, the coal does not lose its original calorific value, i.e. the inventive method is effective. In addition, the inventive method is environmentally friendly, because it occurs without releasing gases into the atmosphere is the fer; is simple, because implementation of the proposed method is not required to use special tools to capture eye-catching components of coal. The inventive method is safe (explosion-proof).

Obvious effect is the following. Heating to temperatures 200-395°C non-caking coal with a volatile content of up to 16% and heating of non-caking coal with a volatile content greater than 16% gives a different result.

When heated to temperatures 200-395°C non-caking coal with a volatile content of up to 16% after cooling and classification of obtained coal with high calorific value, durable, capable of replacing metallurgical coke. When preparing such coals according to the claimed method is not required to take additional measures to protect the environment and measures for ensuring safety (explosion) process.

On the contrary, when heated to temperatures 200-395°C non-caking coal with a volatile content greater than 16% after cooling and classification of obtained coal, consisting of fine fractions (which makes it of limited use), with low calorific value (do not allow the use of such coal as a substitute for metallurgical coke). When heating such coals up to temperature 200-395°C there is a significant deterioration E. the sociology and process safety. Therefore, for the preparation of such coals by heating to temperatures 200-395°C is required to take technical measures related to ensuring environmental safety and explosion process.

Thus, the claimed method in its apparent simplicity allows us to achieve the claimed technical effect, therefore, the claimed method meets the condition of patentability "inventive step".

The inventive method is illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1

The tests were carried out with high-quality anthracite classes 20-120 mm

Technical analysis and calorific value of anthracite coal concentrate are shown in table 2.

where:

Wa- moisture analytical;

Ad- ash in a dry state;

Vr- the release of volatile substances in the working state;

Vdafthe volatile matter on a dry ash-free state;

Stdthe total sulfur content in the dry state;

Sodaforganic sulfur on a dry ash-free state;

Coa organic carbon analytical condition;

Hoaorganic hydrogen in the analytic condition;

Qsr- higher heat of combustion operating state of the fuel;

Qsdaf- higher heat of combustion of dry ash-free fuel.

The results show that the analyzed anthracite refers to the anthracite thermal origin and therefore has a low volatile content of 2.81%. The study anthracite coal has low ash content, low sulphur content and high (higher than metallurgical coke) calorific value.

Table 3 shows particle size distribution (by dry weight) of the original anthracite and the same anthracite trained according to the claimed method.

From table 3 it can be seen that the original anthracite has a high yield of large classes and, therefore, has a high mechanical strength. After preparation according to the claimed method is armoretrust part of the bulk material is to increase the number of fines. The content pieces of anthracite size of less than 20 mm increased from 5.2% to 20.3%,i.e. increased by 15%.

After preparation of anthracite according to the claimed method of technical analysis showed that the ash content on dry weight, volatile content, total sulfur, total phosphorus were similar across grades K indicators source of anthracite.

After classification prepared anthracite each class are sent to the appropriate technology use.

The study authors showed that if the process using the prepared anthracite virtually no further destruction of pieces of anthracite, respectively, provided a stable mode of operation of processing unit.

When the technological application of anthracite fines (0-10 mm) prepared according to the claimed method anthracite turned out to be a complete substitute for coke breeze with the agglomeration of iron and Nickel ores. Consumption anthracite stuff is done with a factor of 0.95 to 1.0, compared with coke fines.

Fraction 10-20 mm prepared anthracite is a good substitute for coke fraction 10-25 mm in the production of high-carbon ferrochrome. Compared with Cox 10-25 mm has a lower sulfur content and therefore allows you to get the sweet vysokouglerodistoy the th ferrochrome.

Low ash, low moisture content, low sulfur content, good thermal stability are the main advantages of allowing 100% replace coke nut prepared according to the claimed method anthracite fractions 10-20 mm

Example 2

In the shaft furnace type OSM-2725 burning dolomite with an internal diameter of 3.5 m and a height of 14.2 m was carried out by calcination of dolomite to contain the sum of the oxides Cao+MgO in the annealed product to 95% and more.

The original dolomite was characterized by an MgO content of not less than 19,0% and an average CaO content of 33.0%.

As fuel was used Cox faction 25-40 mm

The specific consumption of coke 200 kg/t dolomite. The volume of the blast was to 10000 m3/hour. The temperature in the burning zone was 1700-1750°C. the performance of the furnace loaded into the furnace dolomite was 300-340 tons/day.

Cox was replaced by anthracite class 25-40 mm and anthracite class 25-40 mm, trained according to the claimed method.

At 100% replacement of coke anthracite class 25-40 mm capacity furnace loading dolomite decreased to 180-250 kg/T. Also decreased the quality of the sintered dolomite - increased the number of "nedorogo" occurred sintering pieces of dolomite. Dramatically increased the temperature of the flue gases, which led to the deterioration of the environment and working conditions and is associated with the chemical nedorogo fuel (incomplete combustion is the fuel).

When replacing 50% of coke anthracite recovered values typical at 100% use of coke as fuel.

At 100% replacement of coke anthracite trained according to the claimed method, the fuel consumption dropped to 190 kg/t dolomite, the productivity of the furnace was maintained at 310-340 tons/day loading dolomite. Quality sintered dolomite remained at the level typical for 100% coke. Virtually disappeared sintering pieces of dolomite with each other.

Thus, anthracite, prepared according to the claimed method, can completely replace the coke used as fuel during burning dolomite preserving performance shaft furnace, characteristic during operation of the furnace for metallurgical coke.

Example 3

Carried out firing dolomite Cox, lean coal, lean coal, trained according to the claimed method.

In the shaft furnace type OSM-2725 burning dolomite with an internal diameter of 3.5 m and a height of 14.2 m was carried out by calcination of dolomite to contain the sum of the oxides Cao+MgO up to 95% and more in the annealed product.

The original dolomite was characterized by an MgO content of not less than 19,0% and an average Cao content of 33.0%.

As fuel was used Cox faction 25-40 mm

The specific consumption of coke 200 kg/t dolomite. The volume of air up to 1000 m 3/hour. The temperature in the burning zone was 1700-1750°C. the performance of the furnace loaded into the furnace dolomite was 300-340 tons/day.

Cox replaced skinny coal class 25-40 mm and skinny coal class 25-40 mm, trained according to the claimed method.

At full replacement skinny coke coal appeared disorders in firing technology dolomite. Raised the temperature of the flue gases, decreased performance on loaded dolomite by more than 34%. Had sintering pieces of dolomite with each other. It was found that in the process of heating coal on the way to the combustion zone there is a partial destruction of pieces of coal and the resulting appearance of the minutiae of coal and violation of hydraulic mode when the supply air blast, the breakthrough of oxygen, incomplete combustion (CO content in the flue gases increased from 5-6 to 15-20%), i.e., the observed chemical nedoh coal.

After replacing skinny coal fraction 25-40 mm such fraction skinny coal trained according to the claimed method, the fuel for the burning of dolomite decreased, the productivity of the furnace was restored as coke; the temperature of the flue gases is also reduced to temperatures as using coke.

Table 4 shows the characteristics used in the calcination of dolomite coke, lean coal, lean coal, the last preparation is according to the claimed method, the performance of the furnace.

As can be seen from table 4, the results of the calcination of dolomite on the anthracite and lean coal, trained according to the claimed method are similar.

I.e., the firing of dolomite can completely replace coke anthracite and lean coal, trained according to the claimed method.

Example 4

Melting of cast iron in cupola.

Melting was performed in a 20-ton cupola capacity 20 t/h with fuel consumption and metallurgical coke 12% from fusion.

When replacing metallurgical coke anthracite class 50-120 mm to keep the melting was only partial (15%) replacement of coke. When replacing more steel disorder stroke melting and performance of the cupola.

Replacement 100% coke working Kolos anthracite class 50-120 mm, trained according to the claimed method, the variance in the melting was not observed. This has increased the temperature of the iron at 30-40°C, increased the quality of casting, decreased output of rejects. The performance of the cupola increased by 5%.

Thus the invention provides the possibility of 100% replacement of metallurgical coke non-caking coal, trained according to the claimed method, the iron foundry cupola.

All the reamers, the technological use of non-caking coal, prepared according to the claimed method was not observed the destruction of pieces of fuel in the furnace.

The use of non-caking coal lean coal and anthracite coal), prepared according to the claimed method, when used as a fuel in processes with grate combustion. Due to the high density non-caking coals, prepared according to the claimed method cannot be used in blast furnaces.

1. The method of preparation of non-caking coal with a content of volatile substances is not more than 16%, which carry out heating non-caking coal to a temperature 200-395°C for destruction heteroclinic components of coal, the subsequent cooling and classification.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as a non-caking coal use anthracite and/or lean coal.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the cooling of the heated coal is carried out at ambient temperature.

4. The method according to p. 1, wherein after cooling, non-caking coal is subjected to mechanical stress.

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the classification of coal is carried out after the mechanical impact or simultaneously with it.



 

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SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes grinding the coal, heat treatment, mixing with binder and molding. Coal is mixed with binder at pyrolysis of coal fines and "chocolate"-shaped plates are molded in between polymer films.

EFFECT: reduced wear of briquettes in transit; reduced consumption of binder.

FIELD: metallurgy, oil refining industry and coke-chemical industry; calcining of carbon-bearing materials.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to production of calcined carbon-bearing materials, in particular, to production of graphitized electrodes and anodic mass and may be used in metallurgical, oil refining, coke-chemical industries. A method of calcinations of the carbon-bearing materials provides for a preliminary heating of materials. Simultaneously with the process of calcination they conduct preheating of the material in a heater in the mode of a counter-flow of heat produced during reburning of a waste gas generated during calcination of the carbon-bearing material. The preliminary heating of the material preferably should be realized at the temperatures not exceeding 350-400°С. The invention allows to increase the furnace performance by 20% and to reduce a specific consumption of fuel by 50%.

EFFECT: the invention ensures significant increase of the furnace productivity and high reduction a specific consumption of the fuel.

2 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg

The invention relates to a technology for coke raw material for the electrode industry, in particular for the manufacture of electrodes furnaces, as well as anodes used to produce aluminium by electrolysis of cryolite-alumina melts, and may find application in the manufacture of a wide range of products on the basis of structural graphites of different brands

The invention relates to a method of manufacturing coal agglomerates, in which fine coal aglomerados at high temperature

The invention relates to the production of electrode products, namely, the calcining of carbonaceous materials for the production of graphite electrodes for electric arc furnaces
The invention relates to a solid fuel of iron-rich pellets and can be used in thermal power plants and thermal power plants for the economic development of environmentally sound energy

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microwave-gradient activation of coal fuel with the help of protective coat. This is performed by bringing microwave effects to coal fuel to activate coal particle. Note here that coal lump surface is coated with protective film to arrest the escape of volatiles during the microwave activation. Note here that pressure inside coal lump is over 10 atm and does not factures nor crack in the film. Protective film availability allows arresting the escape of volatiles and to sustain temperature approximating to 700°C without film fracture and crack formation.

EFFECT: higher completeness of combustion, lower rate of boiler inner surface slagging.

3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of activating coal particles in a vertical axially symmetrical annular chamber by batchwise loading of the area under the hearth with size-fractioned particles, heating, removing moisture and volatile substances, as well as cooling with organised ascending-descending annular circulatory movement of particles with heated and cooled flue gases and steam, fed from the side of the roof cover by axial vertically descending streams, removal during activation and release into the furnace of a heat-producing apparatus of gaseous activation products, batchwise unloading of activated cooled particles from the area under the hearth, characterised by that circulation of particles in the ascending-descending annular stream is carried out by axial vertically descending streams of heated flue gases at the first, then a mixture of heated flue gases and steam and at the end cooled flue gases, fed into the annular chamber. The volume of the loaded portions of coal particles Vy=(0.1-0.7)VK the volume of the annular chamber, m3; the speed of the medium in the ascending branch of the circulation annular stream wn=(0.1-0.6)w0 the speed of the axial vertically descending stream of flue gases and steam, m/s; and content of oxygen in the fed axial vertically descending streams maintained at O2=(0.04-0.16).

EFFECT: maximum removal of volatile substances from coal particles with minimum burning of coke residue, providing maximum sorption activity of the obtained product.

1 cl, 6 dwg

Active pellets // 2477305

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to recycling wood-plant wastes and peat and can be used in producing ecologically clean biofuels in form of active briquettes and granules (pellets) for industrial and domestic needs. The solid biofuel based on wood-plant components and/or peat additionally contains a combustion catalyst, with the following ratio of components, wt %: combustion catalyst 0.001-10; crushed wood-plant component and/or peat 100. The wood-plant components used are wood shavings, wood chips, bark, straw, chaff, seed husks, mill cake, stalks and leaves, waste paper, and the combustion catalyst is in form of inorganic derivatives of group I-II and VI-VIII metals.

EFFECT: obtaining ecologically clean biofuel.

3 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus for cleaning solid fuel, for example coal, has: an input apparatus for obtaining data on the initial sample of solid fuel associated with one or more characteristics thereof; an apparatus for comparing said data with the required characteristic of the solid fuel and determining the difference; at least one sensor for monitoring pollutants released when processing solid fuel; an apparatus for controlling processing in accordance with a feedback signal received from at least one sensor; a multilayer conveyor belt for moving the solid fuel which is configured to transmit the main part of microwave energy. The first layer of the belt is wear-resistant and the second layer has high heat-resistance. Characteristics of the solid fuel are: moisture, ash and sulphur content or the type of the solid fuel. Pollutants are water, hydrogen, hydrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide gas, liquid sulphur, ash.

EFFECT: controlling solid fuel processing.

21 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in microwave gradient activation of coal in high-gradient microwave field in velocity control mode of microwave field rise. Boundaries of coal lump are arranged in zones of zero or close-to-zero intensities of microwave field. Activation is performed till deep cracks appear in coal lump, which do not lead to its complete destruction. End of activation process stage is appearance of persistent flame of activation volatile hydrocarbons.

EFFECT: quick and effective heating of coals; improving energy use efficiency for coal heating; processing of compound hydrocarbons to easier and more volatile hydrocarbons deep in coal lump prior to the combustion beginning; possibility of controlling the modes of power pumping to various forms of activated volumes of coal, which allows implementing various modes of action on coal.

2 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl, 8 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: ordinary solid fuel for concentration is obtained; one or several characteristics of ordinary solid fuel selected from following: moisture content (BTU/pound), ash content (%,) total sulphur content (%), content of different sulphur forms (%), content of volatile materials (%), content of bound carbon (%), Hardgrove grindabillity index, mass content of trace minerals and reaction of fuel and its components to electromagnetic radiation are measured; the characteristics of the fuel expectable from solid fuel after its concentration are determined. Relying on desired moisture content in solid fuel at least one working parametre of the system and one configuration parametre leading to obtaining of solid concentrated fuel with desired moisture content are selected; the solid fuel is concentrated by the way of its electromagnetic radiation in accordance with at least one aforementioned parametre; the selected parametre is modified in response to data of moisture content in solid fuel during concentration.

EFFECT: obtaining of new family of solid-fuel custom coals being absent in nature.

17 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns method of coal demineralisation. Method includes stages of coal particles suspension receiving in alkaline solution, suspension holding at the temperature from 150 till 250°C at pressure which is enough for boiling avoidance, suspension separation for alkalified coal and spent alkaline leaching agent, receiving of acidified suspension of alkalified coal, acidified suspension is of pH 0.5-1.5, separation of acidified suspension for fraction, containing coal, and essentially liquid fraction, implementation for fraction containing coal washing stage, during which fraction containing coal is mixed with water and polar organic vehicle or with water and organic acid, with mixture formation. Received mixture is heated till temperature from 150 till 280°C at pressure enough for boiling avoidance. Then it is implemented coal extraction from mixture.

EFFECT: demineralised coal allows reduced content of ashes - till 0.01-0.2% wt, and can be used as fuel for gas turbine.

50 cl, 5 dwg

Cooker // 2280213

FIELD: domestic cookers to be used in tourism, hunting, in homes and working under field conditions.

SUBSTANCE: proposed cooker has body made from combustible material which may be used both as fuel and device for its burning. This body is provided with at least two intersecting vertical slotted passages having common line of intersection inside body which is close to center of its upper base. Length, width and height of vertical slotted passages is dictated by possibility of continuous burning of inner surfaces of body forming vertical slotted passages; burning-out of device accompanied by forming of supports for cooking reservoir.

EFFECT: simplified construction; reduced consumption of labor; avoidance of preparation of fuel.

5 cl, 2 dwg

The invention relates to the production technology pulverized coal fuel for flaring

The invention relates to the technology of solid fuel for combustion in a combustion device, in metallurgical processes, in the production of alumina, limestone, lime, cement, brick, using oil, water, masulipatnam slurries, or powdered coal

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of producing structured organomineral binder includes at least one-time cavitational dispersion of a mixture of peat and water in ratio of 1:4-1:4.5, respectively. Dispersion is carried out until the mixture reaches temperature of 80-90°C, followed by cooling the mixture to room temperature to obtain the end product.

EFFECT: preserving binding properties of the product for a long period of time during storage.

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