Method of primary soil treatment and combined tillage tool

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises cutting, crumbling of the treated soil layer, the layer turnover, the destruction of "plough pan" and formation of slits with the inter-slit distance of 70-90 cm. When crumbling the upper part of the treated layer its turnover is carried out in both directions with respect to the rack of the working body and movement to the field surface with the formation of cavities in the passage ways of the working bodies to form a ridge on the untreated part of the field surface. Then with the working bodies of the second row the process of formation of cavities is repeated. Then with the working bodies of the following rows cutting, crumbling of the untreated surface of the field to greater depth is carried out, moving it into the formed cavities and forming slits. Then the surface of the field is levelled. The tool comprises a frame consisting of longitudinal and transverse beams. The frame is provided with replaceable working bodies located to form parallel rows, enabling treatment of soil over the entire working width of the tool. The working bodies are made in the form of removable A-blades mounted on the rack, consisting of right and left ploughshares in the direction of motion. The ploughshares are made of triangular or quadrangular form, located with displacement of the cutting edges and have mouldboards. The working bodies are fixed to the longitudinal beams of the frame using the racks. The left and right ploughshares are mounted with displacement of 0.5-1.5 width of the ploughshare relative to each other horizontally and are located at an angle of 20-35° to the horizontal and 30-55° to the vertical planes. The cutting edges of the ploughshares are formed with displacement of 0-30 mm relative to each other vertically. On the rack of the working body over the ploughshares the right and left mouldboards are mounted at an angle of 25-50° relative to the side part of the rack in the horizontal plane and at an angle of 25-40° relative to the front part of the rack in the vertical plane. The lower edges of the mouldboards are made with the cutting at an angle of 20-40° relative to the horizontal plane. In the front part of the rack at the junction place of the left and right mouldboards the fairing is mounted made of a rod with the cross-section of a circle or part of a circle, corresponding to the length of conjugation of the mouldboards from the upper part of one of the ploughshares to the upper part of conjugation of the mouldboards. Two last rows of the working bodies consist of a rack, a fairing and a chisel, fixed through the side slot on the front part of the rack of the working body, which is attached to the equalizer by means of brackets. The working bodies of each of the next row are located with displacement with respect to the working bodies of the previous row.

EFFECT: technology and constructive implementation enable to improve the quality of soil treatment and to reduce the tractive resistance.

2 cl, 7 dwg

 

The invention relates to agricultural production, in particular to methods of primary tillage and tillage implements.

There is a method of primary tillage (water-saving way primary tillage. Nesterov E. C., Boykov C. M., Bulletin of the Saratov gosagrouniversiteta them. N. And. Vavilov, No. 12, 2010, pp. 49-50, UDK.356.46), including cutting, crushing the treated soil layer, the simultaneous formation of a mulch layer to a depth of 4-6 cm, later in cultivated soil layer is the destruction of the "plough pans", the crushing of the underlying layer and the formation of cracks at a depth of 30-35 cm from mislevy distance 70-90 see

The disadvantages of this method are insufficient mixing of the mulch layer and crushing the upper reservoir, poor alignment of the surface field due to the fact that stubble, ploughed in crushed layer is not completely lies on the surface of the field, and is in an inclined position relative to the field.

Known combination tillage tool (RF patent for useful model №75822, IPC A01B 35/00, publ. 27.08.2008,), comprising a frame consisting of longitudinal and transverse bars, equipped with interchangeable working elements arranged with the formation of parallel rows, providing the possibility of soil across the width of C is grip tillage tools, the rows are arranged at an angle to the direction of movement, according to the proposed solution the frame further comprises at least two transverse beams arranged in parallel and interconnected by longitudinal bars, working bodies are made in the form attached to the front removable Lancet legs dumps, while working bodies mounted on the transverse bars of the frame. This tillage tool provided with an additional transverse beam connected with the latest timber frame in the direction of travel, and a fixed seeretary or one or more rollers.

Hoe consists of a flat vertical knife, right and left plowshares movement, is made flat with the front cutting edges, with vertical flat knife is the bottom edge at an angle to the horizontal plane of 5-20°, left and right plow blade is made of triangular or quadrangular form, is connected with the vertical flat of the knife offset relative to each other horizontally and are located at an angle to the horizontal and vertical planes, with the line of connection with the vertical flat of the knife, the left and right shares is at an angle 5-40° to the horizontal plane, and the cutting edges of the shares are in the same plane as the deviation from this location the situation by up to 5°. Xelerate mounted on an additional transverse beam offset relative to the longitudinal axis of the working bodies, located on the last cross beam of the frame to the right along the value 1/4-2/3 of the width of the working body for alignment grooves formed after the passage of the working bodies. The rink is made with a length equal to the width of the tillage tools. The number of rollers is determined by the number of parallel rows of openers, angled to the direction of movement, while the rollers are mounted parallel transverse bars or at an angle thereto to 30° with overlapping rollers.

The disadvantages of this device are a significant metal content, great traction resistance and power consumption. These shortcomings caused by the number of working bodies on the width of the guns, while xelerate at the last beam guns, produce non-technological transfer and the processing layer of soil, crushed the previous working bodies. The location of the working bodies on the frame of the gun causes a lack of distance between the posts of the working bodies, which contributes to the clogging their stubble and crop residues.

The technical task of the invention is to improve the quality of the soil, reducing clogging pochvoobrabatyvajushche the guns of soil and plant residues, the reduction of traction resistance and intensity.

The technical result is high-quality soil without clogging of the working bodies of tillage tools through the use of the working bodies of certain construction and their location on the frame according to a certain scheme provides low tractive resistance and reduction of energy consumption of the process.

The task in the process of primary treatment of the soil is achieved by the fact that in the known method, including cutting, crushing the treated soil layer, the layer rotation, the destruction of the "plough pans, and the formation of cracks in mislevy distance b=70-90 cm, according to the invention, when crushing the upper part of the processed layer produce its turnover in both directions relative to the hours of the working body, moving it into the field surface with pitting in places of passage of the working bodies, then the working bodies of the second row repeat the process with the formation of the recesses forming on untreated part of the surface of the field crest, next, the working bodies of the following rows of produce cutting, crushing the raw part of the field surface to great depths, moving it into the formed cavities and the formation of cracks, and then produce the alignment is arnosti field.

The task in part combined tillage tools is solved in that the tool includes a frame consisting of longitudinal and transverse bars, equipped with interchangeable working elements arranged with the formation of parallel rows, providing the possibility of soil over the entire width of the tillage tools, and working bodies are made in the form attached to the front removable Lancet feet, consisting of right and left plowshares movement, made of triangular or quadrangular form located at offset cutting edges, dumps, according to the present invention operating parts mounted on the longitudinal bars of the frame with pillars, moreover, the left and right plow blade offset set c=0.5-1.5 the width of the plow blade relative to each other horizontally and positioned at an angle α1=20-35° to the horizontal and γ1=35-55° to the vertical plane of the rack, and the cutting edges of the shares is made with offset relative to each other, at the front of the working body over the shares set right and left piles at an angle γ2=25-50° to the side of the rack in a horizontal plane and at an angle relative to the front of the rack in a vertical plane, the lower edges of which are made with the trim angle β=20-40° relative to Gori is ostalnoe plane, in front of the racks in place of the pair of left and right dumps set is made from a rod, in cross section having a circle or part circle fairing, corresponding to the length of the pair of dumps from the top of one of the shares to the upper part of the pairing heaps, and two of the following number of working bodies composed of rack, fairing and drill bit attached through the side groove on the front side of the stand of the working body, to which by means of brackets attached equalizer, and working bodies of each subsequent row are offset relative to the working bodies of the previous one.

The claimed group of inventions meet the requirements of unity of invention, since the group runobject inventions form a single inventive concept, one of the declared objects of the group - combined tillage equipment designed for carrying out another of the declared object group - way primary tillage, both group object of the invention is aimed at solving the same problem for a single technical result.

In Fig.1 shows how the primary tillage. Letters and numbers on the drawing:

I) cutting and crushing the upper part of the treated soil layer, its turnover in both directions relative to the rack of the working body, moving on rough surface with pitting in places of passage of the working bodies of the first row;

II) cutting and crushing the upper part of the soil layer, its turnover in both directions relative to the hours of the working body, move on the raw surface with pitting in places of passage of the working bodies of the second row;

III) cutting, crushing the raw part of the surface of the field in great depth and movement of soil layer formed in the recess;

IV) the alignment of the surface of the field;

and1- the depth of the soil working elements of the first and second series;

a2- the depth of the soil working elements of the third and fourth row;

b - misletoe distance.

The way primary tillage is carried out as follows: the upper part of the arable soil layer is incised, crumbles to the depth and crushed soil layer turns in both directions relative to the hours of the working body, moves to the raw surface with pitting in places of passage of the working bodies, then the working bodies of the second row repeat the process with the formation of the recesses forming on untreated part of the surface of the field crest, then the working bodies of the following series produced under Ezana, crushing the raw part of the field surface to great depths, moving it into the formed cavities and the formation of cracks, and then produce the alignment of the surface of the field.

The following dimensional drawings represent the device in the claimed group of inventions.

In Fig.2 depicts a top view of the inventive device.

In Fig.3 is a side view of the inventive device.

In Fig.4 is a top view on the working body of the first two rows of the claimed device, the displacement of the shares in the horizontal plane; γ1- the angle between the blade of the plow blade and the vertical plane of the rack; γ2- angle setting of the blade to the side of the rack in a horizontal plane.

In Fig.5 is a side view on the working body of the first two rows of the claimed device, t is the offset of the right plow blade relative to the left in a vertical plane; β is the angle between the bottom edge of the blade and the horizontal plane.

In Fig.6 is a front view on the working body of the first two rows of the claimed device.

In Fig.7 is a side view on the working body of the third and fourth rows of the claimed device.

Tillage tool includes a frame 1 consisting of longitudinal 2 and 3 cross bars, equipped with interchangeable working elements 4 and 5, arranged with the formation of parallel rows, providing the opportunity tillage throughout W is Rin capture tillage tools, and working bodies of each subsequent row are offset relative to the working bodies of the previous one. Working bodies 4 are fixed on the longitudinal beams 2 of the frame 1 through the uprights 6 and made in the form of a removable Lancet legs dumps 9 and 10.

Removable Lancet legs consist of right 7 left 8 plowshares movement, made of triangular or quadrangular form located at offset cutting edges, and the left 8 and right plow blade 7 is installed with an offset of 0.5-1.5 the width of the plow blade relative to each other horizontally and are located at an angle of 20-35° to the horizontal and 35-55° to the vertical plane, and the cutting edges of the shares is made with offset relative to each other. On the rack 6 of the working body 4 over the shares set right 9 left 10 dumps at an angle of 25 to 50° relative to the side of the rack 6 in a horizontal plane and at an angle of 25-40° relative to the front of the rack in a vertical plane, the lower edges of which are made with the trim angle of 20-40° relative to the horizontal plane, in front of the racks in place of the pair of the left 10 and right 9 dumps installed the fairing 11, made from a rod, in cross section having a circle or part circle, corresponding to the length of the coupling dumps 9, 10 from the upper part of one of the shares to the upper part of the pairing heap the century Working bodies 5 are composed of rack 12, a nacelle 13 and bit 14 is attached through the side groove on the front side of the stand of the working body. To the rack 12 by means of brackets 15 fixed equalizer 16.

The frame 1 has mounted and has two supporting wheels 17, is arranged to move in a vertical plane to adjust the depth of plowing through the mechanism of adjusting the depth of the handle 18. Front transverse beam of the frame is mounted hinged device 19. For transportation of tillage implements in the body of the vehicle in the far distance the wheels 17 are designed to detach from the frame 1.

Declare tillage tool works as follows.

For soil tillage tool attached to the tractor by means of the hinged device 19. On site field work height adjustment of the support wheels 17 set the depth α1tillage. When the depth of the working bodies 4 tillage implements in the ground left 8 and right 7 plowshares working bodies in the direction of travel, at the same time interacting with the soil, produce cutting and crushing of soil. The offset of the shares in the horizontal and vertical plane provides multidirectional pressure on the treated layer of soil, ensuring that the et increased degree of crumbling soil and the reduction of traction resistance of the working body. Then crumbled the soil layer in the direction of travel is shifted to the right 9 left 10 dumps working body 4, which produce its movement and partial turnover. This vertically located stubble and crop residues incorporated into the crumbled soil, leaving behind cavities. The offset seam from the right 7 left 8 plowshares dumps 9 and 10 of the working bodies is improved due to the installation of shares and fairing 11 in place of the pair of piles at an angle to the direction of movement of the working body that also provides softening of the treated soil layer. Due to the shift left 8 plow blade relative to the right 7 in the horizontal plane is additionally achieved smooth flow crumbled soil dumps working body 4.

Then located behind the shift working bodies 4 of the second row produces crushing and impact on the treated layer of soil similar working bodies 4 of the first row. Between the posts 6 working bodies 4 of the first and second series of ridges are formed from the mixed layer of soil and plant residues on raw seam. The displacement of the working bodies 4 of the second row relative to the first and the installation of the fairing 11 in place of the pair of piles 9 and 10 of the working body provides a free gathering of plant residues with working bodies of the movement of treated soil layer, coming down from the dumps, between the posts of the working bodies. Thus, the task of reducing clogging of soil tilling implements.

The working bodies of the following 5 ranks (third and fourth) ensure the deepening of the treated layer of soil to a depth of A2. However due to the location of the working bodies 5 on the frame 1 is crushing the raw soil layer and move the crests of the grooves formed by the working bodies 4 of the first and second series. Deepening and crushing the raw soil layer is achieved by bits 14 located on the uprights 12 of the working bodies 5 of the third and fourth row. The bit 14 of the working body 5 compresses and chops layer of soil. Further, the fairing 13 located at the front 12 of the working body 5, chops and pushes the soil to both sides, forming cracks, simultaneously acting on the previously formed groove with mixed soil displaces it formed in depressions left from the aisles of the working bodies 4 of the first and second row, additional mixing layer. The shape of the fairing 13 contributes to reduce the overhang of plant residues on the uprights 12 of the working body 5. This achieves the goal of improving the quality of the mulch layer of the soil. In the process of deepening the treated soil layer is the destruction of the upl is tennage soil layer ("plough pans") to a depth of 25-40 see

The layout of the working bodies on the frame tillage tools provides a solid, loosening and mixing of the upper soil layer and the formation of the recesses or slots in mislevy distance, and the absence of clogging of the working bodies under different moisture treated soil layer, the improvement of the process of penetration and reduced traction resistance tillage tools.

1. The way primary tillage, including cutting, crushing the treated soil layer, the layer rotation, the destruction of the "plough pans, and the formation of cracks in mislevy distance of 70-90 cm, characterized in that when crushing the upper part of the processed layer is its turnover in both directions relative to the hours of the working body, moving it into the field surface with pitting in places of passage of the working bodies, then the working bodies of the second row repeat the process with the formation of the recesses forming on untreated part of the surface of the field crest, next, the working bodies of the following rows of produce cutting and crushing the raw part of the field in great depth, moving it into the formed cavities and the formation of clefts and then to equalize the surface of the field.

2. Combination tillage tool, comprising a frame, asteasu of longitudinal and transverse bars, equipped with interchangeable working elements arranged with the formation of parallel rows, providing the possibility of soil over the entire width of the tillage tools, and working bodies are made in the form attached to the front removable Lancet feet, consisting of right and left plowshares movement, made of triangular or quadrangular form, located at offset cutting edges, blades, characterized in that the operating parts mounted on the longitudinal bars of the frame with pillars, moreover, the left and right plow blade is installed with an offset of 0.5-1.5 the width of the plow blade relative to each other horizontally and are located at an angle of 20-35° to the horizontal and 35-55° to the vertical plane, and the cutting edges of the shares is made with an offset from each other vertically on the rack desktop authority over the shares set right and left piles at an angle of 25 to 50° relative to the side of the rack in a horizontal plane and at an angle of 25-40° relative to the front of the rack in a vertical plane, the lower edges of which are made with the trim angle of 20-40° relative to a horizontal plane, in front of the racks in place of the pair of left and right dumps set is made from a rod, in cross section having a circle or part circle fairing corresponding to d is ine mates dumps from the top of one of the shares to the upper part of the pairing heaps, and the last two number of working bodies composed of rack, fairing and drill bit attached through the side groove on the front side of the stand of the working body, to which by means of brackets attached equalizer, and working bodies of each of the next row are offset relative to the working bodies of the previous one.



 

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Rotary tiller // 2524088

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: tiller comprises a frame with milling drum fixed on it. The milling drum consists of sections with cutting knives. Behind the milling drum the sieving grid is mounted. The tiller is equipped with an additional milling drum with sections of ripping chisel blades. The additional milling drum is mounted in front of the main milling drum. The tiller is equipped with a smooth roller-compactor mounted behind the main milling drum. The main milling drum sections are formed with L-shaped long and short blades. The blades of additional milling drum sections are placed evenly in chequered order under acute differently directed angle to the horizontal plane in the vertical-transverse plane to the surface of the field.

EFFECT: improved performance capabilities.

3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: combined plough comprises a frame with ploughshare bodies, a disc blade, joggers, subsoilers with rotary body in the form of a ribbed cone. Each rotary body is a multi-start screw and mounted behind the bodies.

EFFECT: reduction of energy intensity of tillage and improving the quality of its crumbling.

4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural machinery industry, in particular, to machines for preparation of soil plough layer for combine harvesting potatoes. The machine comprises a frame, bearing-gauge rollers, digging down working element, rod elevators, a transverse conveyor and clod-crushing device. The clod-breaking device consists of knifes in the form of blades located on a shaft. The shaft rotates in the bearing and is fixed with a spring.

EFFECT: invention provides increased efficiency in crushing clods of soil.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the agricultural machinery industry, in particular, to devices for subsoil milling. The device comprises two rotary milling chisel ploughs (2). The rotary milling chisel plough (2) is provided with a disc (4) of the milling chisel plough and an annular milling chisel plough (5). Over the milling chisel plough (2) the drive gear (15) of the drive is mounted. The gear (15) is located above the soil surface and is provided with teeth (14) of engagement. The teeth (14) alternately on the left and right interact with containers (12) for receiving ground of the annular milling chisel plough (5). On the container (12) surface rear in the direction of rotation of the annular milling chisel plough (5) the stop (13) is made. The surface of the tooth (14), which is rear in the direction of rotation of the drive gear (15) rests on the stop (13).

EFFECT: constructive implementation enables to reduce the draught resistance and energy consumption, to improve the reliability of the device.

2 dwg

Plough-ripper // 2502250

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural machinery industry. The plough-ripper comprises moldboard housings mounted on the frame, each of which consists of a rack, a plowshares, a mouldboard, a boardless ripper with a chisel, adjustable in height along the rack. The ripper is attached to the rack on its side so it chisel is placed in a transverse-horizontal plane from the edge of the plowshare tip at a distance no more than (0.3…0.5)B, where B is the working width of the housing, and in the longitudinal-horizontal plane at the lowest setting parameters is not more than H2(0,1...0,2)B2, where H is the difference between the depths of ripping and soil overturning.

EFFECT: constructive solution enables to improve operational and technological characteristics of the machine-tractor aggregate, and to rip effectively the subsoil horizons.

3 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves shallow plowing, deep basic tillage and surface tillage (cultivation) of soil by cutting furrows; after harvesting of cereals, performing simultaneously shallow plowing, surface tillage of soil to depth of up to 16 cm, crushing of soil lumps, compacting, leveling and mulching of soil top layer; in September, providing deep tillage of soil on fields arranged on slopes with gradient exceeding 5 deg while forming vertical slits to depth of 40 cm and inclined slits; simultaneously with slitting procedure, forming water-accumulating vessels, holes and intermittent furrows. Apparatus has hitch, carrier wheels, bearing system and replaceable working tools in the form of disk batteries, flat narrow hoes, rippers with chisel, ring-and-serrated roller, and leveling drum. Blades of leveling drum are arranged at an angle α=30 deg relative to drum axis.

EFFECT: reduced soil erosion and provision for retention of moisture in soil root layer.

3 cl, 9 dwg

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