Alloy accumulating hydrogen
SUBSTANCE: alloy contains the following, wt %: titanium 46.3-48.8; aluminium 0.14-2.87, calcium 0.06-1.24; magnesium 0.08-1.61; and iron is the rest.
EFFECT: reducing activation time and increasing alloy sorption capacity.
The invention relates to the field of metallurgy, in particular to compositions of alloys based on titanium, used for hydrogen storage in order to apply it in various clean energy devices and chemical technologies.
The TiFe intermetallic is one of the most famous Bogorodskaya alloys based on titanium. However, this connection is characterized by a significant pressure difference of hydrogen (hysteresis) in the processes of absorption and release of hydrogen and the difficulty in activation.
Known alloy based on titanium, the composition of which is described by the formula TiFe1-XAlXwhere X=0,04 ÷ 0,2 [1, page 94]. It also indicates that the substitution of iron by aluminum in connection TiFe lowers the plateau pressure, reduces the sorption capacity and facilitates activation. This alloy is adopted for the prototype, and its chemical composition comprises, by weight. %: titanium 46,7-48,9; aluminum 1,1-5,5; iron - rest. Activation of the alloy was carried out for 5 days. For full (completed) activation you should spend approximately 25 cycles "absorption-desorption of hydrogen . Were subsequently made some clarifications in the field of stability of the hydride phases, namely: "the Plateau pressure of the hydride phase compounds TiFe0,98Al0,02and TiFe0,96Al0,04everywhere higher than that of TiFe, whereas the TiFe0,94Al0,06The TiFe 0,90Al0,10they are below" . The sorption capacity during desorption of hydrogen at 50°C was as follows: TiFe0,96Al0,04- 1,072 wt. % H2(121 DM3H2/kg alloy); for TiFefor 0.9Ala 0.1- 0,991 wt. % H2(112 DM3H2/kg alloy); for TiFe0,8Alof 0.2- 0,666 wt. % H2(75 DM3H2/kg alloy) [1, page 186].
Alloy-the prototype has a very high activation and low sorption capacity, especially at high aluminium content.
The technical result which sent the invention is to increase the activity of the alloy to reduce the time of activation and the increase in sorption capacity of the alloy based on titanium.
This object is achieved in that the alloy containing titanium, iron and aluminum, additionally contains calcium and magnesium in the following ratio, wt. %: titanium 46,3-48,8; aluminum 0,14-2,87; calcium 0,06-1,24; magnesium 0,08-1,61; iron - rest.
Pre-made ligature, which came fully aluminum, calcium and magnesium. We offer alloy can be expressed by the formula TiFe1-XAndXwhere a ligature having the following composition, wt. %: calcium 21-23, magnesium 28-30, aluminum - else; X=0,01÷0,2.
To obtain the alloy were prepared by three components containing titanium, iron, and aluminum, ka is icy and magnesium, included in the ligature. These compounds and their influence on the sorption properties of the alloy are presented in the table.
Each composition of the alloy floated in arc furnace with prashadam tungsten electrode on a water-cooled copper hearth in an argon atmosphere.
The alloy was activated with hydrogen at a pressure of 3 MPa and a temperature of 20°C. the activation Time was the period from the beginning of the processing of the alloy with hydrogen to heat the reactor.
|Components||The composition of the alloy, by weight. %|
|Iron||rest||remained the Noah||rest|
|The time of activation, h||48||43||40|
|Absorptive capacity, DM3H2/kg alloy||212||225||230|
|Desorption capacity, DM3H2/kg alloy||165||160||152|
Determination of the sorption capacity of the alloy when the absorption of hydrogen was carried out at 20°C by means of direct absorption of hydrogen, whereby the amount of absorbed hydrogen is determined by the equation of state of gas, depending on changes in pressure in the system known volume [4, pages 14-19]. The time of approach to equilibrium was 15 hours or more. To determine the hydrogen pressure was applied to the exemplary gauge type MO model 1231. To determine the gas flow during desorption of hydrogen at 50°C was used drum gas meter type GSB-400.
Sources of information
1. Alloys drives hydrogen. Ref. ed.: B. A. Kolachev, R. E. Yakovlev, A. A. Ilyin. - M.: Metallurgy, 1995. - 384 S.
2. G. Bruzzone, G. Costa, M. Ferretti and G. L.'olcese. Hydrogen storage in aluminium-substituted TiFe compounds // Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, Vol.6. P. 181-184. Pergamon Press Ltd. 1981. Printed in Great Britain. © International Association for Hydrogen Energy.
3. S. H. Lim and Jai-Young Lee. The effects of aluminium substitution in TiFe on its hydrogen absorption properties // Journal of the Less-Common Metals, Vol.97. 1984. P. 65-71.
4. C. I. Mikheeva. Hydrides of transition metals. M.: Izd-vo an SSSR. - 1960. - 212 C.
Alloy based on titanium containing aluminum, iron, characterized in that it additionally contains calcium and magnesium in the following ratio, wt. %: titanium 46,3-48,8; aluminum 0,14-2,87; calcium 0,06-1,24; magnesium 0,08-1,61; iron - rest.
SUBSTANCE: method to produce titanium blanks involves placement of titanium sponge particles in a press chamber, compaction of the sponge particles to produce a blank, its pressing, removal of dirt from the pressed blank surface, its covering with grease and following rolling. Prior to placing the titanium sponge particles in the press chamber they are heated in a vacuum heating furnace up to the temperature of 700-800°C, alloyed by hydrogen up to the concentration of 0.1-0.9 wt %, then the temperature in the furnace is reduced to the temperature not lower than 300°C, compaction is carried out under the temperature of 300-700°C, compacted blanks are pressed by semicontinuous method via a matrix under the temperature of not more than 700°C with reduction ratio of maximum two and then under the temperature of not more than 700°C and the reduction ratio of maximum three, the blanks are rolled under the temperature of not more than 700°C, with following annealing in vacuum under the temperature of not less than 700°C.
EFFECT: possibility to process hardly deformable titanium under lower temperatures, improved mechanical properties of produced blanks.
SUBSTANCE: titanium aluminide alloy Ti3Al contains, wt %: Al 13-15, Nb 3-6, V 2-4, Zr 0.5-1.0, Mo 1-3, Sn 0.5-3, Si 0.1-0.3, Ti - the rest. A titanium aluminide alloy Ti3Al blank is subject to thermal hydrogen processing by hydrogen saturation followed by vacuum annealing. The hydrogen saturation of the blank is carried out to the concentration of 0.4-0.6 wt % at two stages, and then the blank is rolled. Vacuum annealing is two-staged at residual pressure no more than 5·10-5 mmHg.
EFFECT: heat-resistant titanium aluminide alloy Ti3Al is characterised by high plasticity and heat-resistance.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: proposed process comprises production of the mix of powders, forming the pellet therefrom and execution of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. Obtained the mix of pure metals containing titanium, aluminium, niobium and molybdenum in the following amount, it wt %: aluminium - 40-44, niobium - 3-5, molybdenum - 0.6-1.4, titanium making the rest. This pellet is compacted to relative density of 50-85% and subjected to thermal vacuum processing at 550-560°C for 10-40 min, heating rate of 5-40°C/ min and pressure of 10-1-10-3 Pa while SPS is performed at initial temperature of 560-650°C.
EFFECT: preset shape of casts, high mechanical properties.
2 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: proposed alloy features density at a room temperature of not over 4.2 g/cm3, solidus temperature of at least 1450°C, the number of phases α2 and γ at 600-800°C making at least 20 wt % and at least 69 wt %, respectively. Total quantity of said phase makes at least 95 wt % while niobium content in γ-phase makes at least 3 wt %. Proposed method consists in that said γ-TiAl alloy containing niobium in amount of 1.3 or 1.5 at. % and transition metals selected from chromium in amount of 1.3 or 1.7 at. % and zirconium in amount of 1.0 at. % is subjected to hot isostatic forming. Said forming is combined with annealing at 800°C and holding for 100 hours.
EFFECT: low density, stable phase composition at operating temperatures.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 4 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: proposed alloy comprises the following elements, in wt %: carbon - 0.03-0.10; iron - 0.15-0.25; silicon - 0.05-0.12; nitrogen - 0.01-0.04; aluminium - 1.8-2.5; zirconium - 2.0-3.0; samarium - 0.5-5.0, titanium and impurities making the rest.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of absorption, better working and bonding properties.
3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: solder contains components at the following ratio in wt %: zirconium - 45-50, beryllium - 2.5-4.5, aluminium - 0.5-1.5, titanium making the rest. Solder represents a flexible band and is produced by super-rapid tempering of the alloy by casting the melt of revolving disc.
EFFECT: higher operating performances, decreased intermetallide interlayers in the weld.
3 cl, 11 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: production of titanium-based allot with content of boron of 0.002-0.008 wt % comprises smelting in vacuum arc skull furnace with consumable electrode without extra vacuum port for addition of modifying additives. Preform of modifier B4C wrapped in aluminium foil is fitted in consumable electrode bore drilled from alloyable end to distance defined by electrode fusing interval.
EFFECT: titanium-based alloy of equiaxed structure and grain size smaller than 15 mcm.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: titanium-based alloy contains the following, wt %: Al 5.0-6.6, Mo 1.5-2.5, Zr 1.0-2.8, V 0.4-1.4, Fe 0.08-0.40, Si 0.08-0.28, Sn 1.5-3.8, Nb 0.4-1.2, O 0.02-0.18, C 0.008-0.080, Ti is the rest.
EFFECT: alloy has high strength characteristics at high temperatures, increased processibility level at hot deformation.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy. It can be used in production of pyrotechnic fuses, as gas absorbers in vacuum tubes, lamps, vacuum hardware and gas cleaners. Oxide of basic element selected from Ni, Zr and Hf is mixed with alloying metal powder selected from Ni, Cu, Ta, W, Re, Os or Ir and with reducing agent powder. Produced mix is heated in kiln in atmosphere of argon to initiation of reduction reaction. Reaction product is leached, flushed and dried. Said oxide of basic element features mean particle size of 0.5-20 mcm, BET specific surface of 0.5-20 m2/g and minimum content of said oxide of 94 wt %.
EFFECT: powder with reproducible combustion time, specific surface and distribution of articles in sizes and time.
23 cl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to metallurgy, and namely to titanium-based alloys, and can be used in equipment components of chemical productions, in welded connections of shipbuilding industry. Titanium-based alloy contains the following, wt %: aluminium 4.3-6.3, molybdenum 1.5-2.5, carbon 0.05-0.14, zirconium 0.2-1.0, oxygen 0.06-0.14, silicon 0.02-0.12, iron 0.05-0.25, niobium 0.3-1.20, ruthenium 0.05-0.14, and titanium is the rest. Total content of silicon and iron shall not exceed 0.30 wt %.
EFFECT: alloy has increased stability to crevice and pitting corrosion in corrosive media with increased salt content and at the temperature of up to 250 °C.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of storing and withdrawal of hydrogen with the application of porous components, interacting with hydrogen with the reversible formation of metal hydrides. A reservoir for the accumulation and withdrawal of hydrogen by a reversible reaction of hydration/dehydration consists in a heat-insulated chamber, which contains a multitude of hydrogen-accumulating elements in the form of hydrides, with each element having a surface for exchange with gaseous hydrogen, from one side, and a surface of heat-exchange from the other side, and a multitude of heat-accumulating elements for the accumulation and return of heat, connected with the reversible hydration/dehydration reaction.
EFFECT: invention provides economical and practical hydrogen accumulation.
29 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical industry. Hydrocarbon process gas after desulphurisation in a mixture with steam is fed into heated heat-resistant pipes, inside of which there is a nickel-containing catalyst in the form of a layer of granules in the shape of a sphere or cylinder with a surface area of 400-700 m2/m3 and porosity of 0.5-0.7 m3/m3. The granules contain parallel cylindrical channels with the ratio of the diameter of the granule to the diameter of the channel of the cylinder or sphere ranging from 4.0 to 6.0. The ratio of the internal diameter of the heated pipe of the reactor to the diameter of the cylinder or sphere of the catalyst ranges from 4.0 to 12.5.
EFFECT: invention reduces differential pressure on the catalyst layer and residual content of methane in the obtained synthesis gas.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to an assembly processing gas hydrocarbon stock to produce synthetic gas. The assembly comprises a unit feeding initial components - an oxidiser and hydrocarbon gas, a cooling unit, a mixer of the reaction mix, a combustion chamber made as a cylindrical channel with a body equipped with a cooling path, additional partition walls with a cooling inner path interconnected to the cooling path in the chamber body. The unit feeding the initial components has a vessel for mixing of air with oxygen and water steam; the mixer of the reaction mix is placed in the unit feeding the initial components and connected to the combustion chamber through a heat exchanger, which is connected to the product output unit and the cooling unit consists of a compressor and an input hydrocarbon gas feeding line to the cooling path.
EFFECT: improved quality of the product with simultaneous reduction of the generator physical dimensions.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in the chemical industry. A method of the combined methanol and ammonia production from an initial raw material is realised by means of the following stages. First, synthesis-gas of the methanol production, which contains hydrogen, carbon oxides and nitrogen, is obtained by steam reforming of an initial hydrocarbon raw material at the first stage of reforming and then at the second stage of reforming with air blast. After that, carried out are: catalytic conversion of the synthesis-gas carbon and hydrogen oxides at a single-pass stage of methanol synthesis and the discharge of the methanol-containing output product, and an effluent gas flow, containing nitrogen, hydrogen and non-converted carbon oxides. The non-converted carbon oxides of the gas flow from the preceding stage are removed by hydrogenation to methane at the stage of the catalytic methanation with the formation of synthesis-gas, which has a molar ratio H2:N2, equal 3:1. Ammonia is synthesised by the catalytic conversion of nitrogen and hydrogen, with the discharge of the ammonia-containing product and effluent gas flow, containing hydrogen, nitrogen and methane.
EFFECT: claimed invention provides the creation of a simple and cheap method of the combined production of methanol and ammonia.
7 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry and in power engineering. Synthesis-gas 50, containing at least CO and H2 and having first temperature at least 900°C, is obtained at stage 12 by reaction of hydrocarbon raw material with oxygen. At the stage of air separation 16 in ionite membrane unit 16.1 flow of permeate 42, consisting mainly of oxygen, and flow of oxygen depleted air 44, which has second temperature, lower than first and equal to at least 600°C, are obtained. Flow 44 is indirectly heated 24 to at least 900°C by synthesis-gas 50 and partially expanded in turbine 28 to produce electric energy with obtaining partially expanded discharge flow of oxygen-depleted air 54. Cooled synthesis-gas 58 is supplied for additional cooling into waste heat boiler 26, and then to the stage of synthesis of hydrocarbons 30. In compressor 22 pressure of permeate flow 42 is increased and it is supplied to stage 12 of synthesis-gas obtaining. Flow of compressed air 38 is heated 20 to temperature not lower than 700°C by transmission of heat from the stage of nuclear reaction.
EFFECT: invention provides utilisation of nuclear reaction heat and obtaining flows with high energy content with absence of harmful emissions.
11 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to the area of petroleum chemistry and may be used for synthesis of methanol, dimethyl ether, hydrocarbons according to Fischer-Tropsch method. Methane-containing raw material is subjected to oxidative conversion at temperature of 650-1100°C in the riser. Miscrospheric or shredded catalyst based on metal oxides capable of multiple reduction-oxidative transfers is used as the oxidizer. Regenerated catalyst is recovered by its oxidation in the regenerator and addition to the riser in the bottom-up flow of methane-containing raw material; the riser operates in a through flow mode and duration of the raw material stay in the reaction area is 0.1-10 s. The regenerated catalyst exiting from the riser is separated from the product of synthetic gas and delivered to the regenerator. Catalyst regeneration is performed in fluidized, forced fluidized or semi-through flow by oxidation with oxygen-containing agent. The produced synthetic gas has H2/CO ratio within the range of 7.5-2.5.
EFFECT: improvement of the product area efficiency, potential usage of hydrocarbon raw material containing carbon dioxide at reduced explosion and fire hazard and at low energy consumption.
5 cl, 3 tbl, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: as an active component of steam methanol reforming applied are copper-containing systems based on copper oxide, applied on aluminium oxide - an active component of dimethoxymethane hydration. The claimed catalyst possesses a high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability with respect to steam dimethoxymethane reforming. The invention also relates to a method of obtaining an enriched in hydrogen gas mixture by the interaction of dimethoxymethane and water vapour with the application of the claimed catalyst.
EFFECT: catalyst is bifunctional and contains centres of dimethoxymethane hydration and steam reforming of methanol-formaldehyde on the surface.
8 cl, 4 tbl, 12 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to coke furnace operation method. According to the method coke gas generated in coking process is supplied as useful gas to processing of raw materials, at that hydrogen is separated from coke gas, and in order to generate thermal energy required for coking process synthetic gas is supplied as combustion gas, which is produced from fossil fuel by gasification process, at that the first share of the obtained synthetic gas is used as combustion gas, at that extra share of the obtained synthetic gas is used for further synthesis with hydrogen separated from coke gas.
EFFECT: invention provides effective usage of the generated coke gas during operation of the coke furnace.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysts, applied for obtaining hydrogen or synthesis-gas for the chemical production in processes of partial oxidation, steam reforming and autothermal reforming of a hydrocarbon raw material. Namely, the invention relates to a catalyst of oxidation reforming of hydrocarbon gases with obtaining carbon and hydrogen oxide, which contains metals of a platinum group and oxide composition, and the said metals of the platinum group include Pt, Pd and Rh, and the oxide composition is obtained from a mixture of hydroxides Al, Si and Zr with particles of oxides Ni, Mg and/or Ce with the size of 5-30 nm, obtained by a method of spray-pyrolysis of a Ni, Mg and/or Ce salts solution.
EFFECT: obtaining the catalytic system with high dispersity of active components, stabilised on the surface of the carrier and having a low speed of coalescence of active particles.
3 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of carrying out a carbon monoxide shift reaction with carrying out the reaction in a liquid phase and the discharge of the obtained gas, carbon dioxide and/or hydrogen, is characterised by the fact that as the first solvent used is dry methanol for the absorption of carbon monoxide with the simultaneous formation of methylformiate and as the second solvent used is water in the region of the obtained gas release to avoid loss of hydrogen with the carbon dioxide flow.
EFFECT: invention provides high conversion in carbon monoxide binding.
13 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.
EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex