Efficient collimation of light with optical wedge

FIELD: physics, optics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to collimators which can be used to illuminate liquid crystal screens. The collimator is in the form of a wedge-like optical waveguide having a first end and a second end opposite to the first end. The first end is thinner than the second end. The collimator also has a visible surface passing at least in part between the first end and the second end, and a back surface opposite the visible surface. The visible surface has a first critical angle, and the back surface is configured to be reflective below the first critical angle. Furthermore, an end reflector, having a polyhedral (faceted) lens, is placed at the second end of the optical waveguide.

EFFECT: reduced overall dimensions of the collimator.

15 cl, 10 dwg

 

PRIOR art

Optical collimator is a device that collects the rays from a point light source such as light bulb or light emitting diode, and makes these rays extend in parallel from the surface. Examples of collimators include lenses or spherical mirrors, occurring in a pulsed lamp or car headlight. In these examples, there is a space between the point source and the surface, from which comes the collimated light. In some environments, the use of this space may be inconvenient, because it can increase the overall size of the optical device, which uses a collimator.

A BRIEF DESCRIPTION of the INVENTION

Accordingly, the document discloses various embodiments of which relate to optical collimators. For example, in one open the embodiment shows an optical collimator containing an optical waveguide having a first end that includes a first light interface, a second end opposite the first end, the visible surface, which includes a second light interface, passing at least partially between the first end and the second end, and a rear surface, opposite the visible surface. The visible surface provides the first critical angle of internal reflection with respect to the normal of the visible surface, and the back surface is configured to be reflective at the first critical angle of internal reflection. In addition, the end reflector is placed on the second end of the optical waveguide and includes the structure of the multi-faceted lens, containing many faces beveled to ensure that the main (accounting for the majority) part of the visible surface is uniformly covered with the introduction of evenly distributed light at the first end, and to ensure that the main part of the entered light was visible from the surface.

This is a brief description of the invention provides that in a simplified form to introduce a selection of concepts that are further outlined below in the detailed description. This is a brief description of the invention is not intended to identify key features or essential features of the claimed invention, and it is not intended to be used to limit the scope of the claimed invention. In addition, the claimed invention is not limited to implementations that solve any or all disadvantages noted in any part of this disclosure.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Fig.1 - show embodiments of the optical device and the optical wedge positioned within the optical is on the device.

Fig.2 is a schematic view in plan, showing a variant of implementation of the optical wedge.

Fig.3 and 4 show the trajectories of the rays through the cross-section for the variant of implementation according to Fig.2.

Fig.5 is a schematic showing an enlarged cross-sectional end reflector for the variant of implementation according to Fig.2.

Fig.6 and 7 show the trajectories of the rays in Fig.2 in paths through a set of replicas (copies of copies) for the variant of implementation according to Fig.2.

Fig.8 and 9 show the trajectories of the rays through perspective view of the optical wedge containing the reflective side.

Fig.10 show a variant of the method of callmerobbie light.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION of the INVENTION

The document discloses various embodiments of optical collimators in the form of a wedge-shaped optical fibers, or optical wedges. The optical wedge is a fiber that conducts light from one light interface at the end of the wedge, and other light interface on the front surface of the wedge using total internal reflection. In each of the embodiments disclosed in the document is used islomania optical path to allow the light to disperse a fan to the desired size before collimation that can enable reduce the size of the volume between the source of the ETA and the surface (for example, outer surface of the wedge), where it leaves the collimated light. Such optical wedges can find various applications, including, but neogrnichenno, such as backlight for liquid crystal display device (LCD).

The subject of the present disclosure is now described as an example and with reference to specific illustrative embodiments of. In the accompanying drawings it will be noted that the views of the illustrative embodiments may be drawn not to scale, and the characteristic relations for some of the symptoms may be increased in order to more easily understand selected characteristics or relations.

In Fig.1 shows a variant implementation of the optical system 10, which may be configured to provide the controller 16 functionality as display and input using widescreen multi-touch surface 12 of the display. The controller 16 may be any device configured to provide display data to the optical system and receiving input data from it. In some embodiments, the implementation of the controller can contain all or part of the computer; in other embodiments, implementation of the controller can be any device, with the possibility of interaction associated with the computer through a wired or wireless the same communication line. The controller 16 also includes a mass storage device 14 and the CPU 15. Storage device 14 may be used to store commands for execution by the processor 15, including routines for the control of optical system 10.

To ensure the functionality of the display optical system 10 can be configured with the ability to project a visible image on the touch surface 12 of the display. To ensure the functionality of the input optical system may be configured to input digitizing at least a partial image of the object placed on the touch surface of the display - fingers, electronic devices, paper cards, food or beverages, for example. Accordingly, the optical system can be configured with the ability to cover such objects and to detect light reflected from the objects. Thus, the optical system can register the position of the reference surface and other characteristics of any suitable object placed on the touch surface of the display.

Optical system 10 includes an optical wedge 100, svetonapravlyayuschie device 20, the light valve 22, the diffuser 24 and the source light 102. The source light 102 and the light valve 22 can be interoperable connected with the USB circuits the ROM 16 and configured to provide image visual display for the touch surface 12 of the display. The source light 102 can be any light source configured to emit visible light, such as one or more light-emitting diodes, for example. The light from the source 102 of the light projected through the optical wedge 100 and is directed to the light valve 22 through svetonapravlyayuschie device 20. In some embodiments, the implementation svetonapravlyayuschie device 20 may contain a thin layer of prisms configured to direct the light in a direction at right angles to the light valve 22. Numerous light transmitting elements of the light valve 22 can be used to modulate the light from svetonapravlyayuschie device 20 with respect to color and intensity. In some embodiments, the implementation of the light valve may include a liquid crystal display device, but can also use other light modulating devices. Thus, the light source and the light valve can work together to create a visual image. The visual image is projected through the diffuser 24 and thereby provided on the touch surface 12 of the display.

The optical system 10 may be configured to provide the functionality of the input to the controller 16. Accordingly, an illustrative optical system VK is uchet the detector 38, infrared emitters 72 and covering the optical fiber 74. The detector 38 may include a camera, such as sensitive to infrared radiation with a digital camera, for example, or any other suitable device for image capturing. Infrared emitters 72 can include one or more infrared light-emitting diodes, for example, or any other suitable light source. The illuminating light guide may be any lens, configured to accept input of infrared light in one or more input areas 76 and to pass infrared light reflected from objects on the screen of the display device through the output area 78.

For example, infrared light may be entered infrared emitters 72 in the input area 76 of the illuminating light guide 74. Infrared light can pass through the illuminating light guide 74 using total internal reflection and can diffuse out across the touch surface 12 of the display (e.g., due to scattering elements, not shown, located on the touch surface 12 of the display) until you encounter one or more objects in contact with the touch surface 12 of the display, for example, the object 40. A portion of the infrared light can be reflected from one or more objects in and out of covering is of vetoed 74 in the output area 78. Infrared light can pass from the outlet zone 78 through the diffuser 24 and the light valve 22 and to face the surface of the optical wedge 100, which may be configured to direct the incident infrared light to the detector 38. However, it will be clear what are the possible numerous other lighting configurations, and are within the present disclosure.

Referring further to Fig.2, the optical wedge 100 may be configured with the ability to colliergate light from the source 102 of the light, placed next to a thin end 110 of optical wedge 100, so that the collimated light out of the visible surface 150 of the optical wedge 100, as shown by the trajectories of the rays in Fig.2. The term "visible surface" means that the visible surface 150 is closer to the observer than the rear surface (not visible in Fig.2), which is the opposite of the visible surface 150. Each of the visible and the rear surface is limited by the sides 130 and 140, a thin end 110 and a thick end 120. In Fig.2 the visible surface 150 facing the observer of the page, and the back surface is hidden in this kind of optical wedge 100.

The optical wedge 100 is configured so that the light rays introduced into the light interface thin end 110, you can get the fan closer to the thick end 120, with the holding end reflector 125. The light rays are served at the end reflector 125 using total internal reflection from the visible surface 150 and the rear surface. In a preferred embodiment, the end reflector 125 is curved with the same radius of curvature with the center of curvature of 200, and the source 102 of the light enters the light in the focal point of the end reflector 125, focal point is located at a second radius of curvature. On the large end 120 of each of the light beams reflected from the end reflector 125 in parallel to each of the other light beams. The light rays pass from the large end of the 120 in the direction of the thin end 110, while the light rays do not cross the visible surface 150 under the critical angle of reflection of visible surface 150, and the light rays come in the form of collimated light. In an alternative embodiment, the end reflector 125 may be parabolic or have other suitable curvature to colliergate light.

In other embodiments, the implementation of multiple light sources can be placed next to a thin end 110 and along it. The use of multiple light sources can increase the brightness of the collimated light emitted from the visible surface 150, as compared with a single light source. In such scenarios, the implementation of, to amend the and the curvature of field (image) and/or spherical aberration, it may be desirable to slightly reduce side 130 and 140 of optical wedge 100, so that the light source in relation to either side of the centerline 210 could remain in the focal point of the end reflector 125. The shortening of the sides 130 and 140 may make the thin end 110 is convex, as illustrated by curve 115. A suitable curvature can be found by using the algorithm of construction of the beam to trace rays under the critical angle of reflection of visible surface 150 of the optical wedge 100 back through the optical wedge 100, while the rays will not reach the focal point near the thin end 110.

In Fig.3 and 4 shows the ray paths through the schematic cross-section of optical wedge 100. In Fig.3 shows the path of the first beam 300 through the optical wedge 100, and Fig.4 shows the path of the second beam 400 through the optical wedge 100, and the rays of 300 and 400 represent beams located on opposite sides of the cone of light that is injected into the thin end 110 of optical wedge 100. As can be seen in the figures Fig.3 and 4, the beam 300 extends from the visible surface 150 with a thin end 110 of optical wedge 100, while the beam 400 is out of the visible surface 150 near the thick end 120 of optical wedge 100.

Beams 300 and 400 out of the visible surface 150, if only the rays of 300 and 400 cross visible surface 150 at an angle, less sludge is equal to the critical angle of internal reflection with respect to the normal visible surface 150. This critical angle can be named in the document, the first critical angle". Similarly, the rays are reflected internally in the optical wedge 100 at the intersection of the rays of the visible surface 150 at an angle greater than the first critical angle of internal reflection with respect to the normal visible surface 150. In addition, the rays are reflected internally in the optical wedge 100, when the rays intersect the rear surface 160 at an angle greater than the critical angle of internal reflection with respect to the normal of the back surface 160. This critical angle can be named in the document "second critical angle".

As explained in more detail below with reference to Fig.5, it may be desirable that the first critical angle and the second critical angle differed, so that the light incident on the rear surface 160 of the first critical angle, is reflected back to the visible surface 150. This can help to prevent the loss of light through the rear surface 160 and, therefore, can increase the optical efficiency of the optical wedge 100. The first critical angle is a function of the refractive index for optical wedge 100 and the refractive index of the material in contact with the visible surface 150 (for example, air or a layer of the shell), while the second critical angle is a function of the refractive index of the optical to the ina 100 and material adjacent to the rear surface 160. In some embodiments, implementation, such as shown in Fig.3-4, the layer 170 may be imposed only on the rear surface 160 so that the visible surface 150 is in contact with air. In other embodiments, the implementation of the visible surface 150 may include a layer (not shown) with a different refractive index than that of the rear surface 160.

Any suitable material or materials may be used as layers of the shell to achieve the required critical angles internal reflection for visible and/or back surfaces of the optical wedge. In the embodiment, as an example of optical wedge 100 is formed from polymethylmethacrylate, or PMMA, with a refractive index of 1,492. The refractive index of air is approximately 1,000. Essentially, the critical angle of the surface without the shell is approximately 42.1 degrees. Next, an exemplary layer may contain Teflon AF (company EI DuPont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Delaware), amorphous fluorocarbon resin with a refractive index of 1.33. The critical angle of the surface of PMMA coated with Teflon AF is 63,0 degrees. It will be understood that these examples are described for the purpose of illustration and is not meant limiting in any way.

In other embodiments, implementation of the back surface 160 which may include a mirror. As non-restrictive examples, the mirror may be formed by overlapping the reflective coating on the rear surface 160 or location of the mirror next to the rear surface 160. Thus, the rear surface 160 may reflect incident light that crosses the back surface 160. If the rear surface 160 is configured to reflect some or all of the incident light, the rear surface 160 may be cited as the document "reflective rear surface. Non-restrictive examples of the reflective rear surface includes a rear surface having a mirror surface, the mirror placed near the rear surface, the rear surface having a second critical angle of internal reflection with respect to the normal of the back surface, and the second critical angle of reflection is less than the first critical angle of reflection, or any other configuration in which the rear surface is internally reflective to incident light below the first critical angle of internal reflection.

The shape of the optical wedge 100 and an end reflector 125 may be configured to ensure that the main part of the visible surface 150 was uniformly illuminated with the introduction of evenly distributed light in the thin end 110, and also to ensure that the main part in the Eden of light was visible from the surface 150. As mentioned above, the optical wedge 100 is tapered along the entire length, so that the rays entered on the thin end 110, are held at the end reflector 125 using total internal reflection. End reflector 125 contains the structure of the multi-faceted lens configured to reduce the beam angle relative to the normal to each surface of the visible surface 150 and back surface 160. In addition, decreasing the thickness of the optical wedge 100 from the thick end 120 to the thin end 110 ensures that the beam angles are reduced relative to the normal to each surface, if the rays are to the thin end 110. If the beam falls on the visible surface 150 at an angle less than the first critical angle, the beam will emerge from the visible surface 150.

In some embodiments, the implementation of the source light 102 can be positioned in the focal point of the end reflector 125. In such scenarios, the implementation of end reflector 125 may be curved with a radius of curvature that is two lengths of optical wedge 100. In the embodiment according to Fig.3-4 the angle of taper of optical wedge 100 is configured so that the angle at the thickest end 120 and the visible surface 150 was a right angle and the angle at the thickest end 120 and the rear surface 160 was a right angle. If the thin end 110 is focal that is ke end reflector 125, the thin end 110 is one-half the thickness of the thick end 120. In other embodiments, the implementation of each of these structures may have any other suitable configuration.

In the depicted embodiment, the end reflector 125 is spherically curved from side 130 to the side 140 and from the visible surface 150 to the rear surface 160. In other embodiments, the implementation of end reflector 125 may be cylindrically curved with the same radius of curvature from the visible surface 150 and the rear surface 160 and the center of curvature, where the visible surface 150 and the rear surface 160 will intersect if extended. Cylindrically curved end reflector can work on bending is stronger than the spherically curved end reflector 125, which may be advantageous in applications of large format. Other suitable curves can be used to end reflector 125, such as parabolic, for example. In addition, the curvature of the end reflector 125 in the plane perpendicular to the sides 130 and 140 may be different from the curvature of the end reflector 125 in the plane parallel to the sides 130 and 140.

As mentioned above, it may be desirable to critical angles of reflection for visible surface 150 and the rear surface 160 were different. This will help to prevent the loss of light h is cut in the rear surface 160, as is illustrated in Fig.5, which shows a schematic enlarged cross section of the end reflector 125 of options exercise of the optical wedge according to Fig.2-4. End reflector 125 contains the structure of the multi-faceted lens, containing many faces angled relative to the surface of the large end 120. In the many faces of alternating faces turned to the visible surface 150, such as a face 530, and faces turned to the back surface 160, such as the edge 540. End reflector 125 is equal to the total curvature, as described above, and the normal end 542 of the reflector and the normal end 532 of the reflector pass through the center of curvature. Each of the many sides has a height and angle relative to the surface normal of the end reflector. For example, one of the faces facing the visible surface 150 has a height 538 and angle 536 relatively normal 532 end of the reflector and the normal 534 faces. As another example, one of the faces facing the rear surface 160 has a height of 548 and angle 546 relatively normal end 542 of the reflector and the normal 544 faces.

The height of each of the many faces can affect the uniformity and brightness of the collimated light emitted from the visible surface 150. For example, larger faces can create optical paths that are different from dialogo focal length, which can cause banding on the Fresnel. Essentially, in the variants of implementation, where this banding can cause problems, it may be desirable to make the height of each of the many faces of less than 500 microns, for example, so that such banding is less noticeable.

Similarly, the angle of each of the sets of faces can also affect the uniformity and brightness of the collimated light emitted from the visible surface 150. Beam 500 illustrates how the angles of the facets can affect the path of the beam through an optical wedge 100. Beam 500 is introduced into the thin end 110, passes through an optical wedge 100 and reaches the end reflector 125. Half of the beam reaches 500 faces 530, addressed to the visible surface 150. Part of the beam 500, reaching the brink 530, is reflected as beam 510 to the visible surface 150. Beam 510 intersects the visible surface 150 at an angle less than or equal to the first critical angle of internal reflection relative to a normal visible surface 150, and thus extends from the visible surface 150 in the form of a beam 512.

The other half of the beam 500 reaches the edge 540, facing to the rear surface 160. The portion of the beam 500, reaching the edge 540 is reflected as beam 520 to the rear surface 160. Due to the differences between the critical angles of the visible surface 150 and the rear surface 160 of the beam 520 rear crosses the second surface 160 at an angle, which is greater than the second critical angle for internal reflection relative to a normal of the back surface 160, and thus is reflected as beam 522 to the visible surface 150. Beam 522 then crosses the visible surface 150 at an angle less than or equal to the first critical angle of internal reflection relative to a normal visible surface 150, and thus comes in the form of a beam 524. Thus, the main part (and in some embodiments, implementation, essentially all) of the light reflected from the end reflector 125, extends from the visible surface 150.

Due to light separately reflected in the faces turned to the visible surface 150, and faces turned to the back surface 160, the overlap of the superimposed first and second images organized into orientation "head-tail" may be formed at the visible surface 150. The degree of overlap between the two images can be determined according to the angles of the facets 530 and 540. For example, two images are completely overlapping if each face has an angle relative to the surface normal of the end reflector in three-eighths of the difference between an angle of ninety degrees and the first critical angle of reflection, as explained in more detail below. In this case, essentially all of the light entered into the optical wedge 100, comes from seeing the first surface 150. The changing faces of this value reduces the amount of overlap between images, so that only appears one or the other of the two images, where the angles of the sides are 1/4 or 1/2 of the difference between 90 degrees and the first critical angle of reflection. In addition, changes in the angles of the faces of three-eighths of the difference between an angle of ninety degrees and the first critical angle of reflection also provides that some light emerges from the thin end of optical wedge 100, and not visible from the surface 150. Where the angles of the sides are 1/4 or 1/2 of the difference between 90 degrees and the first critical angle of reflection, the visible surface can be uniformly illuminated, but half of the light goes from thin end of optical wedge 100 and, therefore, lost. It will be clear that depending on the desired conditions may be appropriate to use the angles of the faces other than three-eighths of a difference between an angle of ninety degrees and the first critical angle of reflection to obtain collimated light. Such conditions may include, but are not limited to these, the environment in which any non-overlapping region of light (which will appear with lower intensity relative to the overlapping areas) are not in the field of view observed by the user.

In al ernative embodiment, the structure of the multi-faceted lens of the end reflector 125 may include a diffraction grating. The equation of the lattice can be used to calculate the diffraction angle for a given angle of incidence and the wavelength of light. Since the angle of diffraction depends on the wavelength of light, the end reflector containing a diffraction grating, may be desirable if the input light is monochromatic.

In Fig.6 and 7 illustrates the passage of light through an optical wedge 100 in paths of rays through a set of optical wedges, each of the optical wedges is a replica of optical wedge 100, to further illustrate the idea, shown in Fig.5. Ray tracing through a set of replicas of the optical wedge is optically equivalent to the tracking beam path inside the optical wedge. Now, therefore, each internal reflection of the beam shown in the form of passage of the beam across the border from one optical wedge to the adjacent optical wedge. In Fig.6 the visible surface is shown in the form of visible surface 620 of the upper wedge of a set of optical wedges 600. The rear surface is shown in the form of a back surface 630 of the lower wedge of a set of optical wedges 600. The thick ends of the set of optical wedges 600 combined to form which is approximated curve 640, centered on the axis 610, where all surfaces converge. In Fig.6 thick end of each the wedge shown having the same General curvature. However, it will be clear that the thick end of the wedge may be of any other suitable curvature.

In Fig.6 also shows two light beam 650 and 660 that are located on opposite sides of the cone of light that is injected into the thin end of the optical wedges set 600. For each beam 650 and 660 after reflection from the end reflector half of the beam appears near the thick end of the optical wedges set 600 (and, therefore, presents an optical wedge), as shown in solid lines 652 and 662, and half of the beam appears from thin end of the set of optical wedges, as shown by the dotted lines 654 and 664. The rays entered at any angle between these two limits, will also be split according to the multi-faceted structure in the limit reflector and out of the visible surface and the back surface of the optical wedge in a similar manner. The rays emerging from the visible surface 620, parallel rays 652 and 662, represented by a shaded area 602. As mentioned above, it will be understood that the beams shown in the form of emitted through the rear surface 630 of the optical wedge, instead, may be reflected by the rear surface and then out of the visible surface, using the shell (not shown) on the rear surface of the optical wedge, which has a lower refractive index than the shell (n is shown), used on the visible surface of the optical wedge. Thus, essentially all the light that is injected into the thin end of the optical wedge, can radiate from the visible surface of the optical wedge.

To the visible surface was uniformly illuminated (for example, where the image reflected from the edges 530 and 540 are completely overlapping), the beam entered at the thin end and passing horizontally on the end reflector is coincident with the normal end of the reflector, is reflected from the brink, facing the visible surface and goes into the center of the visible surface, crossing the visible surface at the critical angle for visible surface. In Fig. 7 shows a schematic description of the path of such beam through a set of optical wedges 700. Beam 710 is entered on the subtle end 702 of the optical wedge and is reflected from the end reflector 704 in the form of a beam 715. Beam 715 passes to the center of the visible surface 706, crossing the visible surface 706 under the critical angle of reflection 730 relatively normal visible surface 72. The sum of the angles 732 and 734 is a difference of 90 degree angle and the critical angle of reflection 730. When the thin end of the optical wedge is one-half the thickness of the large end of the optical wedge, the Central point of the wedge is three quarters of the thickness of the optical wedge. Using a pair of Sealine approximation, angle 732 is three fourth of the difference between the 90 degree angle and the critical angle of reflection 730. Horizontal line 722 parallel input beam 710, thus, the angle 740 equal to the angle 732. From the law of reflection the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection, therefore, the angle of the face can be one second of angle 740. Therefore, for a visible surface that is uniformly illuminated, each face, turned to the visible surface may form an angle relative to the normal to the surface of the end reflector in three-eighths of the difference between a 90 degree angle and the critical angle of reflection 730, as mentioned above.

Any suitable light source may be used to input light into the optical wedge 100. Examples include, but are not limited to these, light-emitting diodes (LED). It will be noted that the light radiated from the open LED on the model of lambertuccio source. However, for high optical efficiency relative to the open LED may require that the light introduced into the optical wedge so that all rays were under the angle between the two rays 650 and 660, shown in Fig.6 solid line, i.e. at angles relative to the plane of the optical wedge, which are between 0° and one of the second differential angle of ninety degrees minus the critical angle. Therefore, the LED can be placed in the focal point of the end of the protection, designed so that its thickness at the output is approximately equal to the thickness of the thin end and the range of angles of its emissions approximately equal to the range shown by the rays 650 and 660.

In some embodiments, the implementation of multiple light sources can be positioned near the thin end of the optical wedge and along it to increase the intensity of the output collimated light. The output from the optical wedge 100 of the array of light sources can be analyzed by analyzing each of the light sources and then combining the results using the principle of superposition. This can help the design solution system, which generates uniformly collimated light using such an array of light sources, as illustrated in Fig.8 and 9, which shows the schematic view of the paths of rays through a sample of the optical wedge. The optical wedge 100 in Fig.8 and 9 contains the thin end 110, the thick end 120, sides 130 and 140 and the visible surface 150 from the Central line 850. The thick end 120 includes an end reflector 125. The sides 130 and 140 may be reflective. The light sources 802 and 902 are placed adjacent to the thin end 110, ravnovesie from the middle line 850.

In Fig.8 the cone of light bounded by the rays 810 and 830, is introduced at the thin end 110 through the light source 802. Beam 830 plumage is ekaet end reflector 125 and is reflected as beam 840. Beam 810 crosses the end reflector 125 and is reflected as beam 820 after additional reflection from the side 140. As shown in Fig.8, the collimated light emitted from the visible surface 150 may not be homogeneous in this configuration. For example, the region between the beam 820 140 and the side marked "Reflection" can be brighter than the region between the beam 820 and side 130 due to the rays reflected from the sides 140 emitted from the visible surface, in addition to radiation reflected directly from the end reflector 125 in the region between the beam 820 and party 140. In addition, the area between the side 130 and beam 840, marked "Shadow" can be more dull than the area between the beam 840 140 and the side due to shadows caused by the beam 840, reflected from the side 130.

In Fig.9, the light source 902 is at the same distance from the middle line 850 and the light source 802, but positioned on the opposite side of the middle line 850. The cone of light bounded by the rays of the 910 and 930, is introduced at the thin end 110 of the light source 902. Beam 930 crosses the end reflector 125 and is reflected as beam 940. The beam 910 crosses the end reflector 125 and is reflected as beam 920 after additional reflection from the side 130. As described above relative to Fig.8, the collimated light emitted from the visible surface 150 may not reveal what I homogeneous in this configuration. The area between the beam 920 130 and the side marked "Reflection" can be brighter than the region between the beam 920 and party 140. In addition, the area between the side 140 and beam 940, marked "Shadow" can be more dull than the area between the beam 840 140 and the side.

When positioning the light sources 802 and 902 at equal distances from the middle line 850, border region "Reflection" in Fig.8 can be aligned with the boundaries of the "Shadow" of Fig.9. Similarly, the boundaries of the "Shadow" of Fig.8 can be aligned with the boundaries of the field of "Reflection" in Fig.9. Area shadows and reflections can mutually compensate each other, if the brightness of the light sources 802 and 902 is similar, so that the light input to the thin end 110 of each light source has a similar brightness and uniformity.

In Fig.10 shows an exemplary method 1000 of performing collimation of light through an optical waveguide. The optical waveguide may include a first end, a second end opposite the first end and containing end reflector, containing many faces, visible surface passing between the first end and the second end, and a rear surface, opposite the visible surface. The visible surface may have a first critical angle of reflection, and the back surface may have a second critical Hugo the reflection, moreover, the first and second critical angles of reflection are different. In one embodiment, the optical waveguide is an optical wedge in Fig.2, where the thin end of the optical wedge is the first end of the optical waveguide and a thick end of the optical wedge is the second end of the optical waveguide. In an alternative embodiment, the optical waveguide may have a constant thickness, for example, the first end and the second end have the same thickness. The optical waveguide may include a shell on the visible and/or rear surface with a refractive index that varies linearly between the first end and the second end. This version of the implementation will behave as an optical wedge, when light is introduced into the first end of the optical waveguide. In yet another embodiment, the optical waveguide may have a constant thickness, the refractive index varying linearly between the first end and the second end, and a shell on the visible and/or rear surface with a constant refractive index. This implementation will also act similarly to the optical wedge with the introduction of light into the first end of the optical waveguide.

Returning to Fig.10, at step 1010, the light can be introduced into the first end of the optical waveguide, and then at step 1020 the response can be transmitted to the tail reflector using total internal reflection. At step 1030, the light may be internally reflected from an end of the reflector. The light internally reflected from an end of the reflector can be reflected from the first set of facets and second sets of faces, each face of the first set of faces is normal, which indicates, at least in part, on the visible surface, and each face of the second set of faces is normal, which indicates, at least in part, on the rear surface. In addition, in some embodiments, the implementation of each face of the first set of faces can have an angle in three-eighths of the difference between a 90 degree angle and the critical angle of reflection and every facet from the second set of faces can have an angle in three-eighths of the difference between a 90 degree angle and the critical angle of reflection. In other embodiments, implementation of the faces can have other suitable angles that do not cause inappropriate changes in light intensity.

Due to the angle at which the faces on the end of the reflector is cut at step 1040 the first portion of the light may be emitted from the visible surface, and the first portion of light intersects the visible surface below the first critical angle of reflection. At step 1050 the second portion of the light internally reflected from the back surface at an angle equal to the first critical angle of reflection, when the second CR is the critical angle of reflection is less than the first critical angle of reflection. At step 1060, the second portion of the light may then be transmitted from the visible surface after internal reflection from the back surface.

Among the potential applications of such a flat panel of the collimator is such that illuminates the liquid crystal panel. The liquid crystal display device is an inexpensive way to display video and contains the liquid crystal panel, behind which is placed a backlight. Past wedge backlight used a thin transparent wedge with light sources along the thick end and film directing light through the liquid crystal panel to the observer so that he could see the displayed image. Taken considerable effort to ensure that the radiation from the backlight was sufficiently dispersed so that the displayed image can be seen from the wide field of view. For example, some past wedges filled the scattering sites. With diffused lighting, however, it is difficult to use the LCD panel still unlike traditional display.

There are many applications where it is desirable to project the video image. This can be done by placing the lens in front of the LCD screen. However, when multiple illumination lens to the JNA to be large and, therefore, dear. Flat collimator may be a subtle means of lighting small LCD panel or other spatial light modulator collimated light, which you can condensing through the small projection lens. If the spatial light modulator is a reflective, as in the case of a digital Micromirror device, does not require the beam splitting element or other space for lighting. Therefore, the projection lens can be brought to the light modulator as close as you want.

In some applications, it may be required to display the image only a few millimeters. This can be done in the same way as the sun projects the shadow of the trees on the earth: to cover a large LCD panel collimated light, and shadow, for example, an image may be formed on the diffuser, spaced at a distance of several millimeters from the liquid crystal panel. One use for this is where you will need a video on each key of the keyboard. If a separate display screen is subject to forming on each key of the keyboard, the cost of such number of small maps could become excessive. However, using the collimating backlight) the ski wedge, as described above, transparent buttons can be provided with a diffusion surface and placed over the liquid crystal panel with a collimated backlight. Thus, the image can be projected up to each key of the different areas of one big one, but a cheap panel.

Another exemplary application for the shadow projection is the projection of the image on the diffuser, where the fingers or objects that relate to the diffuser must be treated with the help of infrared cameras in the back. Devices such as Microsoft SURFACE, developed and sold by Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, contain a video projector, an infrared lamp, a camera and a diffuser. The projector creates an image on the diffuser, and the light illuminates objects nearby so that they look blurry when removed from the cone, but sharp at the moment of touch. Optics image processing can be made thin by sending the camera to the diffuser through an optical wedge, such as a performance described above. If the liquid crystal display device is illuminated with diffused light, the projected image may be spatially separate from the diffuser and, therefore, can be blurred. Therefore, the LCD panel can be illuminated with collimated light, macroscript above, so that the visible image without blur was formed in the diffuser. In some embodiments, the implementation of the panel to provide collimated visible light and infrared detection image is the same and the end reflector contains faces at an angle according to this disclosure, which reflect visible light but allow the infrared light, and placed outside their face or equivalents, which reflect infrared light and beveled so as to form a single unambiguously (identifiable) image.

It will be understood that the configurations and/or approaches described in the document are illustrative in nature and that these specific embodiments of, or examples should not be considered in a restrictive sense, as there can be many changes. The subject of the present disclosure includes all new and non-obvious combinations and podnominatsii various processes, systems and configurations, and other features, functions, steps and/or features disclosed in the document, as well as any and all equivalents thereof.

1. The optical collimator, comprising:
an optical waveguide having
the first end containing a first light interface;
a second end opposite the first end;
visible surface containing the second light interface is, passing at least partially between the first end and the second end and having a first critical angle of internal reflection with respect to the normal visible surface;
rear surface, opposite the visible surface, while the back surface is configured to be internally reflective for light below the first critical angle of internal reflection; and
end reflector, located on the second end of the optical waveguide and the end reflector contains the structure of the multi-faceted lens, containing many faces beveled to ensure that the main part of the visible surface was uniformly illuminated with the introduction of evenly distributed light at the first end, and also to ensure that the main part of the input light was visible from the surface.

2. The optical collimator under item 1, in which the first end of the optical waveguide is a thin end and the second end of the optical waveguide is thick end.

3. The optical collimator under item 1, in which the end reflector is spherically curved.

4. The optical collimator under item 1, in which the various facets of the multifaceted structure of the lens in the limit reflector includes many faces turned to the visible surface, and many Granet is, facing to the rear surface, each facet facing the visible surface, is positioned near the face facing to the rear surface.

5. The optical collimator according to p. 4, in which each edge is directed toward the visible surface forms an angle relative to the surface normal of the end reflector in three-eighths of the difference between 90 degrees and the first critical angle.

6. The optical collimator according to p. 4, in which each edge is directed toward the rear surface forms an angle relative to the surface normal of the end reflector, equal to three eighth of the difference between 90 degrees and the first critical angle.

7. The optical collimator according to p. 4, in which each edge is directed toward the visible surface has a height of less than 500 microns and each edge is directed toward the rear surface has a height of less than 500 microns.

8. The optical collimator under item 1, in which the rear surface includes a second critical angle of internal reflection with respect to the normal of the reflective rear surface, and the second critical angle of reflection is less than the first critical angle of reflection.

9. The optical collimator under item 1, in which the visible surface of the optical waveguide includes a shell.

10. The optical collimator under item 1, in which the back surface of the optical Volno the ode includes shell.

11. The optical collimator under item 1, in which the rear surface includes a mirror.

12. The optical collimator under item 1, in which the optical waveguide further comprises a first reflective side and a second reflective side, the first reflective side procureit second reflective side, and each reflective side passes from the first end to the second end and from the visible surface to the back surface.

13. The way to perform collimation of light through an optical waveguide, with the optical waveguide includes a first end, a second end opposite the first end and containing end reflector, visible surface passing between the first end and the second end, and a rear surface, opposite the visible surface, the method includes:
the introduction of light into the first end of the optical waveguide;
the flow of light at the end reflector using total internal reflection;
internal reflection of light from an end of the reflector;
the radiation of the first portion of light from the visible surface at the critical angle of reflection;
internal reflection of the second portion of light from the back surface at an angle equal to the critical angle of reflection, and then the radiation of the second portion of light from the visible surface after internal reflection second is the light from the back surface.

14. The method according to p. 13, in which the reflection of light from an end of the reflector includes a reflection light from the first set of facets and second sets of faces, and each face of the first set of edges contains the normal, which indicates, at least in part on the visible surface, and each face of the second set of edges contains the normal, which indicates at least partially on the rear surface.

15. The method according to p. 14, in which each face of the first set of faces is the angle in three-eighths of the difference between a 90 degree angle and the critical angle of reflection and every facet from the second set of faces is the angle in three-eighths of the difference between a 90 degree angle and the critical angle of reflection.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: electricity.

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4 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

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14 cl, 14 dwg

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FIELD: electricity.

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9 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

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FIELD: electricity.

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Lamp // 2521865

FIELD: electricity.

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13 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

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32 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

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18 cl, 17 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

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7 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

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FIELD: chemistry.

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15 cl, 4 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: provided is a multi-core fibre-optic guide, having at least two light-guiding cores, a barrier region, inner reflecting claddings and an outer protective coating. The cores are made from doped quartz glass with refraction indices nc1, nc2…nck. Each light-guiding core is surrounded by a corresponding inner reflecting cladding. The cladding has an arbitrary shape and is made from quartz glass or doped quartz glass with refraction indices that are less than those of the corresponding light-guiding core. The barrier region made from quartz glass is formed in the space between the inner reflecting claddings and the outer cladding. The refraction index of the barrier region is less than that of each inner reflecting cladding. The barrier region can be continuous or intermittent and can have an arbitrary shape in the cross-section; it can also be in form of through-holes in quartz or doped glass.

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63 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

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15 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: autocollimator may be used for measurement of rotation angles relative to two axes orthogonal to autocollimator lens axis using one CCD-ruler. Autocollimator includes optical system of autocollimating mark image formation based on source of radiation, located in sequence condenser, mark, beam splitter and lens, photodetector in the form of CCD-ruler with control system including sync-pulse generator, and system for processing of videosignals from low-pass filter, video pulse former and video pulse fronts former, and unit of data processing. Mark and photodetector are installed in lens focal plane. Introduced series-connected are selector, peak detector, subtractor and power amplifier. Selector input is connected to low-pass filter output, and power amplifier output is connected to radiation source. Mark is designed as a set of continuous bars forming three horizontal zones, medium of which is designed from at least one vertical bar and at least one inclined side bar. Bars height is equal to zone height, horizontal sections of mark in various zones differ by quantity of bars sections or their mutual arrangement.

EFFECT: improving accuracy, compactness and reliability.

5 cl, 3 dwg

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